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1.
ACS Omega ; 7(2): 2064-2073, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071894

RESUMO

To develop a rapid detection method for nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, this experiment sets up a set of point-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging systems to qualitatively distinguish and quantitatively and positionally analyze samples spiked with a single nonprotein nitrogen adulterant and samples spiked with a mixture of nine nonprotein nitrogen adulterants at different concentrations (5 × 10-3 to 2.000%, w/w). The results showed that for samples spiked with single nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, the number of pixels corresponding to the adulterant in the region of interest increased linearly with an increase in the analyte concentration, the average coefficient of determination (R 2) was above 0.99, the minimum detection concentration of nonprotein nitrogen adulterants reached 0.010%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the predicted concentration was less than 6%. For the sample spiked with a mixture of nine nonprotein nitrogen adulterants, the standard curve could be used to accurately predict the additive concentration when the additive concentration was greater than 1.200%. The detection method established in this study has good accuracy, high sensitivity, and strong stability. It provides a method for technical implementation of real-time and rapid detection of adulterants in milk powder at the port site and has good application and promotion prospects.

2.
Physiol Genomics ; 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073209

RESUMO

Increased levels of oxidative stress have been found with heart failure. Whether failing hearts express antioxidant and detoxification enzymes have not been addressed systematically. Nrf2 gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Using RNA-seq dataset from explanted hearts of 37 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 13 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), and 14 non-failure (NF) donors as a control, we addressed whether failing hearts change the expression of Nrf2, its negative regulator Keap1, and antioxidant or detoxification genes. Significant increases in the ratio of Nrf2 to Keap1 were found to associate with DCM or ICM. Antioxidant genes showed decreased expression in both types of heart failure, including NQO1, SOD1, GPX3, GPX4, GSR, PRDX1, and TXNRD1. Detoxification enzymes, GCLM and EPHX1, also showed decreased expression, whereas the CYP1B1 transcript was elevated in both DCM and ICM. The genes encoding metal binding protein ferritin were decreased whereas 5 out of 12 metallothionein genes showed elevated expression. Our finding on Nrf2 gene expression has been validated by meta-analysis of 7 independent datasets of microarray or RNA-seq for differential gene expression in DCM and ICM from NF controls. In conclusion, minor elevation of Nrf2 gene expression is not coupled to increases in antioxidant and detoxification genes, supporting an impairment of Nrf2 signaling in patients with heart failure. Decreases in multiple antioxidant and detoxification genes are consistent with the observed increases of oxidative stress in failing hearts.

3.
J Control Release ; 342: 280-294, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016919

RESUMO

Malignant tumor is still a leading threat to human health. Despite the rapid development of targeted therapeutic strategies, any treatment specifically acting on single target would inevitably suffer from tumor resistance, largely due to the genetic instability and variability of tumor cells. Thus, traditional therapies such as broad-spectrum chemotherapy would certainly occupy an important position in clinical cancer therapy. Nevertheless, most chemotherapeutic drugs have long been criticized for unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy with severe off-target toxicity. Although several chemotherapeutic nanomedicines with improved therapeutic safety have been applied in clinics, the therapeutic outcomes still do not fulfill expectation. To address this challenge, enormous efforts have been devoted to developing novel nano-formulations for efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Herein, we aim to outline the latest progression in the emerging nanomedicines of paclitaxel (PTX), with special attention to the functional nanocarriers, self-delivering prodrug-nanoassemblies and combination nanotherapeutics of PTX. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of these functional PTX nanomedicines in clinical translation are spotlighted.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114699, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610419

