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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427245

RESUMO

In light of the surging research interest in disposable electronics, great demands have been imposed on compact power sources. Herein, a paper-based zinc-air battery that takes advantage of a hollow channel structure is reported. Unlike conventional paper-based metal-air batteries and fuel cells that tightly immobilize the electrode on the paper channel, a hollow channel layer containing potassium hydroxide solution electrolyte is sandwiched between the electrodes and paper channel layer. This novel zinc-air battery is capable of delivering a peak power density of 102 mW cm-2, surpassing state-of-the-art paper-based power sources. The superior power density originates from the boosted electrochemically active surface area of the cathode, which enhances the oxygen reduction reaction kinetics.

2.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(2): e4696, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421261

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has revolutionized the microbial identification, especially in the clinical microbiology laboratories. However, although numerous studies on the identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS have been reported previously, few studies focused on the effect of pretreatment on identification. Due to the sensitivity of MALDI-TOF MS, different preparation methods will lead to changes in microbial protein fingerprints. In this study, for evaluating a more appropriate preparation method for the clinical microbiology identification, we analyzed the performance of three sample preparation methods on two different MALDI-TOF MS systems. A total of 321 clinical isolates, 127 species, were employed in the comparative study of three different sample preparation methods including the direct colony transfer method (DCTM), the on-target extraction method (OTEM), and the in-tube extraction method (ITEM) compatible with MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were tested on the Microflex LT and Autof ms1000 devices. The spectra were analyzed using the Bruker biotyper and the Autof ms1000 systems. The results were confirmed by 16/18S rRNA sequencing. Results reveal that the accuracies of isolates identification by Bruker biotyper successfully identified 83.8%, 96.0%, and 95.3% after performing the DCTM, OTEM, and ITEM, respectively, while the Autof ms1000 identified 97.5%, 100%, and 99.7%. These data suggested that the identification rates are comparable among the three preparation methods using the Autof ms1000 and Bruker microflex LT systems but the OTEM is more suitable and necessary for clinical application, owing to its key advantages of simplicity and accuracy.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 124909, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434789

RESUMO

To solve the problem of organic and inorganic arsenic species contamination in drinking water and/or wastewater, porous biochar-supported MnFe2O4 magnetic nanocomposite (BC-MF) was successfully fabricated and used as an excellent adsorbent for simultaneous removal of p-ASA and As(V) from water environment. This obtained BC-MF displayed remarkable adsorption performance for both p-ASA and As(V) removal at acidic and neutral pH (3-7), and di-anionic and mono-anionic species of p-ASA and As(V) facilitated the adsorption process. Specifically, BC-MF exceeded some reported adsorbents, and the adsorption capacities of p-ASA and As(V) were approximately 105 and 90 mg/g at a 10 µg/L equilibrium concentration. Satisfactory adsorption behavior including adsorption isotherms, competitive ions, humic acid (HA), and regeneration/reusability property in single and binary systems demonstrated the BC-MF can improve the potential application for arsenic-containing wastewater remediation. Proposed adsorption mechanism indicated that electrostatic interaction and surface complexation were involved the p-ASA and As(V) immobilization, whereas hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions may also contribute to the p-ASA removal. Additionally, the prominent sequestration p-ASA and As(V) performance in different water matrix and fixed-bed column studies indicated that BC-MF was a promising nanocomposite for simultaneously removal of organic and inorganic arsenic species in practical wastewater treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444481

RESUMO

We report an electrochemical method for coupling biomass-derived C5/C6 compounds to value-added fuel precursors.  Using only 2% of equivalent charges, 2-methylfuran (2-MF) was oxidized to yield a cation radical, which readily reacted with 3-hexene-2,5-dione, a derivate of 2,5-dimethylfuran, to produce 3-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)hexane-2,5-dione.  The product was converted to 4-ethylnonane (a component of biodiesel/jet fuel) in a single step in excellent yield. Importantly, the reaction was not sensitive to oxygen, and a trace amount of water was found to promote the reaction. Detailed mechanistic studies confirmed the proposed reaction pathways.  Key to the mechanism is the radical generation that is enabled by electrochemistry. The radical is regenerated at the end of a reaction cycle to ensure chain propagation for an average of ca. 47 times, resulting in an apparent Faradaic efficiency of 4,700%.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111730, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396061

