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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum levels of HB core-related antigen (HBcrAg) have been associated with active replication of HBV. We investigated whether HBcrAg levels associate with development of HCC, especially in patients who do not require antiviral treatment. METHODS: We collected data from 2666 adults positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), infected with HBV genotypes B or C and without liver cirrhosis, who had a long-term follow-up at the National Taiwan University Hospital, from 1985 through 2000. All the patients did not have antiviral treatment during the follow-up. Baseline levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg, and HBcrAg were determined retrospectively and participants were followed for a mean time of 15.95 years. The primary endpoint was association between serum level of HBcrAg and HCC development. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, 209 patients developed HCC (incidence rate, 4.91 cases/1000 person-years). We found a positive association between baseline level of HBcrAg and HCC development; HBcrAg level was an independent risk factor in multivariable analysis. In the subgroup of hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with HBV DNA levels from 2000 to 19,999 IU/mL (intermediate viral load, IVL) and normal levels of alanine aminotransferase, HBcrAg levels of 10 KU/mL or more identified patients at increased risk of HCC (hazard ratio, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.18-10.93). Patients with an IVL and high levels of HBcrAg had a risk for HCC risk that did not differ significantly from that of patients with a high viral load (≥20,000 IU/mL). Patients with an IVL but a low level of HBcrAg had a low risk of HCC with an annual incidence rate of 0.10% (95% CI: 0.04%-0.24%). CONCLUSIONS: In a long-term follow-up study of 2666 patients with chronic HBV infection (genotypes B or C), level of HBcrAg is an independent risk factor of HCC. Moreover, HBcrAg level of 10 KU/mL identifies patients with an IVL who are at high risk for HCC.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more prevalent in males than in females, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The influence of hepatic androgen receptor (AR) pathway on the gender difference of HCC has been well documented. Here we investigated the role of hepatic lipogenesis, which is elevated in the livers of obese and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, in stimulating the AR pathway for the male preference of obesity induced HCC. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a fructose-rich high carbohydrate diet (HCD) to induce hepatic lipogenesis. The effect of hepatic lipogenesis on AR was examined by the expression of hydrodynamically injected AR reporter and the endogenous AR target gene; the mechanism was delineated in hepatoma cell lines and validated in male mice. RESULTS: The hepatic lipogenesis induced by a fructose-rich HCD enhanced the transcriptional activity of hepatic AR in male mice, which did not happen when fed a high fat diet. This AR activation was blocked by sh-RNAs or inhibitors targeting key enzymes in lipogenesis, either acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha (ACCα), or fatty acid synthase (FASN), in vivo and in vitro. Further mechanistic study identified that specific unsaturated fatty acid, the oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), incorporated DAGs produced by hepatic lipogenesis are the key molecules to enhance the AR activity, through activation of Akt kinase, and this novel mechanism is targeted by metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Our study elucidates a novel mechanism underlying the higher risk of HCC in obese/NAFLD males, through specific DAGs enriched by hepatic lipogenesis to increase the transcriptional activity of hepatic AR, a confirmed risk factor for male HCC.

