Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 106
Filtrar
1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5558618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136065

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor. Drug resistance mainly drives GBM patients to poor prognoses because drug-resistant glioblastoma cells highly defend against apoptotic insults. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on hypoxic stress, autophagy, and resulting apoptosis of human and mouse drug-resistant glioblastoma cells. Treatment of drug-resistant glioblastoma cells with CoCl2 increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1α and triggered hypoxic stress. In parallel, the CoCl2-induced hypoxia decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, cell proliferation, and survival in chemoresistant glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, CoCl2 elevated the ratio of light chain (LC)3-II over LC3-I in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cells and subsequently induced cell autophagy. Analyses by loss- and gain-of-function strategies further confirmed the effects of the CoCl2-induced hypoxia on autophagy of drug-resistant glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, knocking down HIF-1α concurrently lessened CoCl2-induced cell autophagy. As to the mechanisms, the CoCl2-induced hypoxia decreased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and successive phosphorylations of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, long-term exposure of human chemoresistant glioblastoma cells to CoCl2 sequentially triggered activation of caspases-3 and -6, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced autophagy and subsequent apoptotic insults. Taken together, this study showed that long-term treatment with CoCl2 can induce hypoxia and subsequent autophagic apoptosis of drug-resistant glioblastoma cells via targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Thus, combined with traditional prescriptions, CoCl2-induced autophagic apoptosis can be clinically applied as a de novo strategy for therapy of drug-resistant GBM patients.

2.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(4): 901-923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853499

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that estrogen can induce mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis-associated gene expressions and osteoblast maturation. Genistein, a phytoestrogenic isoflavone that is widely found in various foods and traditional herb products, is beneficial for osteogenesis by selectively triggering estrogen receptor alpha (ER[Formula: see text] expression. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of genistein-induced energy production and osteoblast activation. Exposure of rat calvarial osteoblasts and human U-2 OS cells to genistein triggered osteoblast activation without affecting cell survival. Treatment with genistein time-dependently induced ER[Formula: see text] mRNA and protein expressions in rat calvarial osteoblasts. Analyses by confocal microscopy and immunoblotting showed that genistein stimulated translocation of ER[Formula: see text] from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. Subsequently, expressions of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and II mRNAs and proteins in primary rat osteoblasts were induced after exposure to genistein. Knocking-down ER[Formula: see text] concurrently inhibited genistein-induced COX I and II mRNA expressions. In addition, mitochondrial complex enzyme activities, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels in rat calvarial osteoblasts were time-dependently augmented by genistein. Suppressing ER[Formula: see text] expression instantaneously lowered genistein-induced enhancements of mitochondrial energy production and osteoblast activation. Effects of genistein on ER[Formula: see text] translocation, COX I and II mRNA expressions, ATP synthesis, and osteoblast activation were further confirmed in human U-2 OS cells. This study showed that genistein can stimulate energy production and consequent osteoblast activation via inducing ER[Formula: see text]-mediated mitochondrial ATP synthesis-linked gene expressions.

3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(16): 3184-3199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162824

RESUMO

Background: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anti-tumor agents for various types of tumors, including glioblastoma. Methods and results: We found that a novel HDAC inhibitor, MPT0B291, significantly reduced the cell viability and increased cell death of human and rat glioma cell lines, but not in normal astrocytes. We also demonstrated that MPT0B291 suppressed proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in human and rat glioma cell lines by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. We further investigated the anti-tumor effects of MPT0B291 in xenograft (mouse) and allograft (rat) models. The IVIS200 images and histological analysis indicated MPT0B291 (25 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced tumor volume. Mechanistically, MPT0B291 increased phosphorylation and acetylation/activation of p53 and increased mRNA levels of the apoptosis related genes PUMA, Bax, and Apaf1 as well as increased protein level of PUMA, Apaf1 in C6 cell line. The expression of cell cycle related gene p21 was also increased and Cdk2, Cdk4 were decreased by MPT0B291. Conclusion: Our study highlights the anti-tumor efficacy of a novel compound MPT0B291 on glioma growth.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10639-10650, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897066

