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1.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436728

RESUMO

AMPA receptors are tetrameric ionic glutamate receptors, which mediate 90% fast excitatory synaptic transmission induced by excitatory glutamate in the mammalian central nervous system through the activation or inactivation of ion channels. The alternation of synaptic AMPA receptor number and subtype is thought to be one of the primary mechanisms that involve in synaptic plasticity regulation and affect the functions in learning, memory, and cognition. The increasing of surface AMPARs enhances synaptic strength during long-term potentiation, whereas the decreasing of AMPARs weakens synaptic strength during the long-term depression. It is closely related to the AMPA receptor as well as its subunits assembly, trafficking, and degradation. The dysfunction of any step in these precise regulatory processes is likely to induce the disorder of synaptic transmission and loss of neurons, or even cause neuropsychiatric diseases ultimately. Therefore, it is useful to understand how AMPARs regulate synaptic plasticity and its role in related neuropsychiatric diseases via comprehending architecture and trafficking of the receptors. Here, we reviewed the progress in structure, expression, trafficking, and relationship with synaptic plasticity of AMPA receptor, especially in anxiety, depression, neurodegenerative disorders, and cerebral ischemia.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385606

RESUMO

The phenotypic transformation of microglia in the ischemic penumbra determines the outcomes of ischemic stroke. Our previous study has shown that chemokine-like-factor 1 (CKLF1) promotes M1-type polarization of microglia. In this study, we investigated the cellular source and transcriptional regulation of CKLF1, as well as the biological function of CKLF1 in ischemic penumbra of rat brain. We showed that CKLF1 was significantly up-regulated in cultured rat cortical neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (ODG/R) injury, but not in cultured rat microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, we found that CKLF1 was up-regulated and co-localized with neurons in ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, the up-regulated CKLF1 was accompanied by the enhanced nuclear accumulation of NF-κB. The transcriptional activity of CKLF1 was improved by overexpression of NF-κB in HEK293T cells, whereas application of NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 (1 µM) abolished it, caused by OGD/R. By using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay we demonstrated that NF-κB directly bound to the promoter of CKLF1 (at a binding site located at -249 bp to -239 bp of CKLF1 promoter region), and regulated the transcription of human CKLF1. Moreover, neuronal conditional medium collected after OGD/R injury or CKLF1-C27 (a peptide obtained from secreted CKLF1) induced the M1-type polarization of microglia, whereas the CKLF1-neutralizing antibody (αCKLF1) or NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 abolished the M1-type polarization of microglia. Specific knockout of neuronal CKLF1 in ischemic penumbra attenuated neuronal impairments and M1-type polarization of microglia caused by ischemic/reperfusion injury, evidenced by inhibited levels of M1 marker CD16/32 and increased expression of M2 marker CD206. Application of CKLF1-C27 (200 nM) promoted the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in microglia, whereas specific depletion of neuronal CKLF1 in ischemic penumbra abolished ischemic/reperfusion-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation. In summary, CKLF1 up-regulation in neurons regulated by NF-κB is one of the crucial mechanisms to promote M1-type polarization of microglia in ischemic penumbra.

3.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153669, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression, as a prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disease, severely decreases the life quality of individuals and brings heavy burdens to the whole society. Currently, some antidepressants are applied in the treatment of severe depressive symptoms, while there are still some undesirable drawbacks. Paeoniflorin is a monoterpenoid glycoside that was firstly extracted from Paeonia lactiflora Pall, a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in the Chinese herbal formulas for treating depression. PURPOSE: This review summarized the previous pre-clinical studies of paeoniflorin in treating depression and further discussed the potential anti-depressive mechanisms for that paeoniflorin to be further explored and utilized in the treatment of depression clinically. METHODS: Some electronic databases, e.g., PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched from inception until April 2021. RESULTS: This review summarized the effective anti-depressive properties of paeoniflorin, which is related to its functions in the upregulation of the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters, inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperfunction, promotion of neuroprotection, promotion of hippocampus neurogenesis, and upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, inhibition of inflammatory reaction, downregulation of nitric oxide level, etc. CONCLUSION: This review focused on the pre-clinical studies of paeoniflorin in depression and summarized the recent development of the anti-depressive mechanisms of paeoniflorin, which approves the role of paeoniflorin plays in anti-depression. However, more high-quality pre-clinical and clinical studies are expected to be conducted in the future.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Neuroproteção , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Neurotransmissores , Paeonia/química , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2760-2765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296573