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBT) is classical prescriptions, which contains two Traditional Chinese Medicines of Angelicae sinensis radix and Astragali radix. According to the preliminary work of our laboratory and numerous studies, it has been found that DBT has a therapeutic effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of DBT on kidney disease in diabetic mice and further explore its protective mechanism. METHODS: DN mice model was induced by high-fat fodder and streptozotocin (STZ). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of 6 compounds in DBT was carried out by HPLC, including calycosin-7-glucoside, ferulic acid, ononin, calycosin, formononetin, and levostilide A. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining was used to determine the degree of kidney pathological damage. The UPLC-Q Exactive MS technique was used to analyze the lipids metabolism profile of kidneys samples and multiple statistical analysis methods were used to screen and identify biomarkers. Transcriptomics analyses were carried out using RNAseq. The possible molecular mechanism was unraveled by network pharmacology. RESULTS: Thirty-one significantly altered lipid metabolites were identified in the model group comparing with the control group. DBT improved aberrant expression of several pathways related to lipidomics, including glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. Comprehensive analysis indicated that DBT intervention reduced the content of Cers, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines in mouse kidneys by downregulating the transcription level of Degs2 and Cers, reducing lipid accumulation and promoting Akt phosphorylation by upregulating the expression of Acers and Pdk1. Network pharmacology analysis showed that components in DBT, such as kaempferol, ferulic acid and astragaloside IV, could be responsible for the pharmacological activity of DN by regulating the AGE-RAGE, PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that DBT may improve DN by affecting insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and lipid accumulation.

5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130735, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365247

RESUMO

Green and black teas are regarded to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity, however it is not clear which tea performs better in body weight control. In this study, aiming to eliminate cultivar variation, green tea phenolics (GTP) were oxidized by tyrosinase to obtain oxidized tea phenolics (OTP). Thereafter, their anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice were compared. The results showed that despite their distinctive phenolic profiles, GTP and OTP exerted similar anti-obesity properties after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Furthermore, cecal microbiota profiling exhibited comparable modulatory effects of GTP and OTP on multiple bacterial taxa, including Parabacteroides distasonis, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila, which were strongly associated with obesity related indexes. Putative bacterial function profiling implicated that both GTP and OTP might regulate the lipid metabolism similarly. Collectively, the oxidation of GTP did not influence the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects to any large extent.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Chá , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902556

RESUMO

It has been reported that some mutations in the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may predict the outcome of the virus infection. However, evolutionary data derived from long-term longitudinal analysis of entire HBV genomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) remain rare. In this study, serum samples were collected from asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers from a long-term prospective cohort. The entire HBV genome was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced using NGS. Twenty-eight time series serum samples from nine subjects were successfully analysed. The Shannon entropy (Sn) ranged from 0 to 0.89, with a median value of 0.76, and the genetic diversity (D) ranged from 0 to 0.013, with a median value of 0.004. Intrahost HBV viral evolutionary rates ranged from 2.39E-04 to 3.11E-03. Double mutations at nt1762(A â†’ T) and 1764(G â†’ A) and a stop mutation at nt1896(G â†’ A) were seen in all sequences from subject BO129 in 2007. However, in 2019, most sequences were wild type at these positions. Deletions between nt 2920-3040 were seen in all sequences from subject TS115 in 2007 and 2013 but these were not present in 2004 or 2019. Some sequences from subject CC246 had predicted escape substitutions (T123N, G145R) in the surface protein in 2004, 2013 and 2019 but none of the sequences from 2007 had these changes. In conclusion, HBV mutations may revert to wild type in natural infection. Clinicians should be wary of predicting long-term prognoses on the basis of the presence of mutations.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 115: 245-255, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sequelae and cognitive profiles resulting from severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. METHODS: 294 HFMD cases were included in a retrospective follow-up study. Physical examinations were conducted. The Chinese Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV) was used to assess intelligence. RESULTS: 58 mild HFMD cases and 99 severe HFMD cases with mild CNS involvement did not present any neurological sequelae. In comparison, the sequelae incidence for severe HFMD with more severe CNS complications was 50.0%. The proportion of full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) impairment was 45.0%. In the 2:6-3:11 age group, severe HFMD with more severe CNS complications and lower maternal education level were risk factors for verbal comprehension disorder. Urban-rural residence and lower paternal education level were risk factors for FSIQ disorder. Furthermore, in the 4:0-6:11 age group, severe HFMD with more severe CNS complication was a risk factor for visual spatial disorder and fluid reasoning disorder. Lower paternal education level was a risk factor for FSIQ disorder. CONCLUSION: Early assessment and intervention among severe HFMD patients with more severe CNS involvement at a very young age will prove beneficial for their future performance.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/complicações , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 179: 133-143, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921930