3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation may occur in >10% of patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infection who undergo rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Preventive strategies may have marked impact on resource allocation in HBV endemic areas. This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness between prophylactic antiviral therapy and HBV DNA monitoring for the prevention of HBV-related complications. METHODS: Data sources are studies of HBV-related events and survival for patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infection published since 2006. Decision tree analysis was used to compare the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of preventing HBV-related death or liver decompensation for patients who undergo first-line rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the impact of the preventive efficacy, the duration of prophylactic antiviral therapy, and the cost of different interventions. The direct medical cost was derived from the database of the NHI Administration, Taiwan. The time frame of our analysis was set to 3 years after the completion of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median ICER of prophylactic antiviral therapy, according to current practice guidelines, ranged between USD 150,000 and 250,000 if we apply the guidelines generally. When a long-course (12 months after completion of chemotherapy according to clinical guidelines) prophylactic therapy was assumed, Option A was cheaper and more effective only in the anti-HBs-negative subgroup (median ICER US$149,932 vs. US$161,526, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Identification of anti-HBs-negative subgroups is critical to improve the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic antiviral therapy in lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The NIACE score provides prognostic values for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in European studies. We aim to evaluate the prognostic value of the NIACE score in Asian patients. METHODS: Patients with HCC were retrospectively enrolled from a tertiary medical center in Taiwan during 2009-2014, and their clinical information were collected. The NIACE score was calculated according to the Nodular numbers, tumor Infiltration, Alpha-fetoprotein level, Child-Pugh score, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score. The prognostic values of NIACE score for overall survival according to individual treatment and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients were included with a median follow-up of 30 months. A greater NIACE score correlated with lower median survival and higher BCLC staging. Regardless of treatment modalities, NIACE scores (0, 1-1.5, 2.5-3, and 4-7) significantly predicted survival between groups (log-rank P < 0.001). Specifically, NIACE score (0, 1-1.5, 2.5-3, and 4-7) significantly predicted survival in patients receiving transarterial chemoembolization (log-rank P < 0.001). NIACE score 1, 2.5, and 4 further distinguished overall survival in BCLC A, B, and C patients, respectively (all log-rank P < 0.01). After adjustment of the confounders and the BCLC staging, NIACE score of 2.5-3 and 4-7 (vs 0) had a significantly increased risk of mortality with a hazard ratio of 4.04 (95% confidence interval: 2.14-7.64, P < 0.001) and 7.45 (95% confidence interval: 3.22-17.23, P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The NIACE score helps refine differential prognosis among BCLC A, B, and C subgroups of Asian patients with HCC, especially in those receiving transarterial chemoembolization.

5.
Hepatology ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121067

RESUMO

It is not clear whether baseline hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) level in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive children with a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is predictive of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. We investigated the correlation between anti-HBc level and the natural course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus (HBV) infection in children, particularly the ability of baseline anti-HBc level to predict spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion during long-term follow-up. HBeAg-positive children with untreated CHB and a normal ALT level were followed longitudinally. Anti-HBc level was determined by double-sandwich immunoassay. Effects of anti-HBc levels and other parameters on spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion and the natural course of CHB were assessed. A total of 182 children (106 males) with a median age at enrollment of 10.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 10.3-15.3) were followed for a median of 19.8 years (IQR, 11.9-21.9). Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 85 children (46.7%) during the follow-up. A baseline anti-HBc titer of >500 IU/mL (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.81), HBV genotype B and B + C (HR = 3.46), and a baseline hepatitis B surface antigen titer of ≤4.8 log10  IU/mL (HR = 3.09) were predictive of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion, based on multivariable survival analysis (P < 0.001). In cases remaining HBeAg positive, their anti-HBc levels increased gradually during follow-up because of ongoing inflammation. Conclusion: Baseline anti-HBc level is predictive of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive children with a normal ALT level. Anti-HBc level reflects anti-HBV immune response in the HBeAg-positive normal ALT phase of CHB.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Data regarding the efficacy and safety of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PrOD) for East Asian non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (HCV GT1b) patients receiving hemodialysis were limited. METHODS: Forty-six HCV GT1b non-cirrhotic patients receiving hemodialysis who received PrOD for 12 weeks were prospectively enrolled in seven academic centers in Taiwan. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks off-therapy (SVR12 ). Patients' baseline characteristics, early virokinetics, and HCV resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) potentially related to SVR12 were analyzed. The safety profiles were also assessed. RESULTS: The SVR12 rate was 100% (46 of 46 patients). Patients' baseline characteristics, on-treatment viral decline, and baseline HCV resistance-associated substitutions did not affect SVR12 . All patients tolerated treatment well. One patient with folliculitis temporarily discontinued treatment, and another two patients had serious adverse events (SAEs), which were considered not related to PrOD treatment. The common adverse events were pruritus (19.6%), fatigue (15.2%), and upper respiratory tract infection (6.5%). Twelve (19.6%) and one (2.2%) patients had hemoglobin levels < 10 and 8.5 g/dL, respectively, which were related to renal impairment. Five (10.9%) patients had on-treatment total bilirubin level of 1.5-3.0 mg/dL, but none developed hepatic decompensation. The bilirubin levels peaked at week 1 of treatment and then declined with continuous treatment. CONCLUSION: Treatment with PrOD for 12 weeks is efficacious and well-tolerated for East Asian non-cirrhotic HCV GT1b patients receiving hemodialysis.