RESUMO

Osteoporosis-associated fractures may cause higher morbidity and mortality. Our previous study showed the effects of genistein, a phytoestrogen, on the induction of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression and stimulation of osteoblast mineralization. In this study, rat calvarial osteoblasts and an animal bone defect model were used to investigate the effects of genistein on bone healing. Treatment with genistein caused a time-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat osteoblasts. Levels of cytosolic and nuclear ERα significantly augmented following exposure to genistein. Subsequently, genistein elevated levels of ALP mRNA and protein in rat osteoblasts. Moreover, genistein induced other osteogenesis-associated osteocalcin and Runx2 mRNA and protein expressions. Knocking-down ERα using RNA interference concurrently inhibited genistein-induced Runx2, osteocalcin, and ALP mRNA expression. Attractively, administration of ICR mice suffering bone defects with genistein caused significant increases in the callus width, chondrocyte proliferation, and ALP synthesis. Results of microcomputed tomography revealed that administration of genistein increased trabecular bone numbers and improved the bone thickness and volume. This study showed that genistein can improve bone healing via triggering ERα-mediated osteogenesis-associated gene expressions and subsequent osteoblast maturation.

5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118195, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781073

RESUMO

AIMS: The estrogen-ERα axis participates in osteoblast maturation. This study was designed to further evaluated the roles of the estrogen-ERα axis in bone healing and the possible mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Female ICR mice were created a metaphyseal bone defect in the left femurs and administered with methylpiperidinopyrazole (MPP), an inhibitor of ERα. Bone healing was evaluated using micro-computed tomography. Colocalization of ERα with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ERα translocation to mitochondria were determined. Levels of ERα, ERß, PECAM-1, VEGF, and ß-actin were immunodetected. Expression of chromosomal Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNAs and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and COXII mRNAs were quantified. Angiogenesis was measured with immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: Following surgery, the bone mass was time-dependently augmented in the bone-defect area. Simultaneously, levels of ERα were specifically upregulated and positively correlated with bone healing. Administration of MPP to mice consistently decreased levels of ERα and bone healing. As to the mechanisms, osteogenesis was enhanced in bone healing, but MPP attenuated osteoblast maturation. In parallel, expressions of osteogenesis-related ALP, Runx2, and osteocalcin mRNAs were induced in the injured zone. Treatment with MPP led to significant inhibition of the alp, runx2, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Remarkably, administration of MPP lessened translocation of ERα to mitochondria and expressions of mitochondrial energy production-related coxI and coxII genes. Furthermore, exposure to MPP decreased levels of PECAM-1 and VEGF in the bone-defect area. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed the contributions of the estrogen-ERα axis to bone healing through stimulation of energy production, osteoblast maturation, and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Osteoblastos/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580515

RESUMO

An estrogen deficiency is the main cause of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In bone remodeling, estrogen receptors (ERs) can mediate estrogen-transducing signals. Methylpiperidinopyrazole (MPP) is a highly specific antagonist of ER-alpha (ERα). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of MPP on estrogen-induced energy production, subsequent osteoblast maturation, and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of primary osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat calvarias to MPP did not affect cell morphology or survival. Estradiol can induce translocation of ERα into mitochondria from the cytoplasm. Interestingly, pretreatment of rat calvarial osteoblasts with MPP lowered estrogen-induced ERα translocation. Sequentially, estrogen-triggered expressions of mitochondrial energy production-linked cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and COX II messenger (m)RNAs were inhibited following pretreatment with MPP. Consequently, MPP caused decreases in estrogen-triggered augmentation of the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complex enzymes and levels of cellular adenosine phosphate (ATP). During progression of osteoblast maturation, estrogen induced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 and type I collagen mRNA expressions, but MPP treatment inhibited such induction. Consequently, estrogen-induced osteoblast activation and mineralization were attenuated after exposure to MPP. Taken together, MPP suppressed estrogen-induced osteoblast maturation through decreasing chromosomal osteogenesis-related BMP-6 and type I collagen mRNA expressions and mitochondrial ATP synthesis due to inhibiting energy production-linked COX I and II mRNA expressions. MPP can appropriately be applied to evaluate estrogen-involved bioenergetics and osteoblast maturation.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(10): 1439-1451, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Although the use of first-line temozolomide can reduce tumor growth, therapy-induced stress drives stem cells out of quiescence, leading to chemoresistance and glioblastoma recurrence. The specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor is known to protect glioblastoma cells against temozolomide; however, how tumor cells hijack this factor to gain resistance to therapy is not known. METHODS: Sp1 acetylation in temozolomide-resistant cells and stemlike tumorspheres was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting experiments. Effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)/Sp1 axis on malignant growth were examined using cell proliferation-related assays and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, integrative analysis of gene expression with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and the recurrent glioblastoma omics data were also used to further determine the target genes of the HDAC/Sp1 axis. RESULTS: We identified Sp1 as a novel substrate of HDAC6, and observed that the HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 pathway promotes self-renewal of malignancy by upregulating B cell-specific Mo-MLV integration site 1 (BMI1) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), as well as by regulating G2/M progression and DNA repair via alteration of the transcription of various genes. Importantly, HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 activation is associated with poor clinical outcome in both glioblastoma and low-grade gliomas. However, treatment with azaindolyl sulfonamide, a potent HDAC6 inhibitor with partial efficacy against HDAC1/2, induced G2/M arrest and senescence in both temozolomide-resistant cells and stemlike tumorspheres. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovers a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in which the HDAC6/Sp1 axis induces cell division and maintains the stem cell population to fuel tumor growth and therapeutic resistance.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252330

