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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124598, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446276

RESUMO

Sewage sludge dewatering is an efficient approach to reduce the volume of sludge for the subsequent disposal. In this study, a novel one-step acidification sludge dewatering method was developed with using oxalic acid as a conditioner. In laboratory-scale experiments with the dosage of 200 mg/g dry solid (DS), the normalized capillary suction time and the specific resistance to filtration were respectively decreased by 78.7% and 60.0% after 30 min of oxalic acid conditioning, much more efficient than those conditioned with sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid at the same pH value. This superior dewatering performance was attributed to two factors. One was that oxalic acid could more efficiently promote the hydrolysis of polysaccharide, especially pectins, to release bound water. The other was that OA could dissolve more Fe3+ and Al3+, as well as form precipitate with Ca2+ in sludge, which may act as flocculants or co-precipitator for the subsequent sludge particles coagulation. In pilot-scale experiments, the water content of oxalic acid conditioned sludge cake was reduced to 60% under the optimum conditions, while the reagent cost was as low as 110.0 USD/t DS. This work provides a cost-effective and easy-operated sewage sludge disposal technique, and also sheds light on the potential of oxalic acid in environmental waste treatment.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122268, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675519

RESUMO

To find a comprehensive way to enhance the utilizability of steam-exploded hippophae, calcium oxide (CaO) preimpregnation, cellulase-added storage and saccharification with addition of Tween 20 were investigated in this study. Both CaO preimpregnation and cellulase addition promoted the ensiling fermentation of anaerobically stored steam-exploded hippophae indicated by lower cellulose proportion and higher organic acids content, but led to the decrease of saccharification yield by 11.83% and 46.77-51.22%, respectively. When taking into account of organic acids being utilizable energy source, storing with addition of cellulase enhanced the utilizability of the materials in whole. Moreover, the addition of Tween 20 enhanced saccharification yield of the steam-exploded hippophae by 26.69-45.25%. Additionally, FTIR and XRD spectra clearly illustrated the structural alteration during storage. It is concluded that storing with addition of cellulase and hydrolyzing with addition of Tween 20 can enhance the utilizability of steam-exploded hippophae.

3.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695672

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00929.].

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698773

RESUMO

Background: Since 2015, in order to handle the increasing prevalence of age-related diseases and escalating health expenditures arising from the aging population, the full coverage of essential medicines (FCEMs) policy for rural seniors has been implemented in primary healthcare institutions of Qidong County of Jiangsu, China. The purpose of this study is to examine the long-term effects of the introduction of FCEMs' policy on the utilization and accessibility of primary healthcare service for elderly beneficiaries. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in Qidong County in the Jiangsu province, China. A 47-month longitudinal dataset involving 91,444 health insurance claims records of inpatients aged 70 and older in primary healthcare institutions was analyzed. Changes in health service utilization (average length of stay), patient copayments (out-of-pocket expenses), New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) reimbursement rate and daily hospitalization costs per patient were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis. Augment Dicky-Fuller unit root method was used to test the stationarity of the series alongside the Durbin Watson method to test autocorrelation. Results: Average length of stay increased at 0.372 bed-days per month before the implementation of FCEMs policy, whereas the increasing trend was slowed down at 0.003 bed-days per month after the implementation of FCEMs policy (p < 0.001). The average out-of-pocket expenses increased by 38.035 RMB monthly in pre-implementation of the policy period, but it decreased at the rate of 5.180 RMB per month after the implementation of the FCEMs policy (p = 0.006). The NRCMS reimbursement rate increased at 0.066% per month in pre-implementation of policy and the increasing trend was sharper at 0.349% in post-implementation of policy (p = 0.135). The daily hospitalization costs per patient decreased by 6.263 RMB (p = 0.030) per month, whereas it increased at the rate of 3.119 RMB (p = 0.002) per month afterwards. Conclusions: Based on interrupted time series analyses, we concluded that FCEMs policy was associated with positive changes of average LOS and average OOP expenses. The FCEMs policy has alleviated the financial burden of the rural seniors and slightly improved the efficiency of primary health service utilization. However, it had no positive effect on daily hospitalization costs. Therefore, in the general framework of FCEMs policy, the Chinese health policy-maker should take necessary supporting measures to curb climbing hospitalization expenditures and promote the rational drug use in primary healthcare institutions.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578820

