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1.
EMBO Rep ; : e52835, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196465

RESUMO

Tissue-resident macrophages in white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamically adapt to the metabolic changes of their microenvironment that are often induced by excess energy intake. Currently, the exact contribution of these macrophages in obesity-driven WAT remodeling remains controversial. Here, using a transgenic CD169-DTR mouse strain, we provide new insights into the interplay between CD169+ adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and their surrounding WAT microenvironment. Using targeted in vivo ATM ablation followed by transcriptional and metabolic WAT profiling, we found that ATMs protect WAT from the excessive pathological remodeling that occurs during obesity. As obesity progresses, ATMs control not only vascular integrity, adipocyte function, and lipid and metabolic derangements but also extracellular matrix accumulation and resultant fibrosis in the WAT. The protective role of ATMs during obesity-driven WAT dysfunction supports the notion that ATMs represent friends, rather than foes, as has previously assumed.

2.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196914

RESUMO

Similar to that of other enteroviruses, the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71) occurs on rearranged membranous structures called replication organelles (ROs). Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III (PI4KB), which is required by enteroviruses for RO formation, yields phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) on ROs. PI4P then binds and induces conformational changes in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to modulate RdRp activity. Here, we targeted 3D polymerase, the core enzyme of EV71 ROs, and found that the host factor Annexin A2 (ANXA2) can interact with 3D polymerase and promote the replication of EV71. Then, an experiment showed that the annexin domain of ANXA2, which possesses membrane-binding capacity, mediates the interaction of ANXA2 with EV71 3D polymerase. Further research showed that ANXA2 is localized on ROs and interacts with PI4KB. Overexpression of ANXA2 stimulated the formation of PI4P, and the level of PI4P was decreased in ANXA2-knockout cells. Furthermore, ANXA2, PI4KB, and 3D were shown to be localized to the viral RNA replication site, where they form a higher-order protein complex, and the presence of ANXA2 promoted the PI4KB-3D interaction. Altogether, our data provide new insight into the role of ANXA2 in facilitating formation of the EV71 RNA replication complex.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308951

RESUMO

A water-soluble copper complex with a diamine-tripyridine ligand was synthesized successfully and well characterized. It was found to be catalytically active for the water oxidation reaction under basic conditions. Based on the electrochemical test result, this copper complex displayed an apparent rate constant (kcat) of 0.81 s-1 for the oxygen evolution reaction in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 11.0. More importantly, the copper complex remained stable over 3 h of a bulk electrolysis experiment at 1.60 V with a Faradaic efficiency of 90.7% for O2 evolution, and the decrement of current density was only 1.9%. These results suggest that the pentadentate copper complex is an efficient and durable homogeneous Earth-abundant electrocatalyst for water oxidation.

4.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109411, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289348

RESUMO

Oxytocin is a well-known neurohypophysial hormone that plays an important role in behavioral anxiety and nociception. Two major forms of long-term potentiation, presynaptic LTP (pre-LTP) and postsynaptic LTP (post-LTP), have been characterized in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both pre-LTP and post-LTP contribute to chronic-pain-related anxiety and behavioral sensitization. The roles of oxytocin in the ACC have not been studied. Here, we find that microinjections of oxytocin into the ACC attenuate nociceptive responses and anxiety-like behavioral responses in animals with neuropathic pain. Application of oxytocin selectively blocks the maintenance of pre-LTP but not post-LTP. In addition, oxytocin enhances inhibitory transmission and excites ACC interneurons. Similar results are obtained by using selective optical stimulation of oxytocin-containing projecting terminals in the ACC in animals with neuropathic pain. Our results demonstrate that oxytocin acts on central synapses and reduces chronic-pain-induced anxiety by reducing pre-LTP.

5.
Genome ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253086

RESUMO

Cotton (Gossypium L.) is the most important fiber crop worldwide. Here, transcriptome analysis was conducted on developing fibers of a G. mustelinum introgression line, IL9, and its recurrent parent, PD94042, at 17 and 21 days post-anthesis (dpa). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of PD94042 and IL9 were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the annotated DEGs were rich in two main biological processes and two main molecular functions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis likewise showed that the annotated DEGs were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In total, 52 DEGs were selected as candidate genes based on comparison of the DEGs and GO function annotation information. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis results for 12 randomly selected DEGs were consistent with transcriptome analysis. SNP identification based on G. mustelinum chromatin segment introgression showed that 394 SNPs were identified in 268 DEGs, and two genes with known functions were identified within fiber strength quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions or near the confidence intervals. We identified 52 key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in a G. mustelinum introgression line and provided significant insights into the study of cotton fiber quality improvement.