7.
Gut ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.

8.
Hepatology ; 70(1): 184-197, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802976

RESUMO

Overexpression of metastatic tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) was correlated with poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of the expression of MTA1 and its exon 4-excluded form (MTA1dE4), the most abundant spliced variant of MTA1, in patients receiving curative resection for HBV-HCC. We collected 102 patients with HBV-HCC and received curative resection retrospectively and examined the expressions level of total MTA1/MTA1dE4 in their paired nontumor and tumor liver tissues by using RT-qPCR. The association between MTA1/MTA1dE4 expression and various tumor features as well as tumor recurrence was analyzed. During the median follow-up period of 4 years, 25 patients (24.5%) showed early recurrence (within 12 months postresection) and 42 (54.5%) showed late recurrence. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, MTA1dE4 overexpression in tumor, but not MTA1, was associated with early recurrence (P = 0.0365), but not late recurrence. In multivariate analysis, only alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥200 ng/mL (P = 0.006) and large tumor size (P = 0.027) were correlated with early recurrence. In the subgroup of patients with AFP <200 ng/mL, high MTA1dE4, but not total MTA1, expression could help predict early recurrence (P = 0.0195). In vitro, wound healing and invasion assays were performed in HCC cells, and MTA1dE4 was found to exhibit a higher ability in promoting migration and invasion of hepatoma cells than full-length MTA1. Conclusion: MTA1dE4 expression is correlated with more aggressive tumor characteristics and might serve as a more sensitive marker for early recurrence of HBV-HCC, especially for low-AFP patients.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Data regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV), daclatasvir (DCV), or ledipasvir (LDV) for hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV-2) patients were limited. We aimed to evaluate the performance of these regimens in Taiwan. METHODS: One hundred eighty-seven HCV-2 patients with compensated liver diseases receiving SOF in combination with RBV (n = 82), DCV (n = 66), or LDV (n = 39) for 12 weeks were retrospectively enrolled. The effectiveness was determined by sustained virologic response 12 weeks off therapy (SVR12 ). The patient characteristics potentially related to SVR12 were compared. The safety profiles and laboratory abnormalities were assessed. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates were 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.5-97.4%), 98.5% (95% CI: 91.9-99.7%), and 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100%) in patients receiving SOF combined with RBV, DCV, and LDV, respectively. All patients tolerated treatment well. The stratified SVR12 rates were comparable regardless of baseline characteristics or week 4 viral decline among these regimens. Six (3.2%) patients had serious adverse events which were not related to treatment. The rates of fatigue, pruritus, and anemia tended to be higher in patients receiving RBV (22.0%, 19.5%, and 8.5%) combination than those receiving DCV (10.6%, 6.1%, and 1.5%) or LDV (10.3%, 5.1%, and 0%) combination. CONCLUSIONS: Sofosbuvir in combination with RBV, DCV, or LDV for 12 weeks is effective and well-tolerated for HCV-2 patients. Compared with DCV or LDV combination, the risks of fatigue, pruritus, and anemia are higher in patients receiving RBV combination.

10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(5): 589-598, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B has been linked to lymphoma with contradictory results. AIM: To investigate the association between chronic hepatitis B and lymphoma by using a nationwide population-based cohort. METHODS: Records of patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (hepatitis B virus [HBV] cohort) or without (non-HBV cohort) during 2004-2007 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Age, sex, comorbidities, and medical visits were matched using propensity scores between both cohorts, and they were followed up longitudinally until 2012 to determine any new lymphoma development. RESULTS: A total of 203 031 patients were included in each cohort with a mean follow-up of 7-9 years. The lymphoma incidence rate was significantly higher in the HBV cohort than in the non-HBV cohort (29.4 vs 15.9 per 100 000 person-years, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for comorbidities and medical visits, HBV infection was found to be an independent risk factor associated with the development of lymphoma (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76-2.43, P < 0.0001) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.80-2.65, P < 0.0001); specifically with an increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR: 2.69, 95% CI: 2.05-3.52, P < 0.0001), other B-cell lymphoma (HR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.89-5.11, P < 0.0001), and also for multiple myeloma (HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.42, P = 0.016). The association was significant even after excluding lymphoma development within the first year (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.75-2.47, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hepatitis B is temporally associated with a 2-fold increased risk of lymphoma, particularly with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and also an increased risk for multiple myeloma.