RESUMO

Vascular calcification, which involves the deposition of calcifying particles within the arterial wall, is mediated by atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cell osteoblastic changes, adventitial mesenchymal stem cell osteoblastic differentiation, and insufficiency of the calcification inhibitors. Recent observations implied a role for mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in vascular calcification. Mesenchymal stem cells reside in the bone marrow and the adventitial layer of arteries. Endothelial progenitor cells that originate from the bone marrow are an important mechanism for repairing injured endothelial cells. Mesenchymal stem cells may differentiate osteogenically by inflammation or by specific stimuli, which can activate calcification. However, the bioactive substances secreted from mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to mitigate vascular calcification by suppressing inflammation, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Wingless-INT signal. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to vascular calcification. Vitamin D supplement has been used to modulate the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and to lessen vascular injury by stimulating adhesion and migration of endothelial progenitor cells. This narrative review clarifies the role of mesenchymal stem cells and the possible role of vitamin D in the mechanisms of vascular calcification.

9.
Neuromodulation ; 23(6): 721-731, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) has been proposed as a new neuromodulation therapy to treat primary headache disorders. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of peripheral nerve stimulation of the cervical branch of the vagal nerve for primary headache disorders. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was carried out on randomized controlled trials of nVNS for treating headaches. We searched the Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases until January 29, 2019. A random-effects model was used to report all outcomes. The primary outcomes were a reduction in headache days or attacks and pain-free status within 30 min. Secondary outcomes were: the pain-relief status within 30 min, the pain-relief status at 60 min, abortive medication use, ≥50% responder rate, pain-free status in ≥50% of treated attacks, adverse events, and satisfaction. RESULTS: In total, 983 patients were included from six trials. We found that nVNS was effective in achieving a pain-free status within 30 min (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16~4.44; p = 0.02), pain-relief status within 30 min (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.17~2.78; p = 0.007), pain-relief status at 60 min (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.2~3.1; p = 0.006), a reduction in abortive medication use (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41~0.92; p = 0.02), and pain-free status in ≥50% of treated attacks (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.27~3.66; p = 0.005) compared to sham-device treatment. There were no significant differences in decreased headache days (standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.159; 95% CI, -0.357~0.04; p = 0.117), adverse events (OR, 1.084; 95% CI, 0.559~2.104; p = 0.811), or satisfaction (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.97~2.17; p = 0.07) between nVNS and sham-device treatment. The ≥50% responder rate could not be determined (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 0.83~13.33; p = 0.09; I 2 = 73%). CONCLUSIONS: Cervical nVNS is effective for acute pain relief for migraine and cluster headache. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42019126009.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182968