6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9663208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257822

RESUMO

The study indicates inflammation and autophagy are closely related to neural apoptosis in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In the study, we investigate the effects and mechanisms of the extracts of Angelica sinensis and Cinnamomum cassia (AC) from oriental medicinal foods on inflammatory and autophagic pathways in rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Three doses of AC extract were, respectively, administered for 7 days. It suggests that AC extract treatment ameliorated scores of motor and sensory functions and ratio of glucose utilization in thalamic lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of Iba1 was decreased and CD206 was increased by immunofluorescence staining, western blotting results showed expressions of TLR4, phosphorylated-IKKß and IκBα, nuclear P65, NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 were downregulated, and Beclin 1 and LC3 II were upregulated. Low concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were presented by ELISA assay. Additionally, caspase 8 and cleaved caspase-3 expressions and the number of TUNEL positive cells in ipsilateral hemisphere were decreased, while the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was increased. Simultaneously, in LPS-induced BV2 cells, it showed nuclear P65 translocation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by AC extract-contained cerebrospinal fluid, and its intervened effects were similar to TLR4 siRNA treatment. Our study demonstrates that AC extract treatment attenuates inflammatory response and elevates autophagy against neural apoptosis, which contributes to the improvement of neurological function poststroke. Therefore, AC extract may be a novel neuroprotective agent by regulation of inflammatory and autophagic pathways for ischemic stroke treatment.

7.
Neuroradiology ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains diffusion-weighted imaging (RESOLVE-DWI) in differentiating parotid tumors (PTs) with different histological types. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 123 patients with 145 histologically proven PTs who underwent both RESOLVE-DWI and DCE-MRI were enrolled including 51 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), 52 Warthin's tumors (WTs), 27 other benign neoplasms (OBNs), and 15 malignant tumors (MTs). Quantitative parameters of DCE-MRI (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions were calculated and analyzed. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn-Bonferroni correction, logistic regression analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: PAs exhibited a lowest Ktrans among these four PTs. WTs demonstrated the highest Kep and lowest Ve values. WTs and MTs showed lower ADCmin values than PAs and OBNs. The combination of Kep and Ve provided 98.1% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 98.7% accuracy for differentiating WTs from the other three PTs. The ADCmin cutoff value of ≤ 0.826 yielded 80.0% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity, and 90.3% accuracy for the differentiation of MTs from PAs and OBNs. Ktrans with a cutoff value of ≤ 0.185 achieved a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 84.3, 70.4, and 79.5%, respectively, for discriminating PAs from OBNs. CONCLUSION: The combination of quantitative DCE-MRI and RESOLVE-DWI is beneficial for characterizing four histological types of PTs.

8.
PLoS Biol ; 19(7): e3001347, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280189

RESUMO

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) famously follows annual cycles, with incidence elevation in the fall and spring. Should some version of cyclic annual pattern be expected from other psychiatric disorders? Would annual cycles be similar for distinct psychiatric conditions? This study probes these questions using 2 very large datasets describing the health histories of 150 million unique U.S. citizens and the entire Swedish population. We performed 2 types of analysis, using "uncorrected" and "corrected" observations. The former analysis focused on counts of daily patient visits associated with each disease. The latter analysis instead looked at the proportion of disease-specific visits within the total volume of visits for a time interval. In the uncorrected analysis, we found that psychiatric disorders' annual patterns were remarkably similar across the studied diseases in both countries, with the magnitude of annual variation significantly higher in Sweden than in the United States for psychiatric, but not infectious diseases. In the corrected analysis, only 1 group of patients-11 to 20 years old-reproduced all regularities we observed for psychiatric disorders in the uncorrected analysis; the annual healthcare-seeking visit patterns associated with other age-groups changed drastically. Analogous analyses over infectious diseases were less divergent over these 2 types of computation. Comparing these 2 sets of results in the context of published psychiatric disorder seasonality studies, we tend to believe that our uncorrected results are more likely to capture the real trends, while the corrected results perhaps reflect mostly artifacts determined by dominantly fluctuating, health-seeking visits across a given year. However, the divergent results are ultimately inconclusive; thus, we present both sets of results unredacted, and, in the spirit of full disclosure, leave the verdict to the reader.