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a common environmental pollutant in nature. Cu-poisoning can cause liver damage and erythrocytes hemolysis. To evaluate the effect of CuSO4 poisoning on the morphological and functional characteristics of goat red blood cells. Five 10-14-month-old goats were selected for jugular vein blood sampling to obtain erythrocytes, and then the erythrocytes were processed with different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µmol/L) of CuSO4 for 48 h, and 40 µmol/L doses CuSO4 incubated for different time (12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h) to process erythrocytes. We observed the changes in erythrocyte morphology through scanning electron microscopy, and detected the antioxidant function and activities of three ATPases. Additionally, biological properties were examined from the perspectives of phospholipids and membrane protein components, permeability fragility, and fluidity in erythrocytes. We found that after CuSO4 treatment, the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes decreased, which was manifested as increased MDA content and decreased CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px activities (p < 0.05). In addition, we also found that erythrocyte fluidity decreased, osmotic fragility increased, membrane phospholipid percentage and protein composition changes abnormally, and Na+/K+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities decreased (p < 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that CuSO4 exposure causes hemolysis of goat erythrocytes through oxidative stress to the structure and function of erythrocytes, showing a dose-time effect.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabras/metabolismo , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragilidade Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410002

RESUMO

Rhodamine B (RhB) is used in various industries and its effluent must be effectively treated because of its harmful and carcinogenic nature. In this work, ionothermally synthesized Cu-doped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Cu-Fe3O4 MNPs) were found to be a highly efficient heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for complete decolorization of the RhB solution with H2O2 at pH ~ 7 and 25 °C. The effects of the catalyst loading, initial concentrations of RhB and H2O2, co-existing natural organic matter and inorganic salts, reaction temperature, and radical scavengers on the catalytic performance of Cu-Fe3O4 were investigated. Monte-Carlo simulations revealed that copper dopants facilitated the activation of H2O2 via adopting a terminal end-on adsorption mode and increased collision frequency by bringing the RhB molecules closer to H2O2 and the magnetite surface. These theoretical calculations provide new insight into the promotional effect of copper dopants in magnetite at molecular level.

7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 5, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399996

RESUMO

The aim was to compare the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) and the UK National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) guidelines for the detection of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women. The NOF guidelines had higher accuracy than the UK guidelines for spinal radiography examination. PURPOSE: To compare the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) and the UK National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) guidelines for the detection of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 255 community-dwelling postmenopausal women was conducted in Hunan province in 2017. Demographic and clinical characteristics and risk factors were recorded through questionnaires. Height and weight were measured using standard methods, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed by radiography using semi-quantitative morphometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 9.4%. Women with vertebral fractures were significantly older and shorter, had higher years-since menopause and height loss values and lower BMD and T-scores at the femoral neck and total hip, and were more likely to have a history of previous fractures. The sensitivity and specificity of the NOF guidelines were 91.7% and 39.8%, respectively, while the NOGG guidelines had lower sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (32.5%). However, a higher percentage had indications for radiography in the 50-64 years age group according to the NOGG guidelines, while a higher percentage had indications for radiography in the ≥ 65 year group according to the NOF guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The NOF guidelines were better than the NOGG guidelines for spinal radiography examination in the Chinese postmenopausal women.

8.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1-10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR), a newly developed blood biomarker, has been reported to have prognostic value in several types of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of AAPR in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as initial therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 445 patients with newly diagnosed HCC undergoing RFA as initial therapy. A series of survival analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of AAPR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. An AAPR-based nomogram was constructed, and its predictive performance was validated. RESULTS: Patients with a low AAPR had a significantly reduced recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with those with a high AAPR. AAPR was found to be an independent prognostic indicator and showed superior discrimination efficacy than other liver function indices. The AAPR-based nomogram had a concordance index value of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.79) in the training cohort and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.63-0.81) in the validation cohort, which significantly outperformed other existing staging systems. CONCLUSIONS: AAPR serves as a promising indicator of prognosis in patients with early-stage HCC undergoing RFA. The AAPR-based nomogram might contribute to individualized prognosis prediction and clinical decision making.

9.
Neuroinformatics ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393054

RESUMO

Interactions among cellular components forming a mesoscopic scale brain network (microcircuit) display characteristic neural dynamics. Analysis of microcircuits provides a system-level understanding of the neurobiology of health and disease. Causal discovery aims to detect causal relationships among variables based on observational data. A key barrier in causal discovery is the high dimensionality of the variable space. A method called Causal Inference for Microcircuits (CAIM) is proposed to reconstruct causal networks from calcium imaging or electrophysiology time series. CAIM combines neural recording, Bayesian network modeling, and neuron clustering. Validation experiments based on simulated data and a real-world reaching task dataset demonstrated that CAIM accurately revealed causal relationships among neural clusters.