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of brain tumor and is very aggressive. Rapid migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells are two typical features driving malignance of GBM. Bradykinin functionally prompts calcium influx via activation of bradykinin receptor B1/B2 (BDKRB1/2). In this study, we evaluated the roles of bradykinin in migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells and the possible mechanisms. Expressions of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) mRNA and protein were upregulated in human glioblastomas. Furthermore, exposure of human U87 MG glioblastoma cells to bradykinin specifically increased levels of BDKRB1. Successively, bradykinin stimulated influx of calcium, phosphorylation of MEK1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, translocation and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and expressions of AQP4 mRNA and protein. Concomitantly, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells were elevated by bradykinin. Knocking-down BDKRB1 concurrently decreased AQP4 mRNA expression and cell migration and invasion. The bradykinin-induced effects were further confirmed in murine GL261 glioblastoma cells. Therefore, bradykinin can induce AQP4 expression and subsequent migration and invasion through BDKRB1-mediated calcium influx and subsequent activation of a MEK1-ERK1/2-NF-κB pathway. The bradykinin-BDKRB1 axis and AQP4 could be precise targets for treating GBM patients.

11.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210117

RESUMO

Temozolomide (TMZ)-induced chemoresistance to human glioblastomas is a critical challenge now. Our previous studies showed that honokiol, a major bioactive constituent of Magnolia officinalis (Houpo), can kill human glioblastoma cells and suppresses glioblastoma growth. This study was further aimed to evaluate the effects of honokiol on human drug-resistant glioblastoma cells and the possible mechanisms. The results by data mining in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database and immunohistochemistry displayed that expression of caspase-9 mRNA and protein in human glioblastomas was induced. Human TMZ-resistant U87-MG-R9 glioblastoma cells were selected and prepared from human drug-sensitive U87-MG cells. Compared to human drug-sensitive U87-MG cells, TMZ did not affect viability of U87-MG-R9 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, treatment with honokiol suppressed proliferation and survival of human drug-resistant glioblastoma cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Compared to caspase-8 activation, honokiol chiefly increased activity of caspase-9 in U87-MG-R9 cells. Successively, levels of cleaved caspase-3 and activities of caspase-3 and caspase-6 in human TMZ-tolerant glioblastoma cells were augmented following honokiol administration. In parallel, honokiol triggered DNA fragmentation of U87-MG-R9 cells. Accordingly, treatment of human TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cells with honokiol induced cell apoptosis but did not affect cell necrosis. Fascinatingly, suppressing caspase-9 activity using its specific inhibitors repressed honokiol-induced caspase-6 activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. Taken together, this study has shown the major roles of caspase-9 in transducing honokiol-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human drug-resistant glioblastoma cells. Thus, honokiol may be clinically applied as a drug candidate for treatment of glioblastoma patients with chemoresistance.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213981

RESUMO

Rationales: Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common complication in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, there is a lack of biomarkers linking uremic RLS to dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies demonstrated that Tc-99m TRODAT-1 SPECT was a biomarker for RLS but the correlation between the physiologic parameter was lacking. METHODS: Overall, 32 patients were enrolled in the study and divided into the following 3 groups: (1) control (n = 13), (2) ESRD without RLS (n = 8) and (3) ESRD with RLS (n = 11). All patients had a clinical diagnosis of RLS and received Tc-99m TRODAT-1 SPECT. A subgroup analysis was performed to compare differences between the control and ESRD with RLS groups. Tc-99m TRODAT-1 SPECT was performed and activities in the striatum and occipital areas were measured using manually delineated regions of interest (ROIs) by an experienced nuclear medicine radiologist who was blinded to clinical data. RESULTS: The total ratio of Tc-99m TRODAT SPECT was lower in the ESRD with RLS group (p = 0.046). The uptake ratio of TRODAT negatively correlated with serum parathyroid hormone (r = -0.577, p = 0.015) and ferritin (r = -0.464, p = 0.039) concentrations. However, the uptake positively correlated with the hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.531, p = 0.011). The sensitivity and specificity of the total TRODAT ratio for predicting RLS in the overall population were 95.0% and 67.7%, respectively, at a cutoff value of 0.980 (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.767, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: In patients with ESRD and RLS, Tc-99m TRODAT might be a potential biomarker. Dysregulated hemoglobin, serum parathyroid hormone and serum ferritin concentrations might influence the uptake of the TRODAT ratio.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19125, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028438