RESUMO

SARI (suppressor of AP-1, regulated by IFN) impaired tumour growth by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation and tumour angiogenesis in various cancers. However, the role of SARI in regulating tumour-associated inflammation microenvironment is still elusive. In our study, the colitis-dependent and -independent primary model were established in SARI deficiency mice and immuno-reconstructive mice to investigate the functional role of SARI in regulating tumour-associated inflammation microenvironment and primary colon cancer formation. The results have shown that SARI deficiency promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) development only in the presence of colon inflammation. SARI inhibited tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) infiltration in colon tissues, and SARI deficiency in bone marrow cells has no observed role in the promotion of intestinal tumorigenesis. Mechanism investigations indicated that SARI down-regulates p-STAT1 and STAT1 expression in colon cancer cells, following inhibition of MCP-1/CCR2 axis activation during CAC development. Inverse correlations between SARI expression and macrophage infiltration, MCP-1 expression and p-STAT1 expression were also demonstrated in colon malignant tissues. Collectively, our results prove the inhibition role of SARI in colon cancer formation through regulating TAM infiltration.

7.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633249

RESUMO

The coordination number between copper and nitrogen in copper-nitrogen based electrocatalysts is quite important for boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, it is difficult to control the unsaturated copper-nitrogen constructions as well as compare their ORR performance in a similar carbon matrix by a simple but efficient way. Herein, we easily attained two types of Cu + -N 2 and Cu 2+ -N 4 constructions just by etching the pyrolyzed Cu-doped zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoleaf (Cu-ZIF-L) with sulfuric acid or nitric acid, respectively. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were adopted to further confirm the different copper-nitrogen constructions after different acid treatment. By comparison, electrochemical studies demonstrate that Cu + -N 2 sites get higher activity for boosting the ORR performance than that of Cu 2+ -N 4 sites. Furthermore, Cu-N/C-H 2 SO 4 acted as air cathode in the Zinc-air battery exhibits an excellent performance and stability.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4675, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611572

RESUMO

Sensitive and specific DNA hybridization is essential for nucleic acid chemistry. Competitive composition of probe and blocker has been the most adopted probe design for its relatively high sensitivity and specificity. However, the sensitivity and specificity were inversely correlated over the length and concentration of the blocker strand, making the optimization process cumbersome. Herein, we construct a theoretical model for competitive DNA hybridization, which disclose that both the thermodynamics and kinetics contribute to the inverse correlation. Guided by this, we invent the 4-way Strand Exchange LEd Competitive DNA Testing (SELECT) system, which breaks up the inverse correlation. Using SELECT, we identified 16 hot-pot mutations in human genome under uniform conditions, without optimization at all. The specificities were all above 140. As a demonstration of the clinical practicability, we develop probe systems that detect mutations in human genomic DNA extracted from ovarian cancer patients with a detection limit of 0.1%.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122255, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639626

RESUMO

To investigate the feasibility of vegetal gallic acid (GA) improving silage quality, fermentation parameter, nitrogen distribution and bacterial community of mulberry leaves and stylo ensiled with 1% and 2% GA were analyzed after 60-d fermentation. The results showed that GA addition decreased dry matter loss (6.08% vs 5.35%, 17.79% vs 11.56% in mulberry leaves and style silage, respectively), pH (6.51 vs 5.98, 5.55 vs 4.57), butyric acid (0.41% and 0.83% DM, undetected in GA groups) and ammonia-N (0.71% vs 0.19%, 1.46% vs 0.29% TN) contents and increased lactic acid (2.27% vs 6.68%, 0.91% vs 1.91% DM) and acetic acid (1.68% vs 3.20%, 0.97% vs 2.02% DM) contents. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of Clostridium or Enterobacter was decreased, and that of lactate-producing bacteria was increased in mulberry leaves and stylo silage. In conclusion, GA could be used as a green additive to improve fermentation quality and protein preservation during ensiling.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623059

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a diversity of biological processes. It is known that differential expression of thousands of lncRNAs occurs in host during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. However, only few of them have been well characterized. Here, we identified a lncRNA, named as interferon (IFN)-stimulated lncRNA (ISR), which can be significantly upregulated in response to IAV infection in a mouse model. A sequence alignment revealed that lncRNA ISR is present in mice and human beings, and indeed, we found that it was expressed in several human and mouse cell lines and tissues. Silencing lncRNA ISR in A549 cells resulted in a significant increase in IAV replication, whereas ectopic expression of lncRNA ISR reduced the viral replication. Interestingly, interferon-ß (IFN-ß) treatment was able to induce lncRNA ISR expression, and induction of lncRNA ISR by viral infection was nearly abolished in host deficient of IFNAR1, a type I IFN receptor. Furthermore, the level of IAV-induced lncRNA ISR expression was decreased either in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) knockout A549 cells and mice or by nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor treatment. Together, these data elucidate that lncRNA ISR is regulated by RIG-I-dependent signaling that governs IFN-ß production during IAV infection, and has an inhibitory capacity in viral replication.

