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1.
Ageing Res Rev ; : 101304, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610813

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone that is regulated by the circadian clock and plays multifunctional roles in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is associated with the degradation of axons and synapses resulting in memory loss and cognitive impairment. Despite extensive research, there is still no effective cure or specific treatment to prevent the progression of AD. The pathogenesis of AD involves atrophic alterations in the brain that also result in circadian alterations, sleep disruption, and autophagic dysfunction. In this scenario, MLT and autophagy play a central role in removing the misfolded protein aggregations. Melatonin also promotes autophagy through inhibiting methamphetamine toxicity to protect against neuronal cell death in AD brain. Besides, MLT plays critical roles as either a pro-autophagic indicator or anti-autophagic regulator depending on the phase of autophagy. Melatonin also has antioxidant properties that can counteract mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Aging, a major risk factor for AD, can change sleep patterns and sleep quality, and MLT can improve sleep quality through regulating sleep cycles. The primary purpose of this review is to explore the putative mechanisms of the beneficial effects of MLT in AD patients. Furthermore, we also summarize the findings from preclinical and clinical studies on the multifunctional roles of MLT on autophagic regulation, the control of the circadian clock-associated genes, and sleep regulation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic health records (EHRs) are linked with documentation burden resulting in clinician burnout. While clear classifications and validated measures of burnout exist, documentation burden remains ill-defined and inconsistently measured. We aim to conduct a scoping review focused on identifying approaches to documentation burden measurement and their characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Extension for Scoping Reviews (ScR) guidelines, we conducted a scoping review assessing MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL from inception to April 2020 for studies investigating documentation burden among physicians and nurses in ambulatory or inpatient settings. Two reviewers evaluated each potentially relevant study for inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Of the 3482 articles retrieved, 35 studies met inclusion criteria. We identified 15 measurement characteristics, including 7 effort constructs: EHR usage and workload, clinical documentation/review, EHR work after hours and remotely, administrative tasks, cognitively cumbersome work, fragmentation of workflow, and patient interaction. We uncovered 4 time constructs: average time, proportion of time, timeliness of completion, activity rate, and 11 units of analysis. Only 45.0% of studies assessed the impact of EHRs on clinicians and/or patients and 40.0% mentioned clinician burnout. DISCUSSION: Standard and validated measures of documentation burden are lacking. While time and effort were the core concepts measured, there appears to be no consensus on the best approach nor degree of rigor to study documentation burden. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to reliably operationalize the concept of documentation burden, explore best practices for measurement, and standardize its use.

4.
Psychogeriatrics ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260271

RESUMO

AIM: Mild behavioural impairment (MBI) is a neurobehavioural syndrome characterized by emergent neuropsychiatric symptoms in later life. There has been no systematic review or meta-analysis on the prevalence of MBI. The main aim of the study is to calculate the pooled prevalence of MBI. METHODS: A search of the literature on MBI in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), cognitively normal (CN), and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and CN but at risk (CN-AR) subjects published between 1 January 2003 and 28 September 2020 was conducted. Meta-analysis using a random effects model was performed to determine the pooled estimate of the prevalence of MBI. Meta-regression was performed to identify factors contributing to the variance of prevalence rate. A systematic review was also performed to study the impact of MBI in cognitive outcomes and its correlation to the pathology and genetics of Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Eleven studies conducted among 15 689 subjects underwent meta-analysis, revealing the pooled prevalence of MBI to be 33.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.6%-46.6%). Seven studies conducted among 1358 MCI subjects underwent meta-analysis, revealing the pooled prevalence to be 45.5% (95%CI: 36.1%-55.3%). Four studies conducted among 13 153 CN subjects underwent meta-analysis, revealing the pooled prevalence to be 17.0% (95%CI: 7.2%-34.9%). Five studies conducted among 1158 SCI or CN-AR subjects underwent meta-analysis, revealing the pooled prevalence to be 35.8% (95%CI: 21.4%-53.2%). A systematic review of 13 studies showed that MBI has a significant impact on cognitive deterioration and is associated with the pathology and genetics of Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: In MCI, CN, and SCI and CN-AR subjects, MBI is common. Our finding is potentially useful in planning future clinical trials.