RESUMO

Pain, the main symptom of osteoarthritis (OA), can lead to functional disability in patients with knee OA. Understanding the association factors related to knee pain is important since preventing OA-induced disabilities can be achieved by modifying these pain-associated issues. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the association factors for OA-induced knee pain in Taiwanese patients who received total knee replacements (TKR).In this retrospective study, 357 subjects who had undergone TKR at the Taipei Municipal Wan-Fang Hospital were recruited. The distribution of pain severity among patients with knee OA was evaluated. Demographic data and clinical parameters were analyzed to determine relationships between these variables and the severity of knee OA pain.Of the 357 patients studied, 54% and 33% had moderate and severe knee pain, respectively. Furthermore, a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine (>1.5 mg/dL) and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m) were significantly associated with severe knee pain in OA patients. A significant correlation between severe knee pain and serum creatinine or eGFR was demonstrated by Pearson correlations.Taken together, the renal insufficiency defined by an elevated serum creatinine or a low eGFR in OA patients who required TKR was associated with severe knee pain. These variables must be considered while treating knee OA pain, especially in those patients with severe pain.


Assuntos
Artralgia/etiologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393911

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a continuous process of loss of bone tissue. Compared to women, osteoporosis in men is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. In this study, we conducted tomographic and biomechanical evaluations of trabecular and cortical bone in the early stage of male osteoporosis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to orchiectomy and sham operation. Four weeks after being castrated, decreased levels of testosterone in plasma were found and resulted in concurrent bone loss. Separately, the orchiectomy led to significant tomographic alterations in the trabecular bone number, trabecular separation, and trabecular pattern factor. Data of a mechanistic compression test further showed that the orchiectomy diminished the maximum loading force, displacement at maximum load, energy at maximum load, and ultimate stress. Interestingly, orchiectomy-triggered changes in the maximum loading force and tomographic parameters were highly correlated. In contrast, tomographic and biomechanical analyses showed that 4 weeks after rats were orchiectomized, the thickness, area, maximum loading force, bone stiffness, energy at maximum load, and ultimate stress of the cortical bone were not changed. Taken together, this study showed specific differences in the microarchitecture and strength of trabecular bone in the early stage of male osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Fêmur/fisiologia , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(4): 895-912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091975

RESUMO

In children, neuroblastomas are the most common and deadly solid tumor. Our previous studies showed that honokiol can cross the blood-brain barrier and kill neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we further evaluated if exposure to honokiol for short periods could induce autophagy and subsequent apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and possible mechanisms. Exposure of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells to honokiol for 24 h induced morphological shrinkage and cell death. As to the mechanisms, honokiol consecutively induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Separately, honokiol time-dependently augmented the proportion of autophagic cells and the ratio of light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I. Pretreatment of neuro-2a cells with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, attenuated honokiol-induced cell autophagy, caspase-3 activation, DNA damage and cell apoptosis. In contrast, stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, significantly enhanced honokiol-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, honokiol-induced autophagic apoptosis was confirmed in neuroblastoma NB41A3 cells. Knocking down translation of p53 using RNA interference attenuated honokiol-induced autophagy and apoptosis in neuro-2a and NB41A3 cells. Taken together, this study showed that at early periods, honokiol can induce autophagic apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells through activating a p53-dependent mechanism. Consequently, honokiol has the potential to be a therapeutic option for neuroblastomas.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642029

RESUMO

Vascular calcification is a critical complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) because it is predictive of cardiovascular events and mortality. In addition to the traditional mechanisms associated with endothelial dysfunction and the osteoblastic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the regulation of calcification inhibitors, such as calciprotein particles (CPPs) and matrix vesicles plays a vital role in uremic vascular calcification in CKD patients because of the high prevalence of vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K governs the gamma-carboxylation of matrix Gla protein (MGP) for inhibiting vascular calcification, and the vitamin D binding protein receptor is related to vitamin K gene expression. For patients with chronic kidney disease, adequate use of vitamin D supplements may play a role in vascular calcification through modulation of the calciprotein particles and matrix vesicles (MVs).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Calcificação Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina K/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/sangue , Hiperfosfatemia/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina K/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina K/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Life Sci ; 213: 279-286, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352244