10.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(1): 57-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether imaging features of right heart failure seen on CT performed before transcatheter aorta valve replacement (TAVR) predict poor outcomes after the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated findings on CT performed before TAVR for 505 consecutive patients seen from 2014 to 2018. Of these patients, 300 underwent TAVR. Patient demographic characteristics and clinical and procedural data were recorded. Imaging features, including signs of right heart failure, left heart failure, lung disease, coronary artery disease, and concomitant mitral valve and apparatus calcifications were evaluated. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 1 year after TAVR. Patients were divided into two groups: those who were alive (group 1) and those who had died (group 2) by 1 year after TAVR. These groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson chi-square and Fisher exact tests when applicable. Multivariate logistic regression with a backward stepwise approach was performed. Results were correlated with echo-cardiography findings. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients (10.3%) died within 1 year of TAVR. The presence and size of pericardial effusions were strongly associated with mortality within 1 year after TAVR (p = 0.002). Pericardial effusion was noted in 25 patients in group 1 (9.3%) and eight patients in group 2 (25.8%). Increased size of the main pulmonary artery was associated with death (p = 0.024), with a median main pulmonary artery size of 2.9 cm (interquartile range, 2.6-3.3 cm) in group 1 and 3.2 cm (interquartile range, 2.9-3.5 cm) in group 2. In multivariate analysis, pericardial effusion size and pulmonary artery size, both of which are indicative of right heart failure, were predictors of death, independent of the routinely used clinical Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (AUC, 0.758; 95% CI, 0.671-0.845). Depressed right ventricular ejection fraction, as identified on echocardiography, was associated with mortality within 1 year after TAVR (p = 0.034), further corroborating the CT findings. CONCLUSION: Features related to right heart failure on pre-TAVR CT were associated with increased all-cause mortality within the first year after TAVR, even after adjustment for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Such imaging findings can help in further risk stratification of patients before TAVR.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 151-160, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that AKI is common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with worse outcomes. However, AKI among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States is not well described. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study involved a review of data from electronic health records of patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Mount Sinai Health System from February 27 to May 30, 2020. We describe the frequency of AKI and dialysis requirement, AKI recovery, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with mortality. RESULTS: Of 3993 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, AKI occurred in 1835 (46%) patients; 347 (19%) of the patients with AKI required dialysis. The proportions with stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI were 39%, 19%, and 42%, respectively. A total of 976 (24%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 745 (76%) experienced AKI. Of the 435 patients with AKI and urine studies, 84% had proteinuria, 81% had hematuria, and 60% had leukocyturia. Independent predictors of severe AKI were CKD, men, and higher serum potassium at admission. In-hospital mortality was 50% among patients with AKI versus 8% among those without AKI (aOR, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 7.5 to 11.3). Of survivors with AKI who were discharged, 35% had not recovered to baseline kidney function by the time of discharge. An additional 28 of 77 (36%) patients who had not recovered kidney function at discharge did so on posthospital follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality. Of all patients with AKI, only 30% survived with recovery of kidney function by the time of discharge.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , /complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/urina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hematúria/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/etiologia , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/citologia
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(1): E113-E121, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166187

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a high risk of developing cholecystic disease. The gut microbiota has been shown to be strongly associated with cholecystectomy and T2DM pathogenesis. However, alterations of the gut microbiome in patients with T2DM who had undergone cholecystectomy remain unexplored. In this study, the gut microbiomes of 14 long-term patients with T2DM who had undergone cholecystectomy (T2DIIC group) and 21 age- and/or sex-matched subjects with new-onset (T2DI group) and long-term (T2DII group) T2DM without cholecystectomy were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool samples. It was found that cholecystectomy could alleviate the decrease in Pielou's evenness and the increase in the relative abundances of the Firmicutes phylum and Lachnospira genus in long-term patients with T2DM compared with T2DII subjects. Moreover, cholecystectomy also significantly increased the relative abundance of the Fusobacteria phylum, as well as that of the Fusobacterium and Bilophila genera. Interestingly, the T2DIIC and T2DI groups showed higher similarities than the T2DII group with respect to patterns of gut microbiota composition and predicted gut metagenomes. In summary, cholecystectomy could partially alleviate long-term diabetes-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiota composition and function, but alterations in T2DM patient health warrant further study.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The gut microbiome of long-term T2DM patients who had undergone cholecystectomy and age- and/or sex-matched subjects of new-onset and long-term T2DM without cholecystectomy was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in stool samples. The findings suggest that, cholecystectomy could partially alleviate long-term diabetes-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiome composition and function.