6.
Front Public Health ; 8: 550220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102420

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Data collection in the ascending phase is crucial to address a rapidly evolving crisis by helping us understand the uncertain relationship between risk communication and psychological responses. Data were collected from 26 January 26, 2020, until February 17, 2020, with a mean test-retest interval of 16 days. A total of 846 adults from four residential communities in high-risk areas (Wuhan city) and low-risk areas (Zhengzhou city) were invited to complete a set of Internet-based questionnaires measuring the adoption of preventive behaviors, appraisal of risk communication, anxiety level, and susceptibility to emotional contagion. At the baseline assessment (Wave 1), 58 withdrew from the study, and 788 (433 females) completed the questionnaires. At the Wave 2 survey, 318 (185 females) adults from Wave 1 were retained. The results from cross-lagged models demonstrated reciprocal negative associations between anxiety and risk communication and between the appraisal of risk communication and the adoption of preventive behaviors. In addition, a higher appraisal of risk communication in the initial period of the outbreak mitigated the respondents' susceptibility to emotional contagion later on. Susceptibility to emotional contagion was positively associated with preventive behaviors taken. Furthermore, multiple-group structural equation modeling suggested that risk communication was more likely to affect the susceptibility to emotional contagion of people on the frontline of the outbreak than people living in low-risk areas. This study demonstrated the importance of risk communication aimed at encouraging appropriate countermeasures against virus outbreaks.

7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1331-1337, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909033

RESUMO

Evidence derived from existing health-care data, such as administrative claims and electronic health records, can fill evidence gaps in medicine. However, many claim such data cannot be used to estimate causal treatment effects because of the potential for observational study bias; for example, due to residual confounding. Other concerns include P hacking and publication bias. In response, the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics international collaborative launched the Large-scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation across a Network of Databases (LEGEND) research initiative. Its mission is to generate evidence on the effects of medical interventions using observational health-care databases while addressing the aforementioned concerns by following a recently proposed paradigm. We define 10 principles of LEGEND that enshrine this new paradigm, prescribing the generation and dissemination of evidence on many research questions at once; for example, comparing all treatments for a disease for many outcomes, thus preventing publication bias. These questions are answered using a prespecified and systematic approach, avoiding P hacking. Best-practice statistical methods address measured confounding, and control questions (research questions where the answer is known) quantify potential residual bias. Finally, the evidence is generated in a network of databases to assess consistency by sharing open-source analytics code to enhance transparency and reproducibility, but without sharing patient-level information. Here we detail the LEGEND principles and provide a generic overview of a LEGEND study. Our companion paper highlights an example study on the effects of hypertension treatments, and evaluates the internal and external validity of the evidence we generate.

8.
JAMIA Open ; 3(2): 281-289, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734169

RESUMO

Objective: The study sought to explore information needs arising from a gap in clinicians' knowledge that is not met by current evidence and identify possible areas of use and target groups for a future clinical decision support system (CDSS), which will guide clinicians in cases where no evidence exists. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 30 physicians in a large academic medical center, analyzed transcripts using deductive thematic analysis, and developed a set of themes of information needs related to a gap in knowledge unmet by current evidence. We conducted additional statistical analyses to identify the correlation between clinical experience, clinical specialty, settings of clinical care, and the characteristics of the needs. Results: This study resulted in a set of themes and subthemes of information needs arising from a gap in current evidence. Experienced physicians and inpatient physicians had more questions and the number of questions did not decline with clinical experience. The main areas of information needs included patients with comorbidities, elderly and children, new drugs, and rare disorders. To address these questions, clinicians most often used a commercial tool, guidelines, and PubMed. While primary care physicians preferred the commercial tool, specialty physicians sought more in-depth knowledge. Discussion: The current medical evidence appeared to be inadequate in covering specific populations such as patients with multiple comorbidities and elderly, and was sometimes irrelevant to complex clinical scenarios. Our findings may suggest that experienced and inpatient physicians would benefit from a CDSS that generates evidence in real time at the point of care. Conclusions: We found that physicians had information needs, which arose from the gaps in current medical evidence. This study provides insights on how the CDSS that aims at addressing these needs should be designed.