RESUMO

Akkermansia muciniphila, abbreviated as AKK and found in 2004, is an oval-shaped gram-negative bacterium isolated from a human feal. A. muciniphila is widely present in the intestinal tract of human. Its specialization in mucin degradation makes it a key organism at the mucosal interface between the lumen and host cells. More and more studies have shown that it can play the role of probiotics. Notably, declined levels of A. muciniphila have been observed in patients with diabetes, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. In addition, A. muciniphila combined with traditional Chinese medicine, exhibited higher effect on regulating host functions, but the underlying mechanism was still unclear, requiring further in-depth research. Therefore, the aims of this review are to summarize the main effects of A. muciniphila on host health and its relationship with traditional Chinese medicine, summarize the main problems, and provide a reference for the further research of A. muciniphila and traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Probióticos , Akkermansia , Humanos , Intestinos , Verrucomicrobia/genética
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 281: 114466, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332064

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Korean red ginseng (KRG), a processed product of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, show significant anti-depressive effect in clinic. However, its mechanism is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potential pathogenesis of depression. Therefore, this study's objective is to investigate whether the antidepressant effect of KRG is related to GJIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat were restraint 8 h every day for 28 consecutive days to prepare depression models, and meanwhile, rats were intragastrically administrated with normal saline, KRG solutions (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) 1 h before stress. The behavioral performance was determined by forced swimming test, sucrose preference test and open field test. GJIC was determined by the Lucifer yellow (LY) diffusion distance in prelimb cortex (PLC). In addition, the level of Cx43, one of executors of GJIC, was tested by Western blot. To find out the protective effect of KRG against GJIC dysfunction directly, rats were intracranially injected with carbenoxolone (CBX, blocker of GJIC), and meanwhile normal saline, KRG (100 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was administered daily. The behavioral performance of these rats was detected, and the LY localization injection PLC area was used to detect the gap junction function. RESULTS: Chronic resistant stress (CRS) induced depressive symptoms, as manifested by prolonged immobility time in forced swimming test and decreased sucrose consumption ratio. Administration of KRG alleviated these depressive symptoms significantly. GJIC determination showed that KRG improved the LY diffusion and increased Cx43 level in prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly, indicated that GJIC dysfunction was alleviated by the treatment of KRG. However, the astrocytes number was also increased by the treatment of KRG, which maybe alleviate depression-like symptoms by increasing the number of astrocytes rather than improving GJIC. Injection of CBX produced depressive symptoms and GJIC dysfunction, as manifested by decreased sucrose consumption ratio and prolonged immobility time in forced swimming test, but no astrocytes number changes, KRG also reversed depressive symptoms and GJIC dysfunction, suggested that the improvement of depressive-like symptoms was improved by GJIC. CONCLUSIONS: KRG alleviate depressive disorder by improving astrocytic gap junction function.