13.
J Org Chem ; 86(1): 632-642, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252231

RESUMO

A general method for the synthesis of isoselenazoles and isothiazoles has been developed by the base-promoted demethoxylative cycloaddition of alkynyl oxime ethers using the cheap and inactive Se powder and Na2S as selenium and sulfur sources. This transformation features the direct construction of N-, Se-, and S-containing heterocycles through the formation of N-Se/S and C-Se/S bonds in one-pot reactions with excellent functional group tolerance.

14.
Chemosphere ; 266: 128929, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199111

RESUMO

The wide use and distribution of sulpiride (SP) has caused potential threats to the water environment and human health. In this study, ultrathin S-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (US-CN) was successfully synthesized and characterized, and its SP removal efficiency was evaluated under various conditions via the visible-light-assisted peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation method. The degradation pathways and mechanism were also discussed through quenching experiments, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and intermediate products detection. After sulfur doping and ultrasonic treatment, graphitic carbon nitride (CN) possessed an ultra-thin and porous structure, which facilitated the electronic distribution and more photocurrent, thus resulting in the excellent stability and removal efficiency for SP via PDS activation upon visible light irradiation. The singlet oxygen (1O2) generated by the US-CN/PDS/VL system played a significant role in SP degradation. Based on the bonds of electron-rich atoms fracturing and the SO2 extrusion, the SP degradation pathway was proposed. This work provides a useful information for the SP photocatalytic degradation via PDS activation.


Assuntos
Grafite , Sulpirida , Catálise , Humanos , Luz , Compostos de Nitrogênio
15.
Med Mycol ; 59(1): 81-86, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437532

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) holds promise as a potential tool for clinical identification of filamentous fungi. However, due to the lack of an appropriate extraction protocol and the difficulty of database building, the identification power of each system differs. In this study, we selected 126 clinical mould isolates comprising 28 species identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing as the reference method to evaluate three MALDI-TOF MS systems. When using cultures and sample preparation as recommended by the respective vendors, of the 126 strains tested, VITEK MS identified 121 (96.0%) to species-level and 124 (98.4%) to genus-level; Biotyper identified 53 (42.1%) to species-level and 54 (42.9%) to genus-level; Autof identified 74 (58.7%) to species-level and 76 (60.3%) to genus-level. For the Autof system, the tube extraction method recommended by the vendor performed better (59%) than the on-plate lysis (51%). Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS systems can successfully identify most clinically relevant fungi, while performance is still highly dependent on the database and sample preparation protocol.

16.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128434, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010628

RESUMO

N-doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) decorated Bi2O2CO3 heterojunction nanosheets have been successfully constructed by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NCQDs/Bi2O2CO3 heterojunction exhibits a wide-spectrum absorption ability and remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for ciprofloxacin photodegradation from ultraviolet to near-infrared region. The critical roles of NCQDs and two different charge separation and transfer processes of NCQDs/Bi2O2CO3 heterojunction under different light irradiations have been elucidated. Upon UV light irradiation, NCQDs act as electron reservoirs and a Z-scheme charge transfer process between Bi2O2CO3 and NCQDs promotes electrons transfer and •O2- reactive species generation. Under visible and NIR light irradiation, NCQDs act as photosensitizer (hole reservoirs) to harvest solar light and a type-II heterojunction leads to an efficient charge carrier separation and thus high catalytic ability. The mechanisms and pathways of ciprofloxacin degradation driven by different lights are discussed accordingly. This work provides a versatile pathway to well design an efficient wide-spectrum response photocatalyst.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Catálise , Fotólise
17.
Water Res ; 188: 116522, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091802