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction is the most common form of acute coronary syndrome. Blockage of a coronary artery due to blood clotting leads to ischemia and subsequent cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis. Revascularization by coronary artery bypass graft surgery or non-surgical percutaneous coronary intervention combined with pharmacotherapy is effective in relieving symptoms and decreasing mortality. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from damaged mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and inflammation. Impairment of mitochondria is shown as decreased metabolic activity, increased ROS production, membrane permeability transition, and release of mitochondrial proteins into the cytoplasm. Oxidative stress activates Nrf2 transcription factor, which in turn mediates the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn 2) and proteasomal genes. Increased expression of Mfn2 and inhibition of mitochondrial fission due to decreased Drp1 protein by proteasomal degradation contribute to mitochondrial hyperfusion. Damaged mitochondria can be removed by mitophagy via Parkin or p62 mediated ubiquitination. Mitochondrial biogenesis compensates for the loss of mitochondria, but requires mitochondrial DNA replication and initiation of transcription or translation of mitochondrial genes. Experimental evidence supports a role of Nrf2 in mitophagy, via up-regulation of PINK1 or p62 gene expression; and in mitochondrial biogenesis, by influencing the expression of PGC-1α, NResF1, NResF2, TFAM and mitochondrial genes. Oxidative stress causes Nrf2 activation via Keap1 dissociation, de novo protein translation, and nuclear translocation related to inactivation of GSK3ß. The mechanism of Keap 1 mediated Nrf2 activation has been hijacked for Nrf2 activation by small molecules derived from natural products, some of which have been shown capable of mitochondrial protection. Multiple lines of evidence support the importance of Nrf2 in protecting mitochondria and preserving or renewing energy metabolism following tissue injury.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 752939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869660

RESUMO

Coronary artery reperfusion is essential for the management of symptoms in the patients with myocardial ischemia. However, the benefit of reperfusion often comes at an expense of paradoxical injury, which contributes to the adverse events, and sometimes heart failure. Reperfusion is known to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We address whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces the ROS and alleviates reperfusion injury by improving the clinical outcomes. A literature search for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out in the five biomedical databases for testing the effects of NAC in patients undergoing coronary artery reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis, or coronary artery bypass graft. Of 787 publications reviewed, 28 RCTs were identified, with a summary of 2,174 patients. A meta-analysis using the random effects model indicated that NAC administration during or prior to the reperfusion procedures resulted in a trend toward a reduction in the level of serum cardiac troponin (cTn) [95% CI, standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.80 (-1.75; 0.15), p = 0.088, n = 262 for control, 277 for NAC group], and in the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation [95% CI, relative risk (RR) 0.57 (0.30; 1.06), p = 0.071, n = 484 for control, 490 for NAC group]. The left ventricular ejection fraction or the measures of length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) or in hospital displayed a positive trend that was not statistically significant. Among the nine trials that measured ROS, seven showed a correlation between the reduction of lipid peroxidation and improved clinical outcomes. These lines of evidence support the potential benefit of NAC as an adjuvant therapy for cardiac protection against reperfusion injury.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 753133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869661