11.
Hepatology ; 69(6): 2364-2380, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661248

RESUMO

To understand the mechanism(s) of age-dependent outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans, we previously established an age-related HBV mouse model in which 6-week-old (N6W) C3H/HeN mice exhibited virus tolerance whereas 12-week-old (N12W) counterparts presented virus clearance. By investigating the hepatic myeloid cell dynamics in mice of these two ages, we aim to identify factors associated with HBV clearance. C3H/HeN mice were transfected with an HBV plasmid by hydrodynamic injection. Serum HBV markers were monitored weekly. Hepatic leucocyte populations and their cytokine/chemokine productions were examined at baseline, day 3 (D3), day 7 (D7), and day 14 after injection. C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonist and clodronate (CLD) were respectively administered to N12W and N6W mice to study the roles of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C (Ly6C)+ monocytes and Kupffer cells (KCs) in viral clearance. N12W mice had a significantly higher number of TNF-α-secreting Ly6C+ monocytes and fewer IL-10-secreting KCs at D3 in the liver than their younger N6W counterparts after HBV transfection. In addition, the elevated number of interferon-γ+ TNF-α+ CD8+ T cells at D7 was only seen in the older cohort. The enhanced Ly6C+ monocyte induction in N12W mice resulted from elevated C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) secretion by hepatocytes. CCR2 antagonist administration hampered Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and degree of KC reduction and delayed HBV clearance in N12W animals. Depletion of KCs by CLD liposomes enhanced Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and accelerated HBV clearance in N6W mice. Conclusions: Ly6C+ monocytes and KCs may, respectively, represent the resistance and tolerance arms of host defenses. These two cell types play an essential role in determining HBV clearance/tolerance. Manipulation of these cells is a promising avenue for immunotherapy of HBV-related liver diseases.

12.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 118(2): 556-564, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV + ASV) for 24 weeks provided a sustained virologic response (SVR) rate of over 90% in hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (HCV-1b) infected patients without non-structural 5A (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at the L31 and Y93 sites. In this study, we investigated whether adding ribavirin to the DCV + ASV combination could shorten the original treatment regimen to 12 weeks without compromising the treatment efficacy for HCV-1b patients without NS5A RASs. METHODS: In the prospective, open-label, single-arm, nationwide multi-center phase III study, a total of 70 interferon-naïve or interferon-experienced HCV-1b patients without baseline L31/Y93 RASs received daclatasvir (60 mg/day) and asunaprevir (100 mg twice daily) plus weight-based ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) for 12 weeks, with a 12-week post-treatment follow-up. The primary end-point was the rate of undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). RESULTS: The SVR12 rate was 97.1% (68/70) and 100% (68/68) in the full-analysis-set and the per-protocol population, respectively. None of the 68 patients who completed the 12-week treatment experienced relapse during post-treatment follow-up. Two patients withdrew from the study at treatment days 21 and 34 due to anorexia and fatigue, which were considered ribavirin-related and resolved post medication cessation. A total of 4 serious adverse events were reported and considered treatment-unrelated. No deaths or grade 4 adverse events requiring hospitalization was observed throughout the study. CONCLUSION: Truncated regimen of DCV + ASV plus ribavirin for 12 weeks was highly effective and safe in HCV-1b patients without NS5A L31/Y93 RAS.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Isoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/sangue , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Taiwan , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
13.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 118(1 Pt 1): 7-38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527436