11.
New Phytol ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625612

RESUMO

Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) and atroviolacea (atv) were characterized in wild tomato and can enhance anthocyanin content in tomato fruit. However, the gene underlying the Aft locus and the mechanism by which Aft and atv act remain largely unknown. In this study, the Aft locus was fine-mapped to an approximately 145 kb interval on chromosome 10, excluding SlAN2 (Solyc10g086250), SlANT1 (Solyc10g086260), and SlANT1-like (Solyc10g086270), which have previously been suggested as candidates. Thus, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor SlAN2-like (Solyc10g086290) was considered the best candidate gene for Aft. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SlAN2-like mutants show a much lower accumulation of anthocyanins associated with the downregulation of multiple anthocyanin-related genes compared to the wild-type tomato, indicating that SlAN2-like is responsible for the Aft phenotype. We also confirmed the repressive function of SlMYBATV through CRISPR/Cas9 approach. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlMYBATV interacts with the bHLH protein SlJAF13. Furthermore, the yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase transient expression assays showed that Aft directly binds to the SlMYBATV promoter and activates its expression. Our results provide candidate genes to enhance anthocyanin content in tomato fruit. This research also provides insight into a mechanism involving the Aft-SlMYBATV pathway that fine-tunes anthocyanin accumulation in tomato fruit.

12.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502185

RESUMO

Radix Astragali (RA), a traditional Chinese medicine from the dried root of Astragalus species, is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world. The major bioactive constituents of RA are triterpene glycosides, flflavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids, and these compounds mostly exert pharmacological activities on the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, and hepatic systems. This review summarizes the recent studies on RA and provides a comprehensive summary regarding the status of resources, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical application, and patent release of RA. We hope this review can provide a guidance for further development of therapeutic agents from RA.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495872

RESUMO

The absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs are largely determined by their transporters (DTs), the variability of which has thus attracted considerable attention. There are three aspects of variability: epigenetic regulation and genetic polymorphism, species/tissue/disease-specific DT abundances, and exogenous factors modulating DT activity. The variability data of each aspect are essential for clinical study, and a collective consideration among multiple aspects becomes crucial in precision medicine. However, no database is constructed to provide the comprehensive data of all aspects of DT variability. Herein, the Variability of Drug Transporter Database (VARIDT) was introduced to provide such data. First, 177 and 146 DTs were confirmed, for the first time, by the transporting drugs approved and in clinical/preclinical, respectively. Second, for the confirmed DTs, VARIDT comprehensively collected all aspects of their variability (23 947 DNA methylations, 7317 noncoding RNA/histone regulations, 1278 genetic polymorphisms, differential abundance profiles of 257 DTs in 21 781 patients/healthy individuals, expression of 245 DTs in 67 tissues of human/model organism, 1225 exogenous factors altering the activity of 148 DTs), which allowed mutual connection between any aspects. Due to huge amount of accumulated data, VARIDT made it possible to generalize characteristics to reveal disease etiology and optimize clinical treatment, and is freely accessible at: https://db.idrblab.org/varidt/.

14.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121915, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386943

RESUMO

This work studied preparation of rice husk-based solid acid and its application for efficient hydrolysis and saccharification of corncob. Rice husk-based solid acid (RH-SO3H) was prepared by one-step carbonization and sulfonation method. Analysis demonstrated that RH-SO3H exhibited aromatic carbon sheets structure bearing -SO3H, -COOH and -OH groups. The RH-SO3H was then used to hydrolyse and saccharify corncob. Compared with solid acids made from activated carbon and microcrystalline cellulose, the RH-SO3H showed the highest catalytic efficiency with the maximum reducing sugar yield of 486.53 mg/g and xylose of 253.03 mg/g, which was twice and five times higher than that of control, respectively. Its high efficiency was attributed to -OH and -COOH groups functioned synergistically with -SO3H to hydrolyse lignocellulose by adsorbing ß-1,4-glucan in corncob. This study provides a green and effective utilization technology of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ácidos , Hidrólise , Xilose , Zea mays
15.
Lab Invest ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439892