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to clarify the potential predictive significance of Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in assessing the poor prognosis of critically ill patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Detailed clinical data were extracted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III database after gaining access and building the local platform. The 30- and 90-day and hospital all-cause mortalities of the patient was the primary outcome, and the readmission rate and the occurrence of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACEs) were the secondary outcomes. the Cox proportional hazard model and Logistic regression analysis were selected to reveal the relationship between SII level and the research outcome. Further, the propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed to improve the reliability of results by reducing the imbalance across groups. Results: There were a total of 4,606 subjects who passed the screening process and entered the subsequent analysis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, heart rate, and albumin, etc., the high level of SII was independently associated with 30- and 90-day and hospital mortalities (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR, 95% CIs: 1.23, 1.04-1.45; 1.21, 1.06-1.39; 1.26, 1.05-1.50) and the incidence of MACEs (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: OR, 95% CI: 1.39, 1.12-1.73) in critically ill patients with CHF, but no significant correlation was found between SII and the readmission rate. Consistently, patients with high SII level still presented a significantly higher short-term mortality than patients with low SII in the PSM subset. Conclusion: In critically ill patients with CHF, high level of SII could effectively predict high 30- and 90-day and hospital mortalities, as well as the high risk of occurrence of MACEs.

11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 126: 104986, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856483

RESUMO

Although the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has excellent comprehensive properties, its non-antibacterial and low wear-resistant limit the wide application in the field of artificial joint materials. In this paper, Nano-ZnO was generated in situ on the surface of PEEK powder by one-step hydrothermal method, which improved the binding force of Nano-ZnO and PEEK matrix. Then the PEEK-based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending with the synthesized Nano-ZnO-PEEK powders and PEEK powders. The microstructure, mechanical, biological and tribological properties of PEEK-based nanocomposites were studied. The results showed that the compressive strength of PEEK-based nanocomposites can reach up to 319.2 ± 2.4 MPa. Both PEEK and PEEK-based nanocomposites were non-toxic to cells. Meanwhile, PEEK-based nanocomposites showed good antibacterial activity against E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the antibacterial activity was better with the increase of Nano-ZnO content. In addition, when the Nano-ZnO content was 5%, the wear rate of PEEK-based nanocomposites was about 68% lower than that of pure PEEK materials. Thus, PEEK-based nanocomposites has a dual function of good antibacterial property and excellent wear resistance.

12.
Public Health Nurs ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To translate, cross-cultural adapt and psychometrically validate the Children's Environmental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (ChEHK-Q) and the Children's Environmental Health Skills Questionnaire (ChEHS-Q) for community nurses in China. DESIGN: This was an observational, cross-sectional study undertaken in two phases: (1) translation and cultural adaptation process; (2) psychometric evaluation. SAMPLE: A total of 294 nurses from 23 community health service centers in cities of Henan province participated in the study. METHODS: These two questionnaires were analysed psychometrically based on IRT. ChEHK-Q was analyzed based on basic Rasch Model, and ChEHS-Q based on Rating Scale Model (RSM). EFA, expert validity, threshold analysis, retest reliability, item and individual reliability were used to evaluate the psychometric attributes of these two questionnaires. RESULTS: The Infit and Outfit values for most items are within reasonable limits. The person reliability of ChEHK-Q was 0.85 and the item reliability was 0.97. The person reliability of ChEHS-Q was 0.94 and the item reliability was 0.93. The test-retest reliability of the ChEHK-Q was 0.85 and the ChEHS-Q was 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: ChEHK-Q and ChEHS-Q are reliable and valid instruments with satisfactory psychometric properties for nurses in China. Future studies should recruit a more representative sample to verify the applicability of these two questionnaires.