RESUMO

The experts of Taiwan Association for the Study of Liver (TASL) have actively participated and led the guidelines on hepatitis B virus (HBV) management by Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) which is the first international association for the study of liver to publish the statement on HBV management before. However, there are more and more new data on the natural history and treatment of HBV infection in the past decade. These include new application of an old biomarker (quantitative HBsAg), clinical significance of HBV genotype and naturally occurring mutations, the role of non-invasive examination in evaluating severity of hepatic fibrosis, clinical significance of outcome calculators, new drug or new combination strategies towards more effective therapy and organ transplantation including liver and non-liver transplantation. It is time to publish the guidelines on HBV management of Taiwan. Hence, TASL have conducted an expert meeting to review, to discuss and to debate the relevant literatures, followed by draft the manuscript of HBV management guidelines and recommendations. The guidelines include general management, indications for fibrosis assessment, time to start or stop drug therapy, choice of drug to initiate therapy, when and how to monitor the patients during and after stopping drug therapy. Recommendations on the therapy of patients in special circumstances, including women in childbearing age, patients with antiviral drug resistance, concurrent viral infection, hepatic decompensation, patient receiving immune suppression or chemotherapy and patients in the setting of liver transplantation and hepatocellular carcinoma, are also included.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Sociedades Médicas , Taiwan , Carga Viral
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(3): 331-339, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C infection is linked to lymphoma development. AIM: To investigate whether antiviral therapy prevents the risk of HCV-related lymphoma. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2004-2012. We included patients who received pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) antiviral therapy for ≥24 weeks (PegIFN/RBV cohort) or hepatoprotectants for ≥90 days without antiviral therapy (HCV-untreated cohort). Both cohorts were matched by age, sex, and comorbidities through propensity scores and followed for newly diagnosed lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). RESULTS: In total, 24 133 patients were included in both the PegIFN/RBV and HCV-untreated cohort. The lymphoma incidence was significantly higher in the untreated than in the treated cohort (66.48 vs 43.34 per 100 000 person-years, P = 0.029). After adjusting for confounders, the patients who received PegIFN/RBV therapy were at a lower risk of developing lymphoma compared with the untreated patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.96, P = 0.030). Moreover, this beneficial effect was mainly observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C <60 years old with a relative risk reduction of 51% for all lymphoma (HR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.29-0.82, P = 0.007) and 48% for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.91, P = 0.022). The risk of all lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma development after antiviral therapy was lowered to that of subjects without HCV. CONCLUSIONS: PegIFN/RBV-based antiviral therapy significantly reduced the risk of lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; the reduction was mostly among patients <60 years old. Early antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C is suggested.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209299, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The real-world data for the effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) with or without ribavirin (RBV) in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection remain limited in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 273 chronic HCV-1 patients receiving 8, 12, or 24 weeks of SOF/LDV with or without RBV were enrolled. The sustained virologic response rate at week 12 off-therapy (SVR12) by evaluable population (EP) and per-protocol population (PP) were assessed for effectiveness. The treatment discontinuation rate due to adverse events (AEs) and serious AE rate were assessed for safety. Baseline patient characteristics and on-treatment HCV viral kinetics associated with SVR12 were analyzed. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates by EP and PP analyses were 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.9%-98.3%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 94.8%-98.8%), respectively. The rates of treatment discontinuation due to AE and serious AE were 0.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Seven patients with true virologic failure were relapsers. In 2 patients who were lost-to follow-up, one expired at treatment week 3 due to pneumonia which was considered not related to treatment, and one declined follow-up at off-therapy week 4. The SVR12 rates were comparable in terms of baseline patient characteristics and viral decline at week 4 of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: SOF/LDV with or without RBV for 8-24 weeks is well tolerated and achieves a high SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-1 infection in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/efeitos adversos
16.
Hepatology ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382583