9.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283246

RESUMO

The cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) acts as a center linker of electron transport between photosystem I and II in oxygenic photosynthesis. PetM, one of the eight subunits of the cyt b6f complex, is a small hydrophobic subunit at the outside periphery, the functional mechanism of which remains to be elucidated in higher plants. In this work, we found that unlike the PetM mutant in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the Arabidopsis thaliana PetM mutant showed a bleached phenotype with yellowish leaves, block of photosynthetic electron transport and loss of photo-autotrophy, similar to the Arabidopsis PetC mutant. Although PetM is relatively conserved between higher plants and cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PetM could not rescue the PetM-knockout phenotype in Arabidopsis. We provide evidence that the Synechocystis PetM did not stably bind to the Arabidopsis cyt b6f complex. Based on these results, we suggest that PetM is required in Arabidopsis to maintain function of the cyt b6f complex, likely through its close link with core subunits to form a tight "fence" which stabilizes the core of the complex.

10.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 137: 106036, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that M-PDT is painless and effective in precancerous skin diseases treatment. However, whether M-PDT is effective in cSCC and the underlying inhibitory mechanism remains enigmatic. OBJECTIVE: We aims to unveil the effect of M-PDT on cSCC cell proliferation and the regulatory effect of M-PDT on MAPK signaling. METHODS: The proliferation and migration of cSCC cells were revealed by CCK8 assay, tumor sphere formation assay and scratch assay respectively. The expression of MAPKs was examined by western blot. The activity of PP2A and PP5 was regulated by inhibitor and recombinant adenoviruses. RESULTS: Here, we show that M-PDT inhibits cSCC cell proliferation by activating p-JNK, p-p38 and inhibiting p-Erk1/2, as well as activation of PP2A and inactivation of PP5. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PP2A conferred resistance to M-PDT's suppression on p-Erk1/2 and attenuated inhibitory effects of M-PDT on cell proliferation whereas overexpression of wild-type PP2A showed the contrary results. Pharmacological inhibition of PP5 potentiated M-PDT's elevation on p-JNK and strengthened inhibitory effects of M-PDT on cell proliferation whereas overexpression of wild-type PP5 exhibited the contrary results. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that M-PDT inhibits cSCC cell proliferation via targeting PP2A/PP5-mediated MAPK signaling pathway.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6961-6966, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283605

RESUMO

The halide perovskite X-ray detector can meet the urgent needs of low-dose medical imaging by X-rays. However, there is still a pressing challenge in lacking robust methods for large-scale fabrication of high-quality perovskite films with tunable thickness. Here we report a laminated fabrication of polycrystalline MAPbI3 by using solvent-free liquid perovskite molten-salt (PMS), that offers reduced toxic issue, scalable fabrication, and highly tunability in film thickness. Nylon membrane was chosen as a scaffold for the infiltration of PMS, which simultaneously acts as a physical barrier to suppress the ionic migration in the MAPbI3-nylon composite (denoted as MAPbI3-LLP). The enhanced material properties result in good stability and high performance of X-ray detectors that show low detection limit and high sensitivity. Additionally, single gamma-ray photon detection was realized by MAPbI3-LLP detectors. The promising performance characteristics of such polycrystalline detectors can accelerate the adoption of polycrystalline perovskites in X-ray imaging and gamma-ray detection.

12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(6): 443-453, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284852

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the changes in the cytokine profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients undergoing antiviral treatment. Methods: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients were treated with Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and entecavir (ETV). Clinical biochemistry and cytokines were detected at baseline and every 3 months. Results: In all, 200 patients completed 48 weeks of treatment, 100 in the PEG-IFN group and 100 in the ETV group. During 3-6 months of treatment, compared with baseline, the PEG-IFN group showed a significant decrease in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) ( P < 0.001) and a significant increase in interferon-alpha 2(IFN-α2) ( P < 0.001). In the ETV group, IL-10 and TGF-ß1 decreased significantly ( P < 0.001). After 3 months, the levels of IFN-α2, IL-17A, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in the PEG-IFN group were significantly higher than those in the ETV group ( P < 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and TGF-ß3 were significantly lower than those in the ETV group ( P < 0.01). After 6 months, the levels of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the PEG-IFN group were significantly higher than those in the ETV group ( P < 0.01), while the levels of IL-6 and TGF-ß3 were significantly lower than those in the ETV group ( P < 0.01). Compared with ETV, PEG-IFN had higher HBeAg and HBsAg disappearance rates. Conclusion: During antiviral therapy, a change in the cytokine profile occurred; in the aspect of immune control and functional cure, PEG-IFN was significantly better than ETV.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287882