13.
Plant Cell ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850198

RESUMO

Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important lipid essential for several aspects of plant development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. We previously suggested that submergence induces PA accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the molecular mechanism underlying PA-mediated regulation of submergence-induced hypoxia signaling remains unknown. Here, we showed that in Arabidopsis, loss of the phospholipase D (PLD) proteins PLDα1 and PLDδ leads to hypersensitivity to hypoxia, but increased tolerance to submergence. This enhanced tolerance is likely due to improvement of PA-mediated membrane integrity. PA bound to the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in vitro and contributed to hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6 in vivo. Moreover, mpk3 and mpk6 mutants were more sensitive to hypoxia and submergence stress compared with wild type, and fully suppressed the submergence-tolerant phenotypes of pldα1 and pldδ mutants. MPK3 and MPK6 interacted with and phosphorylated RELATED TO AP2.12 (RAP2.12), a master transcription factor in the hypoxia signaling pathway, and modulated its activity. In addition, MPK3 and MPK6 formed a regulatory feedback loop with PLDα1 and/or PLDδ to regulate PLD stability and submergence-induced PA production. Thus, our findings demonstrate that PA modulates plant tolerance to submergence via both membrane integrity and MPK3/6-mediated hypoxia signaling in Arabidopsis.

14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(11): 3636-3647, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900542

RESUMO

Pure drug-assembled nanomedicines (PDANs) are currently under intensive investigation as promising nanoplatforms for cancer therapy. However, poor colloidal stability and less tumor-homing ability remain critical unresolved problems that impede their clinical translation. Herein, we report a core-matched nanoassembly of pyropheophorbide a (PPa) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Pure PPa molecules are found to self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs), and an amphiphilic PEG polymer (PPa-PEG2K) is utilized to achieve core-matched PEGylating modification via the π‒π stacking effect and hydrophobic interaction between the PPa core and the PPa-PEG2K shell. Compared to PCL-PEG2K with similar molecular weight, PPa-PEG2K significantly increases the stability, prolongs the systemic circulation and improves the tumor-homing ability and ROS generation efficiency of PPa-nanoassembly. As a result, PPa/PPa-PEG2K NPs exert potent antitumor activity in a 4T1 breast tumor-bearing BALB/c mouse xenograft model. Together, such a core-matched nanoassembly of pure photosensitizer provides a new strategy for the development of imaging-guided theragnostic nanomedicines.

15.
Int J Nurs Pract ; : e13034, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935249

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to describe the experiences of nurses and other health care workers who were infected with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: An empirical phenomenological approach was used. Sixteen participants were recruited in Wuhan using purposive and snowball sampling. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted by telephone in February 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed following Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: Two themes emerged: (1) Intense emotional distress since becoming infected. Participants were fearful of spreading the virus to family and overwhelmed by a lack of information, experienced uncertainty and worried about treatment, felt lonely during isolation and reported moral distress about inadequate health care staffing. (2) Coping strategies were needed. They tried their best to address negative psychological reactions using their professional knowledge and gaining support from others and community resources. CONCLUSIONS: Preparedness for catastrophic events and providing timely and accurate information are major considerations in government policy development, related to pandemics and adequacy of health care personnel. Mental health resources and support, both short- and long-term should be anticipated for health care providers to alleviate their fear and anxiety.

16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936210

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease that mainly infects small ruminants. To date, PPR has been confirmed in more than 70 countries. In China, PPR has occurred in more than 20 provinces and cities. In this study, based on geographic information system (GIS), spatial analysis was used to examine the occurrence of PPR in China from 2007 to 2018. The results showed that PPR first occurred in Tibet and gradually spread to other provinces. The outbreaks of PPR were concentrated in 2014, 2015 and 2018. Combining climate factors with the maximum entropy (MaxEnt), the results also suggested that the potential risk areas of PPR outbreaks in China were mainly Jiangsu, Yunnan and Anhui in Southeast China. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was used to analyse the evolutionary relationship between the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in China and the global ones, and it was found that the one in China had a close genetic relationship with the one in Mongolia, India and Bangladesh. Understanding and forecasting the distribution of PPR in China will help policymakers develop targeted monitoring plans. Likewise, analysing the global PPRV epidemic trends will play an important role in the elimination and prevention of PPR.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28229, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common neurological disease under the effect of multiple factors. Although some literature analyzes and summarizes the risk factors of CSVD, the conclusions are controversial. To determine the risk factors of CSVD, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: Five authoritative databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wan Fang were searched to find related studies published before November 30, 2020. The literature was screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used RevMan 5.4 software to analyze the data after extraction. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies involving 16,587 participants were included. The meta-analysis showed that hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.22-4.49), diabetes (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.59-2.90), hyperlipidemia (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.40), smoking (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15-1.89) were significantly related to the risk of lacune, while drinking (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.87-1.23) was not. And hypertension (OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.65-4.14), diabetes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 2.65-1.84), hyperlipidemia (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.08-3.25), smoking (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04) were significantly related to the risk of white matter hyperintensity, while drinking (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.97-2.05) was not. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are risk factors of CSVD, and we should take measures to control these risk factors for the purpose of preventing CSVD.