6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226665

RESUMO

Newborns suffering from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury still lack effective treatment. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which is highly correlated with transient ischemic brain injury in adult. In this study, we investigated the role of Pyk2 in neonatal HI brain injury. HI was induced in postnatal day 7 mouse pups by unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxic exposure. Pyk2 interference lentivirus (LV-Pyk2 shRNA) was constructed and injected into unilateral cerebral ventricle of neonatal mice before HI. Infarct volume, pathological changes, and neurological behaviors were assessed on postnatal day 8-14. We showed that the phosphorylation level of Pyk2 was significantly increased in neonatal brain after HI, whereas LV-Pyk2 shRNA injection significantly attenuated acute HI brain damage and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. In oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated cultured cortical neurons, Pyk2 inhibition significantly alleviated NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity; similar results were also observed in neonatal HI brain injury. We demonstrated that Pyk2 inhibition contributes to the long-term cerebrovascular recovery assessed by laser speckle contrast imaging, but cognitive function was not obviously improved as evaluated in Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. Thus, we constructed lentiviral LV-HIF-Pyk2 shRNA, through which HIF-1α promoter-mediated interference of Pyk2 would occur during the anoxic environment. Intracerebroventricular injection of LV-HIF-Pyk2 shRNA significantly improved long-term recovery of cognitive function in HI-treated neonatal mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Pyk2 interference protects neonatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic injury. HIF-1α promoter-mediated hypoxia conditional control is a useful tool to distinguish between hypoxic period and normal period. Pyk2 is a promising drug target for potential treatment of neonatal HI brain injury.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 171: 105761, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242798

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is severely prevalent, and conventional monoaminergic antidepressants gradually exhibit low therapeutic efficiency, especially for patients with treatment-resistant depression. A neuroplasticity hypothesis is an emerging advancement in the mechanism of depression, mainly expressed in the glutamate system, e.g., glutamate receptors and signaling. Dysfunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission is currently considered to be closely associated with the pathophysiology of MDD. Biological function, pharmacological action, and signal attributes in the glutamate system both regulate the neural process. Specific functional subunits could be therapeutic targets to explore the novel glutamatergic modulators, which have fast-acting, and relatively sustained antidepressant effects. Here, the present review summarizes the pathophysiology of MDD found in the glutamate system, exploring the role of glutamate receptors and their downstream effects. These convergent mechanisms have prompted the development of other modulators targeting on glutamate system, including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, selective GluN2B-specific antagonists, glycine binding site agents, and regulators of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Relevant researches underly the putative mechanisms of these drugs, which reverse the damage of depression by regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. It also provides further insight into the mechanism of depression and exploring potential targets for novel agent development.

8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 907: 174262, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146589

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal neurons. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a key regulator mediating mitochondrial fission and affecting mitophagy in neurons. It has been reported that the inhibition of Drp1 may be beneficial to PD. However, the role of Drp1 and mitophagy in PD remains elusive. Therefore, in this research, we investigated the role of Drp1 and the underlying mechanisms in the mice model of PD. We used the dynasore, a GTPase inhibitor, to inhibit the expression of Drp1. We found that inhibition of Drp1 could ameliorate the motor deficits and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the mice of the PD model. But Drp1 inhibition did not affect mitochondria number and morphological parameters. Moreover, suppression of Drp1 up-regulated the mitochondrial expressions of PINK1 and Parkin while not affected the expressions of NIX and BNIP3. Conclusively, our findings suggest that the inhibition of Drp1 ameliorated the mitochondrial ultrastructure at least via regulating PINK1 and Parkin in the mice of the PD model. This study also implicates that inhibition of Drp1 might impact mitophagy and recover mitochondrial homeostasis in PD.

9.
Neurochem Int ; 148: 105110, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166749

RESUMO

As a subjective mood-related disorder with an unclear mechanism, depression has many problems in its diagnosis, which offers great space and value for research. At present, the methods commonly used to judge whether an animal model of depression has been established are mainly by biochemical index detection and behavioral tests, both of which inevitably cause stress in animals. Stress-induced hair growth inhibition has been widely reported in humans and animals. The simplicity of collecting hair samples and the observable state of hair growth has significant advantages; we tried to explore whether the parameters related to hair growth could be used as auxiliary indicators to evaluate a depression model in animals. The length and weight of the hair were calculated. Correlation analysis was conducted between the depressive behavioral results and the glucocorticoid levels in hair and serum. Learned helplessness combined with chronic restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress in the animal were detectable by superficial observation, weight ratio, and length of hair, and follicular development scores were significantly reduced compared to the control. The hair growth parameters of rats with depression, the rise in corticosterone, and the corresponding changes in behavioral parameters were significantly correlated. The neurotrophic factors, glucocorticoid-receptor (GR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5), are associated with depression and hair growth. Significant differences were detected between the stress and control groups, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the stress-phenomenon inhibition of hair growth may be related to growth factor mediation.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103690

