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1.
Analyst ; 145(23): 7654-7661, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966364

RESUMO

Inflammation is a complex biological response of the human body to external or internal stimuli, such as invading pathogens, defective cells, or irritating substances. One important indicator of inflammatory conditions or the progress of various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, connective tissue diseases, sepsis, or Alzheimer's disease, is the concentration level of inflammatory biomarkers, including immunoglobulins, cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Since inflammatory biomarkers are highly correlated with each other, it is important to measure them simultaneously. To enable continuous and dynamic inflammatory biomarker detection, we utilized localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to perform label-free molecule sensing. Since the LSPR sensing mechanism requires only a small sensing area with simplified optical setup, it can be easily integrated with a microfluidic device. To simplify reagent operation complexity, we developed an automated microfluidic control system to control reagent guiding and switching in the immunoassay with less manual processes and potential operation errors. Our results successfully demonstrated multiplex IgG, TNF-α, and CRP measurement with only 60 µL assay volume and 3.5 h assay time. In each test, 20 sensing spot measurements under four different reagent conditions can be performed. Overall, we envision that the LSPR sensor integrated automated microfluidic control system could perform rapid, multiplex, and multiparallel continuous inflammatory biomarker detection, which would be beneficial for various applications, such as immune status monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Biomarcadores , Ouro , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(36): e7912, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885345

RESUMO

Health education is compulsory for patients with chronic and life-threatening disease, especially for those with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to examine the long-term effectiveness of the Diabetes Conversation Map Program (DCMP) among DM patients in Taiwan.A quasi-experimental research design using convenience sampling and nonrandom group assignment was applied to recruit 95 type 2 diabetic subjects from a hospital in Taiwan. In addition to routine care, the experiment group (n = 49) received 7 sessions of DCMP that delivered over 2 months, while the control group (n = 46) received only routine care during the same period. We conducted structured questionnaire survey and reviewed medical record at 3 time points (before DCMP, 3 days after DCMP, and 3 months after DCMP completion) to collect the effectiveness data. The effectiveness was determined using the generalized estimating equation model.We found that improvements in the body mass index, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and diabetic health literacy in the DCMP group compared with controls (all P values <.05), with no significant changes in depressive symptoms. The positive effects were further maintained for 3 months after DCMP.The findings may serve as a reference for helping healthcare professionals provide appropriate interventions to improve adaptation processes and clinical outcomes for DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Anal Chem ; 88(18): 9276-84, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27541571

RESUMO

The post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins by endogenous reactive chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen species is implicated in certain pathological conditions, including diabetes mellitus. Evidence showed that the extents of modifications on a number of proteins are elevated in diabetic patients. Measuring modification on hemoglobin has been used to monitor the extent of exposure. This study develops an assay for simultaneous quantification of the extent of chlorination, nitration, and oxidation in human hemoglobin and to examine whether the level of any of these modifications is higher in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic mellitus patients. This mass spectrometry-based assay used the bottom-up proteomic strategy. Due to the low amount of endogenous modification, we first characterized the sites of chlorination at tyrosine in hypochlorous acid-treated hemoglobin by an accurate mass spectrometer. The extents of chlorination, nitration, and oxidation of a total of 12 sites and types of modifications in hemoglobin were measured by nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under the selected reaction monitoring mode. Relative quantification of these PTMs in hemoglobin extracted from blood samples shows that the extents of chlorination at α-Tyr-24, nitration at α-Tyr-42, and oxidation at the three methionine residues are significantly higher in diabetic patients (n = 19) than in nondiabetic individuals (n = 18). After excluding the factor of smoking, chlorination at α-Tyr-24, nitration at α-Tyr-42, and oxidation at the three methionine residues are significantly higher in the nonsmoking diabetic patients (n = 12) than in normal nonsmoking subjects (n = 11). Multiple regression analysis performed on the combined effect of age, body-mass index (BMI), and HbA1c showed that the diabetes factor HbA1c contributes significantly to the extent of chlorination at α-Tyr-24 in nonsmokers. In addition, age contributes to oxidation at α-Met-32 significantly in all subjects and in nonsmokers. These results suggest the potential of using chlorination at α-Tyr-24-containing peptide to evaluate protein damage in nonsmoking type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hemoglobinas/química , Metionina/análise , Nitratos/análise , Compostos Nitrosos/análise , Tirosina/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Halogenação , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/metabolismo , Compostos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tirosina/metabolismo
4.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 28(12): 2377-89, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26517015