18.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828929

RESUMO

'Dancong' tea is a famous traditional Oolong tea. In order to keep the original taste of "ancient tea trees", most of the 'Dancong' tea plants are planted in a single plant pattern without pruning. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term non-pruning on main quality constituents in 'Dancong' tea. The results showed that the contents of free amino acids, chlorophylls, and floral-honey aromatic substances in tea leaves of unpruned tea plants were higher than those in every year pruned tea plants, while the catechin content in leaves of pruned tea plants was higher than that in leaves of unpruned tea plants. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that most enzymes involved in biosynthesis of catechins were downregulated in leaves of unpruned tea plants. Five proteins involved in chlorophyll metabolism and 12 proteins related to photosynthesis were upregulated, and the results suggested that higher chlorophyll content and more efficient photosynthetic energy conversion may be important for the higher accumulation of special quality components in leaves of unpruned tea plants. The findings of this study will advance our understanding of the mechanism of formation of different metabolites in leaves of unpruned and pruned tea plants.

19.
Chem Biodivers ; : e2100713, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797035

RESUMO

Litchi grown in the upper Yangtze River region have the advantage of being late-maturing owing to the geographical location. This study aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics, nutritional values, phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of 16 litchi cultivars grown in the upper Yangtze River region. Litchi grown in this region had total soluble solid and ascorbic acid contents comparable with those of cultivars grown in other locations. The total polyphenol contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the phenolic profiles were determined using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Nine phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in this study. Naringin, rutin and p-coumaric acid were the major phenolic compounds in all the litchi cultivars. Statistical analysis of all the physiochemical results was performed using principal component analysis. Our results indicated that litchi grown in the upper Yangtze River region not only showed the late-maturity characteristic but were also good dietary sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidants. In particular, 'Fei Zi Xiao' and 'Jing Gang Hong Nuo', characterized by high polyphenol contents and high antioxidant capacities, were of superior comprehensive quality. This study provides important information for the development of late-maturing litchi industry.

20.
Peptides ; 147: 170688, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irisin, a novel myokine, has been identified to exert a series of favorable effects on metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. This study aimed to explore the effects of chronic irisin administration on blood pressure and the related underlying mechanisms in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats received a continuous subcutaneous infusion of irisin or saline for 4 weeks. Compared with ZL counterparts, ZDF rats reported higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), severer renal inflammation, increased oxidative stress, and impaired natriuresis and diuresis; they also had an elevated AT1R expression in renal cortex and augmented candesartan-induced natriuresis and diuresis. The irisin administration lowered SBP, improved diuretic and natriuretic effects, and reduced renal inflammation and oxidative stress in ZDF rats, along with decreased renal expression of AT1R and restored candesartan-mediated natriuresis and diuresis. Further experiments showed that irisin inhibited the translocation of NF-κB from the cytosol to the nucleus and the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, which may contribute to the reduced AT1R expression and function. CONCLUSIONS: Irisin administration serves an anti-hypertensive role in ZDF rats by alleviating renal inflammation and oxidative stress, reducing the expression and impact of AT1R, and restoring natriuresis and diuresis. The underlying mechanism may involve the irisin-induced inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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