RESUMO

Myelin damage and abnormal remyelination processes lead to central nervous system dysfunction. Glial activation-induced microenvironment changes are characteristic features of the diseases with myelin abnormalities. We previously showed that ginsenoside Rg1, a main component of ginseng, ameliorated MPTP-mediated myelin damage in mice, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of Rg1 and mechanisms in cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination mouse model. Mice were treated with CPZ solution (300 mg· kg-1· d-1, ig) for 5 weeks; from week 2, the mice received Rg1 (5, 10, and 20 mg· kg-1· d-1, ig) for 4 weeks. We showed that Rg1 administration dose-dependently alleviated bradykinesia and improved CPZ-disrupted motor coordination ability in CPZ-treated mice. Furthermore, Rg1 administration significantly decreased demyelination and axonal injury in pathological assays. We further revealed that the neuroprotective effects of Rg1 were associated with inhibiting CXCL10-mediated modulation of glial response, which was mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and CXCL10 promoter activation. In microglial cell line BV-2, we demonstrated that the effects of Rg1 on pro-inflammatory and migratory phenotypes of microglia were related to CXCL10, while Rg1-induced phagocytosis of microglia was not directly related to CXCL10. In CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model, injection of AAV-CXCL10 shRNA into mouse lateral ventricles 3 weeks prior CPZ treatment occluded the beneficial effects of Rg1 administration in behavioral and pathological assays. In conclusion, CXCL10 mediates the protective role of Rg1 in CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model. This study provides new insight into potential disease-modifying therapies for myelin abnormalities.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 278: 114212, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087399

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a valuable medicinal herb and "alternative" remedy for the prevention and treatment of depression. Dysfunction of connexin43 (Cx43)-gap junction in astrocytes is predisposed to the precipitation of depression. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main bioactive constituent extracted from ginseng, is efficacious in the management of depression by upregulating the content of Cx43. Our previous results indicated that pretreatment with Rg1 significantly improved Cx43-gap junction in corticosterone (CORT)-treated astrocytes. However, the antidepressant mechanism underlying how Rg1 upregulates Cx43-gap junction in astrocytes hasn't been proposed. AIM OF THE STUDY: To dissect the mechanisms of Rg1 controlling Cx43 levels in primary astrocytes. METHODS: We examined the changes of the level of Cx43 mRNA, the degradation of Cx43, as well as the ubiquitin-proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathways of Cx43 followed by Rg1 prior to CORT in rat primary astrocytes isolated from prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the recognized method of scrape loading/dye transfer was performed to detect Cx43-gap junctional function, an essencial indicator of the antidepressant effect. RESULTS: Pretreatment with Rg1 could reverse CORT-induced downregulation of Cx43 biosynthesis, acceleration of Cx43 degradation, and upregulation of two Cx43 degradation pathways in primary astrocytes. CONCLUSION: The findings in the present study provide the first evidence highlighting that Rg1 increases Cx43 protein levels through the upregulation of Cx43 mRNA and downregulation of Cx43 degradation, which may be attributed to the effect of Rg1 on the ubiquitin-proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathways of Cx43.