RESUMO

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We aimed to demonstrate the role of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) in transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-ß2)-induced EMT in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPEs). Immunofluorescence was used to assess MDM2 expression in epiretinal membranes (ERMs) from patients with PVR. A single guide (sg)RNA targeting the second promoter of MDM2 was cloned into a mutant lentiviral Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (lentiCRISPR) v2 (D10A and H840A) vector for expressing nuclease dead Cas9 (dCas9)/MDM2-sgRNA in RPEs. In addition, MDM2-sgRNA was also cloned into a pLV-sgRNA-dCas9-Kruppel associated box (KRAB) vector for expressing dCas9 fused with a transcriptional repressor KRAB/MDM2-sgRNA. TGF-ß2-induced expression of MDM2 and EMT biomarkers were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), western blot, or immunofluorescence. Wound-healing and proliferation assays were used to evaluate the role of MDM2 in TGF-ß2-induced responses in RPEs. As a result, we found that MDM2 was expressed obviously in ERMs, and that TGF-ß2-induced expression of MDM2 and EMT biomarkers Fibronectin, N-cadherin and Vimentin in RPEs. Importantly, we discovered that the dCas9/MDM2-sgRNA blocked TGF-ß2-induced expression of MDM2 and the EMT biomarkers without affecting their basal expression, whereas the dCas9-KRAB/MDM2-sgRNA suppressed basal MDM2 expression in RPEs. These cells could not be maintained continuously because their viability was greatly reduced. Next, we found that Nutlin-3, a small molecule blocking the interaction of MDM2 with p53, inhibited TGF-ß2-induced expression of Fibronectin and N-cadherin but not Vimentin in RPEs, indicating that MDM2 functions in both p53-dependent and -independent pathways. Finally, our experimental data demonstrated that dCas9/MDM2-sgRNA suppressed TGF-ß2-dependent cell proliferation and migration without disturbing the unstimulated basal activity. In conclusion, the CRISPR/dCas9 capability for blocking TGF-ß2-induced expression of MDM2 and EMT biomarkers can be exploited for a therapeutic approach to PVR.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407271

RESUMO

The potential for physicochemical driving forces facilitating topical transport of the lipid-soluble drug oxaprozin (OXA) was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in this study. Azone, iontophoresis (IP), and sonophoresis (SP) were combined and performed on mouse skin for the OXA transdermal penetration, and the synergistic effect was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The data of characteristic peak intensity were processed with overlapping peak resolving and standard normalization. The results showed that Azone promoted the transdermal penetration of OXA (5.9-fold greater than the OXA concentration of normal penetration); SP enhanced OXA transdermal penetration (5.5-fold); IP enhanced OXA transdermal penetration (4.2-fold); the combined application of Azone and SP (Azone+SP) and SP+IP can improve the enhancement coefficient of OXA transdermal penetration (8.4-fold and 6.1-fold, > 5.9, > 5.5, > 4.2), and their combined application has a synergistic effect; Azone+IP does not have a synergistic effect while the enhancement coefficient of Azone+IP (5.3-fold, < 5.9) and Azone+SP+IP (7.2-fold, < 8.4) was slightly reduced. As for the drug OXA, Azone+SP is an effective method of transdermal penetration.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 294(42): 15408-15417, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467081

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that play a critical role in transmitting signals from cell-surface molecules to intracellular protein effectors. Key PI3Ks include PI3Kα, PI3Kß, and PI3Kδ, which are regulated by receptors. The signaling pathway comprising the PI3Ks, along with a Ser/Thr kinase (AKT), a proto-oncogene product (mouse double minute (MDM)2), and a tumor suppressor protein (p53), plays an essential role in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a fibrotic blinding eye disorder. However, which PI3K isoforms are involved in PVR is unknown. A major characteristic of PVR is the formation of epi (or sub)-retinal membranes that consist of extracellular matrix and cells, including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, glial cells, and macrophages. RPE cells are considered key players in PVR pathogenesis. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, we herein provide the evidence that PI3Kδ is highly expressed in human RPEs when it is primarily expressed in leukocytes. We also found that PI3Kδ inactivation through two approaches, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion and a PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor (idelalisib), not only blocks vitreous-induced activation of AKT and MDM2 but also abrogates a vitreous-stimulated decrease in p53. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PI3Kδ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced proliferation, migration, and contraction of human RPEs. These results suggest that PI3Kδ may represent a potential therapeutic target for RPE-related eye diseases, including PVR.

