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1.
Nano Lett ; 21(4): 1628-1635, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555185

RESUMO

Remote manipulation of a micromachine under an external magnetic field is significant in a variety of applications. However, magnetic manipulation requires that either the target objects or the fluids should be ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic. To extend the applicability, we propose a versatile optical printing technique termed femtosecond laser-directed bubble microprinting (FsLDBM) for on-demand magnetic encoding. Harnessing Marangoni convection, evaporation flow, and capillary force for long-distance delivery, near-field attraction, and printing, respectively, FsLDBM is capable of printing nanomaterials on the solid-state substrate made of arbitrary materials. As a proof-of-concept, we actuate a 3D polymer microturbine under a rotating magnetic field by implementing γ-Fe2O3 nanomagnets on its blade. Moreover, we demonstrate the magnetic encoding on a living daphnia and versatile manipulation of the hybrid daphnia. With its general applicability, the FsLDBM approach provides opportunities for magnetic control of general microstructures in a variety of applications, such as smart microbots and biological microsurgery.

2.
Opt Lett ; 46(3): 520-523, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528399

RESUMO

We developed a simple multi-foci-shaped femtosecond pulsed (MFSFP) method for processing circular cross section waveguides in transparent materials. With this flexible processing method, the focus energy distribution can be designed freely and arbitrarily, and single-mode waveguides with cross section circularity better than 96.0% were achieved. The mode shape difference (1.93%) of circular waveguides is smaller than the difference (7.01%) of normal elliptical waveguides. The coupling abilities of the two kinds of waveguides were investigated with three-dimensional (3D) directional couplers in both experiments and theoretical simulations. The coupling coefficient difference of circular waveguides in vertical and horizontal coupling directions was ∼0.01mm-1, which was smaller than 0.33mm-1 of normal waveguides. The circular symmetric waveguides will play an important role in large-scale high-intensity 3D photonic integrated circuits.

3.
Opt Lett ; 46(3): 536-539, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528403

RESUMO

We systematically studied femtosecond laser-inscribed self-organized nanogratings and geometric phase elements such as a polarization diffraction focusing lens and Q-plate in sapphire crystal. Besides the void structures observed in the focus, nanogratings with periods of 150~300 nm were observed, depending on a nanoslit that took the role of a seeding effect by localized light field enhancement. The non-polarized refractive index change and birefringence were measured with values around 1∼2×10-3 and 6×10-4, respectively. Based on the laser-inscribed form birefringence, a geometric phase lens and Q-plate were successfully demonstrated in sapphire with high imaging and a focusing effect. We expect that our findings may promote the understanding of laser-induced nanogratings in bulk and potential applications in geometric phase elements.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 32(13): 135208, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427201

RESUMO

Band renormalization effects play a significant role for two-dimensional (2D) materials in designing a device structure and customizing their optoelectronic performance. However, the intrinsic physical mechanism about the influence of these effects cannot be revealed by general steady-state studies. Here, band renormalization effects in organic superacid treated monolayer MoS2, untreated monolayer MoS2 and few-layer MoS2 are quantitatively analyzed by using broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In comparison with the untreated monolayer, organic superacid treated monolayer MoS2 maintains a direct bandgap structure with two thirds of carriers populated at K valley, even when the initial exciton density is as high as 2.05 × 1014 cm-2 (under 400 nm excitations). While for untreated monolayer and few-layer MoS2, many-particle induced band renormalizations lead to a stronger imbalance for the carrier population between K and Q valleys in k space, and the former experiences a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition when the initial exciton density exceeds 5.0 × 1013 cm-2 (under 400 nm excitations). Those many-particle induced band renormalization processes further suggest a band-structure-controlling method in practical 2D devices.

5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158095

RESUMO

An active surface with an on-demand tunable topography holds great potential for various applications, such as reconfigurable metasurfaces, adaptive microlenses, soft robots and four-dimensional (4D) printing. Despite extensive progress, to achieve refined control of microscale surface structures with large-amplitude deformation remains a challenge. Moreover, driven by the demand of constructing a large area of microstructures with increased complexity-for instance, biomimetic functional textures bearing a three-dimensional (3D) gradient-novel strategies are highly desired. Here, we develop an active surface with a dynamic topography and three-tier height gradient via a strain-tunable mismatching-bonding process. Pneumatic actuation allows for rapid, reversible and uniform regulation of surface microstructures at the centimeter scale. The in-situ modulation facilitates large-amplitude deformation with a maximum tuning range of 185 µm. Moreover, the structural gradient can be modulated by programming the strain value of the bonding process. With our strategy, another two types of surfaces with a four-tier gradient and without gradient were also prepared. By providing active modulation and design flexibility of complicated microstructures, the proposed strategy would unlock more opportunities for a wealth of novel utilizations.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4536, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913189