13.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105542, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711432

RESUMO

Depression has become one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by anhedonia, anxiety, pessimism, or even suicidal thoughts. Receptor theory has been pointed out to explain the pathogenesis of depression, while it is still subject to debate. Additionally, gene abnormality accounts for nearly 40-50% of depression risk, which is a significant factor contributing to the onset of depression. Accordingly, studying on receptors and their gene abnormality are critical parts of the research on internal causes of depression. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of depression from six of the most related receptors and their associated genes, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, GABAA receptor α2, and dopamine receptor; and several "non-classic" receptors, such as metabotropic glutamate receptor, opioid receptor, and insulin receptor. These receptors have received considerable critical attention and are highly implicated in the onset of depression. We begin by providing the biological mechanisms of action of these receptors on the pathogenesis of depression. Then we review the historical and social context about these receptors. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the current state of knowledge and outline insights on future research directions, aiming to provide more novel targets and theoretical basis for the early prevention, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment of depression.

14.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(3): 627-643, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657988

RESUMO

Depression is a common neuropsychiatric symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), resulting in a lower quality of life and cognitive impairment in PD patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas have been widely used in neurodegenerative disease and neuropsychic disorders to improve life quality of patients in ethnomedicine. TCM formulas combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also have a positive effect on depressed PD compared with SSRIs as reported by several clinical studies. However, the results are discordant and failed to be conclusive. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of TCM formulas combined with SSRIs for depressed PD in this systematic review. We searched literatures from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Information Database before July 2020. We included randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of TCM formulas combined with SSRIs on depressed PD patients. This analysis was according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline. Eleven randomized clinical trials involving 861 subjects were enrolled in this analysis. The overall results showed that TCM formulas combined with SSRIs significantly improved the depression score [weighted mean difference (WMD): -4.920, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-5.999, -3.840); [Formula: see text]¡ 0.001] and had a statistical significance on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II score [WMD: -1.209, 95% CI: (-1.561, -0.857); [Formula: see text] < 0.001]. Furthermore, we observed that Chai-Hu-Shu-Gan Powder combined with SSRIs had a significant improvement on the depressive symptom in PD compared to the SSRIs alone [WMD: -5.390, 95% CI: (-7.66, -3.11); [Formula: see text] < 0.001]. No severe side events were reported in these included trials. This systematic review provided the evidences that TCM formulas combined with SSRIs might be helpful and safe in the treatment of depression of PD, including Chai-Hu-Shu-Gan Powder. Also, more randomized double-blinded trials with reliable design are required in the future.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Depressão/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Pharmacol Res ; 170: 105541, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711434

RESUMO

Diversiform ways of intercellular communication are vital links in maintaining homeostasis and disseminating physiological states. Among intercellular bridges, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) discovered in 2004 were recognized as potential pharmacology targets related to the pathogenesis of common or infrequent neurodegenerative disorders. The neurotoxic aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases including scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), mutant tau protein, amyloid-beta (Aß) protein, alpha-synuclein (α-syn) as well as mutant Huntington (mHTT) protein could promote TNT formation via certain physiological mechanisms, in turn, mediating the intercellular transmission of neurotoxicity. In this review, we described in detail the skeleton, the formation, the physicochemical properties, and the functions of TNTs, while paying particular attention to the key role of TNTs in the transport of pathological proteins during neurodegeneration.

16.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772140

RESUMO

Recent evidence shows that when ischemic stroke (IS) occurs, the BBB would be destructed, thereby promoting the immune cells to migrate into the brain, suggesting that the immune responses can play a vital role in the pathology of IS. As an essential subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells are involved in maintaining immune homeostasis and suppressing immune responses in the pathophysiological conditions of IS. During the past decades, the regulatory role of Treg cells has attracted the interest of numerous researchers. However, whether they are beneficial or detrimental to the outcomes of IS remains controversial. Moreover, Treg cells exert distinctive effects in the different stages of IS. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate how Treg cells modulate the immune responses induced by IS. In this review, we describe how Treg cells fluctuate and play a role in the regulation of immune responses after IS in both experimental animals and humans, and summarize their biological functions and mechanisms in both CNS and periphery. We also discuss how Treg cells participate in poststroke inflammation and immunodepression and the potential of Treg cells as a novel therapeutic approach.