RESUMO

The increasing pressure on the global water supply calls for more advanced solutions with higher efficiency and better sustainability, leading to the promptly developing water reclamation and reuse schemes including treatment technologies and risk management strategies where microbial safety is becoming a crucial aspect in the interest of public health. Backed up by the development of membrane technology, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have received substantial attention for their superiority over conventional treatment methods in many ways and are considered promising in the water reclamation realm. This review paper provides an overview of the efforts made to manage and control the potential waterborne viral disease risks raised by the use of effluent from MBR treatment processes, including the mechanisms involved in the virus removal process and the attempts to model the dynamics of the removal process. In principle, generalized and integrated virus removal models that provide insight into real-time monitoring are urgently needed for advanced real-time control purpose. Future studies of approaches that can well handle the inherent uncertainty and nonlinearity of the complex removal process are crucial to the development and promotion of related technologies.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 162: 104-117, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279615

RESUMO

Our previous work has shown that atorvastatin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in ischemic stroke, and recent studies have revealed that intestinal microbiota plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of stroke. However, it is not clear whether the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin against ischemic stroke is related to gut function and microbiota. We report herein that atorvastatin significantly ameliorated the defects in sensorimotor behaviors and reduced microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by inhibiting proinflammatory polarization of microglia in the peri-infarct cortex of the mice with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Moreover, atorvastatin reversed microbial composition (characterized by increased abundance of Firmicutes and Lactobacillus and decreased Bacteroidetes abundance), increased fecal butyrate level, promoted intestinal barrier function (elevated protein levels of claudin-1, occludin and mucoprotein 2), as well as regulated intestinal immune function (decreased MCP-1, TNF-α and increased IL-10). Atorvastatin also significantly reduced the level of circulating endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), which is a biomarker of leaky gut. Transplantation of fecal microbiota collected from atorvastatin treated mice potently attenuated neuroinflammation in pMCAO mice, and the anti-inflammatory effects of fecal microbiota transplantation were similar to those of oral atorvastatin administration. These results suggested that the atorvastatin-mediated restoration of gut microbiota, improvement of intestinal barrier function and regulation of intestinal immunity were involved in the anti-inflammatory function in stroke mice.

19.
Chemosphere ; 267: 129324, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352365

RESUMO

A highly efficient bioflocculant, i.e., Na-Bsp was successfully prepared by using a tolerant strain-Bacillus sp. under high-salt condition without sterilization. Salt-containing medium was not infected by other strains throughout the whole incubation period in 168 h. The as-prepared Na-Bsp was found to be cation-dependent, exhibiting high flocculant efficiency (FE) i.e., 97.69 ± 0.61%, towards kaolin particles by aid of Fe3+. High FE values were well maintained under a wide pH range and/or boiled water treatment, likely because of the main constituent of polysaccharide. The presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amine groups on the bioflocculant surface were possibly responsible for strong interactions with heavy metals. The adsorption capacities of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr6+ were 1000.0, 434.8 and 384.6 mg g-1, respectively. The changing of structure and configuration of bioflocculant during the metal adsorption were explored by the scanning electron microscope with electron energy loss spectroscopy and three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence spectrometry. This study provided a novel production method, whereby the conventional sterilization could be avoided, which is of great environmental significance for steam-saving. Furthermore, the as-prepared Na-Bsp exhibited high adsorption capacities toward heavy metals, which sheds lights on its potential usage as an alternative adsorbent.

20.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 8572636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294083

RESUMO

Background: Inhalation therapy is the main treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Owing to the poor inhaler technique in using inhalers, we assessed the effect of a multidimensional pharmaceutical care on inhalation technique in patients with asthma and COPD. Materials and Methods: A 3-month controlled parallel-group study was undertaken in asthma and COPD patients using dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Patients in the intervention group received multidimensional pharmaceutical care, including establishment of a special dispensing window, face-to-face demonstration and education, brochure education, videos education, online consultation and education, and follow-up reeducation. Patients in the control group received usual pharmaceutical care. The inhaler technique score, correctness of inhaler usage, beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) score, asthma control test (ACT), and COPD assessment test (CAT) were measured pre- and postintervention. Quality of life improvement evaluated according to score changes of ACT in asthma and CAT in COPD and patient satisfaction were measured postintervention. Results: 259 patients finished the study with 133 in the intervention group and 126 in the control group. Compared to preintervention and control group postintervention, the inhaler technique score, correctness of inhaler usage, and ACT score significantly increased in the intervention group postintervention, while the BMQ score and CAT score decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Significant improvements in quality of life and patient satisfaction were found (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed the multidimensional pharmaceutical care for asthma and COPD patients were effective in improving inhalation technique. By providing pharmaceutical care, pharmacists might help asthma and COPD patients to acquire better quality of life.

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