RESUMO

Natural musculoskeletal systems have been widely recognized as an advanced robotic model for designing robust yet flexible microbots. However, the development of artificial musculoskeletal systems at micro-nanoscale currently remains a big challenge, since it requires precise assembly of two or more materials of distinct properties into complex 3D micro/nanostructures. In this study, we report femtosecond laser programmed artificial musculoskeletal systems for prototyping 3D microbots, using relatively stiff SU-8 as the skeleton and pH-responsive protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as the smart muscle. To realize the programmable integration of the two materials into a 3D configuration, a successive on-chip two-photon polymerization (TPP) strategy that enables structuring two photosensitive materials sequentially within a predesigned configuration was proposed. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a pH-responsive spider microbot and a 3D smart micro-gripper that enables controllable grabbing and releasing. Our strategy provides a universal protocol for directly printing 3D microbots composed of multiple materials.


Assuntos
Biomimética/métodos , Compostos de Epóxi/efeitos da radiação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Robótica/métodos , Soroalbumina Bovina/efeitos da radiação , Biomimética/instrumentação , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/efeitos da radiação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lasers , Polimerização/efeitos da radiação , Polímeros/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Robótica/instrumentação , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
7.
Front Chem ; 8: 525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656183

RESUMO

The past decades have seen growing research interest in developing efficient fabrication techniques for preparing bioinspired graphene surfaces with superwettability. Among the various fabrication methods, laser fabrication stands out as a prominent one to achieve this end and has demonstrated unique merits in the development of graphene surfaces with superwettability. In this paper, we reviewed the recent advances in this field. The unique advantages of laser fabricated graphene surfaces have been summarized. Typical graphene surfaces with superwettability achieved by laser fabrication, including superhydrophobic graphene surfaces, oil/ water separation, fog collection, antibacterial surfaces, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and desalination, have been introduced. In addition, current challenges and future perspectives in this field have been discussed. With the rapid progress of novel laser physical/ chemical fabrication schemes, graphene surfaces with superwettability prepared by laser fabrication may undergo sustained development and thus contribute greatly to the scientific research and our daily life.

8.
Opt Lett ; 45(11): 3058, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479458

RESUMO

This publisher's note contains corrections to Opt. Lett.45, 2580 (2020).OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.391232.

9.
Opt Lett ; 45(9): 2580-2583, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356821

RESUMO

Here a continuous axial-spiral phase microplate (CAsPP), based on combining a logarithmic axicon and a spiral phase plate, was proposed for generating high-quality higher-order Bessel vortex beams. The novel optical component implemented via femtosecond laser direct writing possesses compact geometry and unique optical properties. The CAsPP with a diameter of 80 µm possesses a controllable long focus ranging from 50 to 600 µm and exhibits a good self-healing ability after free transmission of about 45 µm. Unique optical properties were demonstrated in both experiments and simulations, which were well matched to each other. This Letter provides new opportunities for applications in integrated optics, optical trapping, laser machining, and information reconstruction.

10.
Opt Lett ; 45(9): 2684-2687, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356847

RESUMO

We propose a precise diamond micromachining method based on ultraviolet femtosecond laser direct writing and a mixed acid heating chemical treatment. The chemical composition of the attached clusters generated during laser ablation and their effects on morphologies were investigated in experiments. The averaged roughness of pristine and processed regions reduced to 0.64 nm and 9.4 nm from 20.5 nm and 37.4 nm, respectively. With this method, spiral zone plates (SZPs) were inscribed on a high-pressure high-temperature diamond surface as micro-optical vortex generators. The optical performances of the diamond SZPs were characterized in both experiments and simulations, which were very consistent with each other. This chemical auxiliary processing method will contribute greatly to the wide application of integration and miniaturization of diamond surface optical components.