17.
Cytokine ; 141: 155429, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major complication of liver resection or transplantation. However, the mechanism underlying hepatic I/R injury remains obscure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) in hepatic I/R injury. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 70% hepatic ischemia for 90 min, followed by 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h of reperfusion. The expression of CKLF1 was measured by real-time PCR and western blot. The effect of C19, an antagonism peptide of CKLF1, on hepatic I/R injury was investigated. RESULTS: After subjected to 70% hepatic ischemia and reperfusion, the ALT and AST were increased. H&E results showed serious liver damage. The mRNA and protein levels of CKLF1 expression were upregulated during hepatic I/R. Immunohistochemistry staining results showed that neutrophil infiltration was increased in the ischemia lobe. MPO activity was significantly higher post reperfusion. TNF-α and IL-1ß were upregulated during hepatic I/R. C19 administration significantly reduced the level of ALT and AST, decreased the necrosis area of liver tissue. Furthermore, C19 treatment inhibited neutrophil infiltration and reduced MPO activity. Meanwhile, C19 decreased the expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß. The phosphorylation of P38, JNK were inhibited by C19 treatment. CONCLUSION: CKLF1 was upregulated during hepatic I/R. Inhibiting CKLF1 by C19, an antagonism peptide of CKLF1, could alleviate hepatic I/R injury, reduce neutrophil infiltration, decrease inflammatory response. The protective effect of C19 may related to MAPK signaling pathway.

18.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528716

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and affects millions of people. Currently, mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as a central role in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial forms of PD. Mitophagy, a process that selectively targets damaged or redundant mitochondria to the lysosome for elimination via the autophagy devices, is crucial in preserving mitochondrial health. So far, aberrant mitophagy has been observed in the postmortem of PD patients and genetic or toxin-induced models of PD. Except for mitochondrial dysfunction, mitophagy is involved in regulating several other PD-related pathological mechanisms as well, e.g., oxidative stress and calcium imbalance. So far, the mitophagy mechanisms induced by PD-related proteins, PINK1 and Parkin, have been studied widely, and several other PD-associated genes, e.g., DJ-1, LRRK2, and alpha-synuclein, have been discovered to participate in the regulation of mitophagy as well, which further strengthens the link between mitophagy and PD. Thus, in this view, we reviewed mitophagy pathways in belief and discussed the interactions between mitophagy and several PD's pathological mechanisms and how PD-related genes modulate the mitophagy process.

19.
Brain Res Bull ; 168: 100-109, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387636

RESUMO

Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are mainly dopaminergic drugs. However, dopaminergic drugs are only symptomatic treatments and limited by several side effects. Recent studies into drug development focused on emerging new molecular mechanisms, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, nuclear receptor-related 1 (Nurr1), adenosine receptor A2, nicotine receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Also, immunotherapy and common pathological mechanisms shared with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and diabetes have attracted much attention. In this review, we summarized the development of preclinical and clinical studies of novel drugs and the improvement of dopaminergic drugs to provide a prospect for PD treatment.

20.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105433, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454337

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) commonly characterized by the gradual loss of neurons have a seriously bad impact on motor and cognitive abilities of affected humans and bring great inconvenience to their lives. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been considered the key and common factor for the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases for that neurons are extremely energy-intensive due to their unique properties in structures and functions. Thus, mitophagy, as a central role of mitochondrial quality control and currently believed to be the most effective pathway to clear dysfunctional or unwanted mitochondria, is rather crucial in the preservation of neuronal health. In addition, mitophagy establishes an intimated link with several other pathways of mitochondrial quality control (e.g., mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics), and they work together to preserve mitochondrial health. Therefore, in this review, we summarized the recent process on the mechanisms of mitophagy pathways in mammals, it's linking to mitochondrial quality control, its role in several major neurodegenerative diseases, and possible therapeutic interventions focusing on mitophagy pathways. And we expect that it can provide us with more understanding of the mitophagy pathways and more promising approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

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