18.
Brain Res ; 1721: 146333, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302097

RESUMO

After associative learning, a signal induces the recall of its associated signal, or the other way around. This reciprocal retrieval of associated signals is essential for associative thinking and logical reasoning. For the cellular mechanism underlying this associative memory, we hypothesized that the formation of synapse innervations among coactivated sensory cortices and the recruitment of associative memory cells were involved in the integrative storage and reciprocal retrieval of associated signals. Our study indicated that the paired whisker and olfaction stimulations led to an odorant-induced whisker motion and a whisker-induced olfaction response, a reciprocal form of associative memory retrieval. In mice that showed the reciprocal retrieval of associated signals, their barrel and piriform cortical neurons became mutually innervated through their axon projection and new synapse formation. These piriform and barrel cortical neurons gained the ability to encode both whisker and olfaction signals based on synapse innervations from the innate input and the newly formed input. Therefore, the associated activation of sensory cortices by pairing input signals initiates their mutual synapse innervations, and the neurons innervated by new and innate synapses are recruited to be associative memory cells that encode these associated signals. Mutual synapse innervations among sensory cortices to recruit associative memory cells may compose the primary foundation for the integrative storage and reciprocal retrieval of associated signals. Our study also reveals that new synapses onto the neurons enable these neurons to encode memories to new specific signals.

19.
Exp Eye Res ; 186: 107716, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278903

RESUMO

Mouse double minute (MDM)2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 309G allele in the second promoter of MDM2 enhances vitreous-induced expression of Mdm2 and degradation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. This MDM2SNP309G contributes to certain cancer development and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The goal of this study is to discover a novel strategy to only block vitreous-induced expression of Mdm2 for preventing vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival and thus find a potential novel strategy to treat proliferation-related diseases. We created two mutations (D10A and H840A) in Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp)Cas9 within the nuclease domains (RuvC1 and HNH, respectively) to render this SpCas9 nuclease dead named as dCas9 in a lentiCRISPR v2 vector. Then an MDM2-sgRNA targeting the second promoter of human MDM2 gene was cloned into this vector for producing lentivirus to infect human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with, which carry a heterozygous genotype of MDM2SNP309 T/G. lacZ-sgRNA was used as a control. As a result, we discovered that vitreous from experimental rabbits induced a 1.9 ±â€¯0.2 fold increase in Mdm2 and a 2.0 ±â€¯0.2 fold decrease in p53 in the RPE cells with dCas9/lacZ-sgRNA compared to those with dCas9/MDM2-sgRNA, suggesting that dCas9 under the guidance of the MDM2-sgRNA prevented RV-stimulated increase in Mdm2. In addition, we found that the rabbit vitreous significantly enhanced cell proliferation (1.5 ±â€¯0.2 fold), survival against apoptosis (2.2 ±â€¯0.2 fold), migration (10 ±â€¯1.5%) and contraction (112.7 ±â€¯14.1 mm2) of the cells with dCas9/lacZ-sgRNA compared with those with dCas9/MDM2-sgRNA. These results indicated that application of the dCas9 targeted to the P2 of MDM2 is a potential therapeutic approach to diseases due to the P2-driven aberrant expression of Mdm2 - such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

20.
J Healthc Eng ; 2019: 2726837, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281615

RESUMO

Population aging is increasingly serious. The application of social robots for home-based elder care is an important way to solve this problem. Aging adults' demands for social robots' companionship affect robotic designs. This study aimed to investigate aging adults' demands for social robots' companionship and explored in which life situations it was appropriate to accompany aging adults by social robots. This study involved three phases. Phase 1 (an interview survey) collected the life situations in which aging adults lived alone at home. Based on the results of Phase 1, Phase 2 (a questionnaire survey) investigated aging adults' demands for companionship, whereas Phase 3 (an expert evaluation) investigated the feasibility of the robots' companionship for aging adults. After the three phases, this study compared aging adults' demands for companionship with the feasibility of social robots' companionship in each life situation. Based on the results, the life situations of dinning and watching TV, there was a greater likelihood that the companionship that aging adults needed might be provided by social robots. In the life situations of sleeping and short breaking, it was difficult that aging adults' demands for companionship were fulfilled by social robots. Implications were discussed for home-based elder care system.

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