11.
Opt Lett ; 45(7): 1862-1865, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236018

RESUMO

We propose UV-IR femtosecond laser hybrid lithography for the efficient printing of complex on-chip waveguides, which offers good performance in terms of processing efficiency and accuracy. With this three-dimensional printing technology, waveguides with complex cross-section shapes, such as owls and kittens, can be easily fabricated with an efficiency increased by 1500% (for ${6}\;\unicode{x00B5} {\rm m}\; \times \;{6}\;\unicode{x00B5} {\rm m}$6µm×6µm). In addition, a circular cross-section waveguide with an extremely low birefringence and complex ${8} \times {8}$8×8 random walk networks were quickly customized, which implies that in the design and preparation of the large-scale optical chips, the proposed maskless method allows for the preparation of highly customized devices.

12.
Light Sci Appl ; 9: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194955

RESUMO

Nanoscale surface texturing, drilling, cutting, and spatial sculpturing, which are essential for applications, including thin-film solar cells, photonic chips, antireflection, wettability, and friction drag reduction, require not only high accuracy in material processing, but also the capability of manufacturing in an atmospheric environment. Widely used focused ion beam (FIB) technology offers nanoscale precision, but is limited by the vacuum-working conditions; therefore, it is not applicable to industrial-scale samples such as ship hulls or biomaterials, e.g., cells and tissues. Here, we report an optical far-field-induced near-field breakdown (O-FIB) approach as an optical version of the conventional FIB technique, which allows direct nanowriting in air. The writing is initiated from nanoholes created by femtosecond-laser-induced multiphoton absorption, and its cutting "knife edge" is sharpened by the far-field-regulated enhancement of the optical near field. A spatial resolution of less than 20 nm (λ/40, with λ being the light wavelength) is readily achieved. O-FIB is empowered by the utilization of simple polarization control of the incident light to steer the nanogroove writing along the designed pattern. The universality of near-field enhancement and localization makes O-FIB applicable to various materials, and enables a large-area printing mode that is superior to conventional FIB processing.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(9): 10107-10117, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046483

RESUMO

Natural compound eyes provide the inspiration for developing artificial optical devices that feature a large field of view (FOV). However, the imaging ability of artificial compound eyes is generally based on the large number of ommatidia. The lack of a tunable imaging mechanism significantly limits the practical applications of artificial compound eyes, for instance, distinguishing targets at different distances. Herein, we reported zoom compound eyes that enable variable-focus imaging by integrating a deformable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microlens array (MLA) with a microfluidic chamber. The thin and soft PDMS MLA was fabricated by soft lithography using a hard template prepared by a combined technology of femtosecond laser processing and wet etching. As compared with other mechanical machining strategies, our combined technology features high flexibility, efficiency, and uniformity, as well as designable processing capability, since the size, distribution, and arrangement of the ommatidia can be well controlled during femtosecond laser processing. By tuning the volume of water injected into the chamber, the PDMS MLA can deform from a planar structure to a hemispherical shape, evolving into a tunable compound eye of variable FOV up to 180°. More importantly, the tunable chamber can functionalize as the main zoom lens for tunable imaging, which endows the compound eye with the additional capability of distinguishing targets at different distances. Its focal length can be turned from 3.03 mm to infinity with an angular resolution of 3.86 × 10-4 rad. This zoom compound eye combines the advantages of monocular eyes and compound eyes together, holding great promise for developing advanced micro-optical devices that enable large FOV and variable-focus imaging.

14.
Opt Lett ; 45(3): 636-639, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004271

RESUMO

We report fabrication of silica convex microlens arrays with controlled shape, size, and curvature by femtosecond laser direct writing. A backside etching in dye solution was utilized for laser machining high-fidelity control of material removal and real-time surface cleaning from ablation debris. Thermal annealing was applied to reduce surface roughness to 3 nm (rms). The good optical performance of the arrays was confirmed by focusing and imaging tests. Complex 3D micro-optical elements over a footprint of $ 100 \times 100\;\unicode{x00B5}{{\rm m}^2} $100×100µm2 were ablated within 1 h (required for practical applications). A material removal speed of $ 120\;\unicode{x00B5}{{\rm m}^3}/{\rm s} $120µm3/s ($ 6 \times {10^5} \;{{\rm nm}^3}/{\rm pulse} $6×105nm3/pulse) was used, which is more than an order of magnitude higher compared to backside etching using a mask projection method. The method is applicable for fabrication of micro-optical components on transparent hard materials.