RESUMO

Schwann cells provide essential physical and chemical support for neurons and play critical roles in the peripheral nervous system. To acquire an enhanced understanding of the genetic characteristics of Schwann cells, we analyzed single-cell transcriptional profiling of Schwann cells in neonatal rat sciatic nerves, ordered the pseudotemporal states of Schwann cells, and determined the magnitude of RNA velocity vectors as well as cell cycle stages of Schwann cell subtypes. We discovered the cellular heterogeneity of Schwann cells in neonatal rat sciatic nerves, revealed the dynamic changes of Schwann cell subtypes, and pointed out the differentiation trajectory from Timp3- and Col5a3-expressing Schwann cell subtype 3 to other Schwann cell subtypes. The functional interpretation further indicated that subtype 3 Schwann cells display genetic signatures of DNA replication and the acquisition of mesenchymal traits. Our study presents a transcriptional summarization of the differentiation states of Schwann cell subtypes in neonatal rat sciatic nerves at single-cell resolution and may serve as a foundation for a deeper comprehension of the involvement of Schwann cells in the development and regeneration of peripheral nerves.

14.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293353

RESUMO

Persistent chronic inflammation and delayed epithelialization lead to stalled healing in diabetic ulcers (DUs). PDL1 shows anti-inflammatory and proliferative activities in healing defects, while its function in DU pathogenesis remains unknown. Lower levels of PDL1 were found in DU tissues, and exogenous PDL1 has therapeutic effects in healing process by accelerating re-epithelialization and attenuating prolonged inflammation, which contributed to the delayed wound closure. We detected the downstream effectors of PDL1 using transcriptional profiles, and screened the interacting proteins by IP-MS and Co-IP assays. The biological functions of eIF3I-PDL1-IRS4 axis were tested both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we validated the expression levels of eIF3I, PDL1, and IRS4 in DU tissues from human clinical samples by immunohistochemistry staining. Mechanistically, PDL1 binds to eIF3I and promotes cutaneous diabetic wound healing by downregulating IRS4. These findings identify the eIF3I-PDL1-IRS4 axis contributes to wound healing defects, which can serve as a potential therapeutic target in DUs.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296328

RESUMO

Agaricus bitorquis (Quél.) Sacc. Chaidam (ABSC) is a wild edible fungus uniquely found in the Tibet Plateau. ABSC is rich in polysaccharides that are considered biologically active. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of enhancing exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by ABSC in shake flask culture by supplementing the fermentation medium with anthocyanin extract. Different concentrations of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM) anthocyanin crude extract were tested on ABSC fermentation. The activity of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucose mutase (PGM), and phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), enzymes presumably involved in EPS synthesis by ABSC, was determined. ABSC transcriptomic profile in response to the presence of anthocyanins during fermentation was also investigated. LRM anthocyanin crude extract (0.06 mg/mL) was most effective in increasing EPS content and mycelial biomass (by 208.10% and 105.30%, respectively, P < 0.01). The activity of PGI, PGM, and PMI was increased in a medium where LRM anthocyanin extract and its main components (proanthocyanidins and petunia anthocyanin) were added. RNA-Seq analysis showed that 349 genes of ABSC were differentially expressed during fermentation in the medium containing anthocyanin extract of LRM; 93 genes were up-regulated and 256 genes down-regulated. From gene ontology enrichment analysis, differentially expressed genes were mostly assigned to carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction categories. Collectively, LRM anthocyanins extract positively affected EPS production and mycelial biomass during ABSC fermentation. Our study provides a novel strategy for improving EPS production and mycelial growth during ABSC liquid submerged fermentation.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 101, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eradication of infectious disease is the sanctified public health and sustainable development goal around the world. MAIN BODY: Three antimalarial barriers were developed to control imported malarial cases, and an effective surveillance strategy known as the "1-3-7 approach" was developed to eliminate malaria from the Chinese population. From 2011 to 2019, 5254 confirmed malaria cases were reported and treated in Yunnan Province, China. Among them, 4566 cases were imported from other countries, and 688 cases were indigenous from 2011 to 2016. Since 2017, no new local malarial case has been reported in China. Thus, malaria has been completely eliminated in Yunnan Province. However, malaria is detected in overseas travellers on a regular basis, such as visitors from neighbouring Myanmar. CONCLUSION: Hence, the strategies should be further strengthened to maintain a robust public health infrastructure for disease surveillance and vector control programs in border areas. Such programs should be supported technically and financially by the government to avert the possibility of a malarial resurgence in Yunnan Province.