RESUMO

AIMS: Our previous study showed that propofol can protect against sepsis-induced insults through suppressing liver nitrosation and inflammation. This study further evaluated the mechanisms of propofol-caused protection from sepsis-induced liver dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and then exposed to propofol. Levels of hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were consecutively measured. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-4 messenger (m)RNA or proteins were quantified. Effects of propofol on microsomal pentoxyresorufin O-dealkelase (PROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities were determined. KEY FINDINGS: Administration of propofol to CLP-treated rats significantly attenuated sepsis-induced insults. CLP caused augmented serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities and concurrently triggered liver damage. In contrast, treatment with propofol protected against CLP-induced liver dysfunction. As to the mechanisms, the CLP-induced increases in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation levels and TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA and protein expressions were subsequently attenuated by propofol. Furthermore, administration of CLP-treated rats with propofol augmented levels of IL-4 in the liver. Phenobarbital treatment of liver microsomes in CLP-treated rats produced less amplification of PROD and ECOD activities, and a smaller amount of 4-hydroxypropofol was metabolized from propofol by liver microsomes. In contrast, more drug interactions occurred with propofol, which decreased PROD and ECOD activities in liver microsomes of CLP-treated rats. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, the present study showed that propofol can protect against sepsis-induced liver dysfunction through suppressing hepatic oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and drug biotransformation and interactions in the liver.


Assuntos
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/terapia , Propofol/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Medicamentosas , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-4 , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sepse/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
19.
Phytomedicine ; 49: 41-51, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, TMZ-induced side effects and drug resistance remain challenges. Our previous study showed the suppressive effects of honokiol on growth of gliomas. PURPOSE: This study was further aimed to evaluate if honokiol could enhance TMZ-induced insults toward malignant glioma cells and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Human U87 MG glioma cells were exposed to TMZ, honokiol, and a combination of TMZ and honokiol. Cell survival, apoptosis, necrosis, and proliferation were successively assayed. Fluorometric substrate assays were conducted to determine activities of caspase-3, -6, -8, and -9. Levels of Fas ligand, Bax, and cytochrome c were immunodetected. Translocation of Bax to mitochondria were examined using confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by assaying the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and complex I enzyme activity. Caspase-6 activity was suppressed using specific peptide inhibitors. The honokiol-induced effects were further confirmed using human U373 MG and murine GL261 cells. RESULTS: Exposure of human U87 MG glioma cells to honokiol significantly increased TMZ-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, honokiol enhanced intrinsic caspase-9 activity without affecting extrinsic Fas ligand levels and caspase-8 activity. Sequentially, TMZ-induced changes in Bax translocation, the MMP, mitochondrial complex I enzyme activity, intracellular ROS levels, and cytochrome c release were enhanced by honokiol. Consequently, honokiol amplified TMZ-induced activation of caspases-3 and -6 in human U87 MG cells. Fascinatingly, suppressing caspase-6 activity concurrently decreased honokiol-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. The honokiol-involved improvement in TMZ-induced intrinsic apoptosis was also confirmed in human U373 MG and murine GL261 glioma cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that honokiol can enhance TMZ-induced apoptotic insults to glioma cells via an intrinsic mitochondrion-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of honokiol to attenuate TMZ-induced side effects.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glioma/patologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Temozolomida
20.
Environ Toxicol ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923317

RESUMO

The major objective of the present study was to determine the ability of a triazole fungicide tebuconazole to induce cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, oxidative stress, and endocrine-disrupting activity using male rats treated with tebuconazole at 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. In liver, tebuconazole dose-dependently increased microsomal contents of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and erythromycin N-demethylase. In kidney, tebuconazole increased 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity without affecting other monooxygenase activities. In marked contrast to liver and kidney, tebuconazole decreased testicular 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and erythromycin N-demethylase activities. The results of immunoblot analysis of liver microsomes of controls and tebuconazole-treated rats revealed that tebuconazole induced CYP1A1/2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A proteins in liver. Additions of tebuconazole to liver microsomes inhibited microsomal 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity in vitro (IC50 = 1.50-1.69 µM). Treatment of rats with tebuconazole decreased glutathione content and increased glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in liver; increased superoxide dismutase activities in kidney and testis; but decreased glutathione S-transferase activity in testis. Treatments with tebuconazole decreased serum testosterone concentration and cauda epididymal sperm count. The present study demonstrates that tebuconazole induces a multiplicity of CYPs and oxidative stress in liver; inhibits testicular P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities; and produces anti-androgenic effects in male rats.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...