15.
Opt Lett ; 44(21): 5149-5152, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674953

RESUMO

We demonstrate a versatile method for fast and flexible fabrication of either one or an array of microlenses. Multi-foci axial intensity distribution generated by a phase pattern displayed on a spatial light modulator irradiates silica, causing ablation and its internal modification. The following wet etching step defines the diameter r, while the radius of curvature R (hence, the focal length f) is maintained the same. As a result, the numerical aperture NA=r/f changes from 0.2 to 0.4 for the same pulse energy (but different number of multi-foci) during ablation. An isotropic wet etching of silica becomes highly anisotropic for the initial stages of etching following the irradiated pattern. Subsequent evolution of the shape is governed by an isotropic silica etch and forms a spherical lens. This method can be extended to other materials and geometries of micro-optical elements.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623407

RESUMO

Birefringence of 3 × 10 - 3 is demonstrated inside cross-sectional regions of 100 µ m, inscribed by axially stretched Bessel-beam-like fs-laser pulses along the c-axis inside sapphire. A high birefringence and retardance of λ / 4 at mid-visible spectral range (green) can be achieved using stretched beams with axial extension of 30-40 µ m. Chosen conditions of laser-writing ensure that there are no formations of self-organized nano-gratings. This method can be adopted for creation of polarization optical elements and fabrication of spatially varying birefringent patterns for optical vortex generation.

17.
Opt Lett ; 44(10): 2454-2457, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090705

RESUMO

A dry-etching-assisted femtosecond laser lithography technology is proposed to in-site fabricate micro-optical components with an ultra-smooth three-dimensional continuous profile on a non-planar substrate. Owing to the nanometric resolution of femtosecond laser multi-photon polymerization and dry etching, smooth micro-optical components can be realized on hard materials with surface roughness of approximately 1.5 nm. With flexible and arbitrary designability of femtosecond laser lithography, various high-quality micro-optical components are realized on sapphire. These results indicate that dry-etching-assisted femtosecond laser lithography has promising potential for versatile fabrication of arbitrary ultra-smooth micro/nanostructures on hard materials.

18.
ACS Nano ; 13(4): 4041-4048, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677287

RESUMO

Strategies that can make general materials smart are highly desired for developing artificial shape-morphing systems and devices. However, at present, it still lacks universal technologies that enable designable prototyping of deformable 3D micro-nanostructures. Inspired by natural automation systems, for instance, tendrils, leaves, and flowers deform dynamically under external stimuli by varying internal turgor, we report a dual-3D femtosecond laser processing strategy for fabricating smart and deformable 3D microactuators based on general photopolymers. By programming the size and distributions of voxels at the nanoscale, both the 3D profile and the 3D internetwork of a general photopolymer could be tailored in a controlled manner; thus, 3D microstructures encoded with precisely tailored networks could perform predictable deformations under certain stimuli. Using this dual-3D fabrication approach, energetic 3D microactuators, including a smart microflower, a responsive microvale, and an eight-finger microclaw, that permit controllable manipulation have been successfully developed.

19.
Adv Mater ; 31(5): e1806386, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536794

RESUMO

Muscles and joints make highly coordinated motion, which can be partly mimicked to drive robots or facilitate activities. However, most cases primarily employ actuators enabling simple deformations. Therefore, a mature artificial motor system requires many actuators assembled with jointed structures to accomplish complex motions, posing limitations and challenges to the fabrication, integration, and applicability of the system. Here, a holistic artificial muscle with integrated light-addressable nodes, using one-step laser printing from a bilayer structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) and graphene oxide compounded with gold nanorods (AuNRs), is reported. Utilizing the synergistic effect of the AuNRs with high plasmonic property and wavelength-selectivity as well as graphene with good flexibility and thermal conductivity, the artificial muscle can implement full-function motility without further integration, which is reconfigurable through wavelength-sensitive light activation. A biomimetic robot and artificial hand are demonstrated, showcasing functionalized control, which is desirable for various applications, from soft robotics to human assists.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Grafite/química , Ouro/química , Luz , Modelos Anatômicos , Nanotubos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Robótica , Condutividade Térmica
20.
Opt Lett ; 43(13): 3116-3119, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957793

RESUMO

In this Letter, we report mirror-rotation-symmetrical single-focus spiral zone plates (MS-SZPs) fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing. The novel optical element can generate a single-focus vortex beam, owing to the element's complicated continuous surface. The MS-SZP surface possesses reverse mirror-rotation symmetry, which ensures that the transfer element has the same surface morphology as the original element. Both the transfer element and original element have good optical properties. The single-focus behavior was investigated by a microscopic imaging system and found to be in good agreement with theoretical simulation results. The innovative optical component is expected to be widely used in optical communication, quantum computation, optical manipulation, and other fields.

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