17.
Behav Brain Res ; : 113486, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302872

RESUMO

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that can occur throughout an individual's lifespan. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) protocol is currently the most commonly used to develop an animal model of depression. Due to the variable duration and procedure of CUMS, it is difficult to reproduce and explore the mechanism of CUMS-induced depression effectively. In the present study, the CUMS-induced behavioral phenotypes were assessed in male C57BL/6J mice at the age of 9-18 weeks. The mice stressed for 3-8 weeks exhibited lower body weight as well as longer immobility time of forced swim and tail suspension test compared to control mice. Moreover, lessening and impairment of hippocampal neurons was found in stressed mice at the age of 18 weeks, which was correlated with increased relative mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines BDNF, Htr1a, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. Nevertheless, no difference between stressed and control mice was observed neither in the sucrose preference nor in the open field test (except for vertical activity in OFT) at the age of 18 weeks. These findings reveal that 3-8 weeks of chronic stress could induce depression-like alterations in male C57BL/6J mice and the behavioral adaptation of aged mice might fail to the availability of the depression model.

18.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 1031906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239619

RESUMO

The tight relationship between ferroptotic cell death and immune response demonstrated by recent studies enlightened us to detect the underlying roles of ferroptosis-related long noncoding RNAs (frlncRNAs) in the tumor microenvironment of bladder cancer (BCa). We collected 121 ferroptosis regulators from previous studies. Based on their expression values, 408 cases with BCa were clustered. The patients in different clusters showed diverse immune infiltration, immunotherapy response, and chemotherapy effectiveness, revalidating the tight correlation with ferroptosis and tumor immunity. Through differential, coexpression, Kaplan-Meier, Lasso, and Cox analysis, we developed a 22-lncRNA-pair signature to predict the prognosis of BCa based on gene-pair strategy, where there is no need for definite expression values. The areas under the curves are all over 0.8. The risk model also helped to predict immune infiltration, immunotherapeutic outcomes, and chemotherapy sensitivity. Totally, the prognostic assessment model indicated a promising predictive value, also providing clues for the interaction between ferroptosis and BCa immunity.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(28): 10751-10759, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232039

RESUMO

Mononuclear Pd(I) species are putative intermediates in Pd-catalyzed reactions, but our knowledge about them is limited due to difficulties in accessing them. Herein, we report the isolation of a Pd(I) amido complex, [(BINAP)Pd(NHArTrip)] (BINAP = 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthalene, ArTrip = 2,6-bis(2',4',6'-triisopropylphenyl)phenyl), from the reaction of (BINAP)PdCl2 with LiNHArTrip. This Pd(I) amido species has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, electron paramagnetic resonance, and multiedge Pd X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Theoretical study revealed that, while the three-electron-two-center π-interaction between Pd and N in the Pd(I) complex imposes severe Pauli repulsion in its Pd-N bond, pronounced attractive interligand dispersion force aids its stabilization. In accord with its electronic features, reactions of homolytic Pd-N bond cleavage and deprotonation of primary amines are observed on the Pd(I) amido complex.

20.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 208: 106260, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Owing to the variable shapes, large size difference, uneven grayscale and dense distribution among biological cells in an image, it is still a challenging task for the standard Mask R-CNN to accurately detect and segment cells. Especially, the state-of-the-art anchor-based methods fail to generate the anchors of sufficient scales effectively according to the various sizes and shapes of cells, thereby hardly covering all scales of cells. METHODS: We propose an adaptive approach to learn the anchor shape priors from data samples, and the aspect ratios and the number of anchor boxes can be dynamically adjusted by using ISODATA clustering algorithm instead of human prior knowledge in this work. To solve the identification difficulties for small objects owing to the multiple down-samplings in a deep learning-based method, a densification strategy of candidate anchors is presented to enhance the effects of identifying tinny size cells. Finally, a series of comparative experiments are conducted on various datasets to select appropriate a network structure and verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. RESULTS: The results show that the ResNet-50-FPN combining the ISODATA method and densification strategy can obtain better performance than other methods in multiple metrics (including AP, Precision, Recall, Dice and PQ) for various biological cell datasets, such as U373, GoTW1, SIM+ and T24. CONCLUSIONS: Our adaptive algorithm could effectively learn the anchor shape priors from the various sizes and shapes of cells. It is promising and encouraging for a real-world anchor-based detection and segmentation application of biomedical engineering in the future.

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