RESUMO

Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are oxoaldehydes derived from the degradation of glucose-protein conjugates and from lipid peroxidation, and they are also present in the environment. This study investigated the site-specific reaction of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with the amino acid residues on human hemoglobin using a shot-gun proteomic approach with nanoflow liquid chromatography/nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS). In human hemoglobin incubated with glyoxal, modification on 8 different sites, including lysine residues at α-Lys-11, α-Lys-16, α-Lys-56, ß-Lys-17, ß-Lys-66, ß-Lys-144, and arginine residues at α-Arg-92 and ß-Arg-30, was observed using a data-dependent scan. In methylglyoxal-treated hemoglobin, there were specific residues, namely, α-Arg-92, ß-Lys-66, ß-Arg-30, and ß-Lys-144, forming carboxyethylation as well as the dehydrated product hydroimidazolone at α-Arg-92 and ß-Arg-30. These lysine and arginine modifications were confirmed by accurate mass measurement and the MS(2) and MS(3) spectra. The most intensive signal of each modified peptide was used as the precursor ion to perform the product ion scan. The relative extent of modifications was semiquantified simultaneously relative to the native reference peptide by nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS under the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The extent of these modifications increased dose-dependently with increasing concentrations of glyoxal or methylglyoxal. Six out of the eight modifications induced by glyoxal and three out of the six modifications induced by methylglyoxal were detected in hemoglobin freshly isolated from human blood samples. The relative extent of modification of these post-translational modifications was quantified in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 20) and in nondiabetic control subjects (n = 21). The results show that the carboxymethylated peptides at α-Lys-16, α-Arg-92, ß-Lys-17, ß-Lys-66, and the peptide at α-Arg-92 with methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone are significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal individuals (p value <0.05). This report identified and quantified glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-modified hemoglobin peptides in humans and revealed the association of the extent of modifications at specific sites with T2DM. Only one drop (10 µL) of fresh blood is needed for this assay, and only an equivalent of 1 µg of hemoglobin was analyzed by the nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS-SRM system. These results suggest the potential use of these specific post-translational modifications in hemoglobin as feasible biomarker candidates to assess protein damage induced by glyoxal and methylglyoxal.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glioxal/toxicidade , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Feminino , Glioxal/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/sangue , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Padrões de Referência , Fumar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 307(2): R179-83, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24808497

RESUMO

Parameters of glucose dynamics recorded by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help in the control of glycemic fluctuations, which is important in diabetes management. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has recently been developed to measure the complexity of physical and physiological time sequences. A reduced MSE complexity index indicates the increased repetition patterns of the time sequence, and, thus, a decreased complexity in this system. No study has investigated the MSE analysis of glucose dynamics in diabetes. This study was designed to compare the complexity of glucose dynamics between the diabetic patients (n = 17) and the control subjects (n = 13), who were matched for sex, age, and body mass index via MSE analysis using the CGMS data. Compared with the control subjects, the diabetic patients revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the mean (diabetic patients 166.0 ± 10.4 vs. control subjects 93.3 ± 1.5 mg/dl), the standard deviation (51.7 ± 4.3 vs. 11.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl), and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (127.0 ± 9.2 vs. 27.7 ± 1.3 mg/dl) of the glucose levels; and a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the MSE complexity index (5.09 ± 0.23 vs. 7.38 ± 0.28). In conclusion, the complexity of glucose dynamics is decreased in diabetes. This finding implies the reactivity of glucoregulation is impaired in the diabetic patients. Such impairment presenting as an increased regularity of glycemic fluctuating pattern could be detected by MSE analysis. Thus, the MSE complexity index could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Entropia , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e94155, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24714221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although much attention has been focused on the association between chronic hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, there is no data regarding the risk of ischemic stroke after a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) attack. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke in type 2 DM patients after an HHS attack. METHODS: From 2004 to 2008, this retrospective observational study was conducted on a large cohort of Taiwanese using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 19,031 type 2 DM patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of HHS and 521,229 type 2 DM patients without an HHS diagnosis. Using the propensity score generated from logistic regression models, conditional on baseline covariates, we matched 19,031 type 2 DM patients with an HHS diagnosis with the same number from the comparison cohort. The one-year cumulative rate for ischemic stroke was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. After adjusting covariates, Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute the adjusted one-year rate of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Of the patients sampled, 1,810 (9.5%) of the type 2 DM patients with HHS and 996 (5.2%) of the comparison cohort developed ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for developing ischemic stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 1.8 (95% C.I., 1.67 to 1.95, P<0.001) for type 2 DM patients with HHS compared with those without HHS. CONCLUSION: Although DM is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 DM patients that have suffered a HHS attacks are at an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared with those without HHS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Coma Hiperglicêmico Hiperosmolar não Cetótico/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 54: 116-20, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent case reports suggest that zolpidem usage may be associated with infection events. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of infection events in patients with sleep disturbance taking zolpidem in a full 3-year follow-up study. METHODS: A total of 17474 subjects with a diagnosis of sleep disturbance in 2002 and 2003 were identified, of whom 5882 had used zolpidem after recruitment. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the 3-year infection event-free rates for the patients using zolpidem and those not using zolpidem after adjusting for confounding factors. To maximize case ascertainment, only patients hospitalized for infection events were included. RESULTS: A total of 646 patients had had infection events, 331 (5.63%) of whom had been taking zolpidem and 315 (2.71%) had not. Zolpidem usage increased the risk of infection events. After adjustments for gender, age, co-morbidities, and other medications, patients using zolpidem with cDDD 1-28, 29-84, and >84 had hazard ratios of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32-2.11), 1.91 (95% CI, 1.47-2.49) and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.32-1.98) respectively, compared with patients who did not use zolpidem. CONCLUSIONS: Zolpidem increased the risk of infection events in sleep disturbance patients. This increased risk of infection should be explained to sleep disturbance patients, and prescriptions of zolpidem to chronic insomnia patients should be restricted.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Infecções/epidemiologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem , Zolpidem
8.
PLoS One ; 8(8): e71817, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23951249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD). The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90). For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15). For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26). For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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