RESUMO

Smoking interacts with hepatitis B virus (HBV) to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that might be explained by its role in antiviral immunity. We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating role of viral load and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the relation of smoking with HBV-associated HCC risk. Using multiple mediation analyses to analyze data from 209 HCC cases and 1256 controls nested within a cohort of 4841 male HBV carriers, we found that the effect of smoking on the risk of subsequent HCC was substantially mediated through viral load (percent mediated= 31.7%; P=0.0054), and a significant mediation effect by both viral load and ALT was also evidenced. Among the 1143 subjects with repeated measures of viral load and ALT over periods of up to 16 years, we further observed that higher pack-years of smoking was associated with higher viral load, maintenance of a high viral load (>4.39 log copies/mL), severer hepatotoxicity grades, and increased likelihood of ALT ≥80 U/L (odds ratio [95% CI]: 3.14 [1.03-9.64] and 6.06 [1.10-33.25], respectively, for 10-19 and ≥20 pack-years vs. nonsmokers) during follow-up. Furthermore, plasma interferon-γ levels were reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers (interferon-γ-positive rate: 14.9% vs. 28.7%, P<0.0001) at baseline. Smoking was also associated with a reduced natural killer (NK) cell frequency in peripheral blood, characterized by reduced NK function through a systems immunology approach, after long-term follow-up in a subsample (N=171). The combination of smoking and reduced NK cell frequency further increased viral load and the likelihood of occurring ALT ≥80 U/L. Conclusion The data highlight a role of smoking on HBV viral load, underlining the importance of smoking prevention and cessation in hepatitis B management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has entered a new era since the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Numerous clinical trials have shown that treatment response as well as tolerability of DAAs are superior to those of conventional therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. However, the results of clinical trials may not be directly applied to real-world practice. Therefore our study tried to investigate the effectiveness of various DAA regimens in Taiwanese patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 400 CHC patients. The primary endpoint was undetectable HCV RNA (an HCV RNA level of <25 IU/mL) at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12). The results were stratified by different DAAs and HCV genotypes. RESULTS: Genotype 1b was the major genotype (297, 74.3%), followed by genotype 2 (65, 16.3%). The patients were treated according to HCV genotype, clinical practice and reimbursement guidelines. The SVR12 rates of 57 patients treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin, 107 treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin, 60 treated with daclatasvir/asunaprevir with or without ribavirin, 129 treated with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir with or without ribavirin, 12 treated with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin, and 35 treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir were 98.2%, 97.2%, 85.0%, 97.7%, 100.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The overall SVR12 rates in our study were comparable with those in previous pivotal trials. DAAs are generally safe. The interaction of HBV and HCV during DAA therapy and the observation of de novo HCC development and HCC recurrence during or after DAAs warrants additional studies.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13699, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209349

RESUMO

Real-world data regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic sofosbuvir (SOF)-based interferon-free direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain limited. A total of 517 chronic HCV-infected patients receiving 12 or 24 weeks of SOF-based therapies were retrospectively enrolled in 4 academic centers in Taiwan. The rate of sustained virologic response at week 12 off-therapy (SVR12) and that of treatment completion were assessed. The baseline characteristics and on-treatment HCV viral kinetics to predict SVR12 were analyzed. By evaluable population (EP) analysis, the SVR12 rate was 95.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.2-96.9%). The SVR12 was achieved in 29 of 34 patients (85.3%, 95% CI: 69.6-93.6%), 130 of 139 patients (93.5%, 95% CI: 88.2-96.6%), 119 of 124 patients (96.0%, 95% CI: 90.9-98.3%) and 215 of 220 patients (97.7%, 95% CI: 94.8-99.0%) who received SOF in combination with ribavirin (RBV), ledipasvir (LDV), daclatasvir (DCV) and velpatasvir (VEL), respectively. Of 517 patients, 514 (99.4%) completed the scheduled treatment. All 15 patients with true virologic failures were relapsers. Two decompensated cirrhotic patients had on-treatment deaths which were not related to DAAs. All 7 patients who were lost to follow-up had undetectable HCV RNA level at the last visit. The SVR12 rates were comparable in terms of baseline patient characteristics and viral decline at week 4 of treatment. In conclusion, generic SOF-based regimens are well tolerated and provide high SVR12 rates in patients with chronic HCV infection.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243619

RESUMO

Many cell culture and animal models have been used to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and its effects in the liver; these have facilitated development of strategies to control and clear chronic HBV infection. We discuss the advantages and limitations of systems for studying HBV and developing antiviral agents, along with recent advances. New and improved model systems are needed. Cell culture systems should be convenient, support efficient HBV infection, and reproduce responses of hepatocytes in the human body. We also need animals that are fully permissive to HBV infection, convenient for study, and recapitulate human immune responses to HBV and effects in the liver. High-throughput screening technologies could facilitate drug development based on findings from cell and animal models.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267868

RESUMO

For chronic hepatitis B patients, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroclearance signals a transition from an immunologically active phase to an inactive carrier state with a reduction in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels and a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).1 Predictors of HBeAg seroclearance include lower HBV DNA levels, viral genotype, the precore mutation, and higher serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.2.

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