9.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1268-1277, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the application of the Large-scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation across a Network of Databases (LEGEND) principles described in our companion article to hypertension treatments and assess internal and external validity of the generated evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LEGEND defines a process for high-quality observational research based on 10 guiding principles. We demonstrate how this process, here implemented through large-scale propensity score modeling, negative and positive control questions, empirical calibration, and full transparency, can be applied to compare antihypertensive drug therapies. We assess internal validity through covariate balance, confidence-interval coverage, between-database heterogeneity, and transitivity of results. We assess external validity through comparison to direct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: From 21.6 million unique antihypertensive new users, we generate 6 076 775 effect size estimates for 699 872 research questions on 12 946 treatment comparisons. Through propensity score matching, we achieve balance on all baseline patient characteristics for 75% of estimates, observe 95.7% coverage in our effect-estimate 95% confidence intervals, find high between-database consistency, and achieve transitivity in 84.8% of triplet hypotheses. Compared with meta-analyses of RCTs, our results are consistent with 28 of 30 comparisons while providing narrower confidence intervals. CONCLUSION: We find that these LEGEND results show high internal validity and are congruent with meta-analyses of RCTs. For these reasons we believe that evidence generated by LEGEND is of high quality and can inform medical decision-making where evidence is currently lacking. Subsequent publications will explore the clinical interpretations of this evidence.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large New York City (NYC) medical center and describe their clinical course across the emergency department (ED), inpatient wards, and intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: Retrospective manual medical record review. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center (NYP/CUIMC), a quaternary care academic medical center in NYC. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1000 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: We identified the first 1000 consecutive patients with a positive RT-SARS-CoV-2 PCR test who first presented to the ED or were hospitalized at NYP/CUIMC between March 1 and April 5, 2020. Patient data was manually abstracted from the electronic medical record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We describe patient characteristics including demographics, presenting symptoms, comorbidities on presentation, hospital course, time to intubation, complications, mortality, and disposition. RESULTS: Among the first 1000 patients, 150 were ED patients, 614 were admitted without requiring ICU-level care, and 236 were admitted or transferred to the ICU. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (73.2%), fever (72.8%), and dyspnea (63.1%). Hospitalized patients, and ICU patients in particular, most commonly had baseline comorbidities including of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. ICU patients were older, predominantly male (66.9%), and long lengths of stay (median 23 days; IQR 12 to 32 days); 78.0% developed AKI and 35.2% required dialysis. Notably, for patients who required mechanical ventilation, only 4.4% were first intubated more than 14 days after symptom onset. Time to intubation from symptom onset had a bimodal distribution, with modes at 3-4 and 9 days. As of April 30, 90 patients remained hospitalized and 211 had died in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 illness at this medical center faced significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of AKI, dialysis, and a bimodal distribution in time to intubation from symptom onset.

12.
BMJ ; 369: m1996, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in a large New York City medical center and describe their clinical course across the emergency department, hospital wards, and intensive care units. DESIGN: Retrospective manual medical record review. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical center in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1000 consecutive patients with a positive result on the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented to the emergency department or were admitted to hospital between 1 March and 5 April 2020. Patient data were manually abstracted from electronic medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characterization of patients, including demographics, presenting symptoms, comorbidities on presentation, hospital course, time to intubation, complications, mortality, and disposition. RESULTS: Of the first 1000 patients, 150 presented to the emergency department, 614 were admitted to hospital (not intensive care units), and 236 were admitted or transferred to intensive care units. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (732/1000), fever (728/1000), and dyspnea (631/1000). Patients in hospital, particularly those treated in intensive care units, often had baseline comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Patients admitted to intensive care units were older, predominantly male (158/236, 66.9%), and had long lengths of stay (median 23 days, interquartile range 12-32 days); 78.0% (184/236) developed acute kidney injury and 35.2% (83/236) needed dialysis. Only 4.4% (6/136) of patients who required mechanical ventilation were first intubated more than 14 days after symptom onset. Time to intubation from symptom onset had a bimodal distribution, with modes at three to four days, and at nine days. As of 30 April, 90 patients remained in hospital and 211 had died in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 at this medical center faced major morbidity and mortality, with high rates of acute kidney injury and inpatient dialysis, prolonged intubations, and a bimodal distribution of time to intubation from symptom onset.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/virologia , Dispneia/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 171-183, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with cancer are predisposed to developing chronic, comorbid conditions that affect prognosis, quality of life, and mortality. While treatment guidelines and care variations for these comorbidities have been described for the general noncancer population, less is known about real-world treatment patterns in patients with cancer. We sought to characterize the prevalence and distribution of initial treatment patterns across a large-scale data network for depression, hypertension, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among patients with cancer. METHODS: We used the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics network, an international collaborative implementing the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model to standardize more than 2 billion patient records. For this study, we used 8 databases across 3 countries-the United States, France, and Germany-with 295,529,655 patient records. We identified patients with cancer using SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine) codes validated via manual review. We then characterized the treatment patterns of these patients initiating treatment of depression, hypertension, or T2DM with persistent treatment and at least 365 days of observation. RESULTS: Across databases, wide variations exist in treatment patterns for depression (n = 1,145,510), hypertension (n = 3,178,944), and T2DM (n = 886,766). When limited to 6-node (6-drug) sequences, we identified 61,052 unique sequences for depression, 346,067 sequences for hypertension, and 40,629 sequences for T2DM. These variations persisted across sites, databases, countries, and conditions, with the exception of metformin (73.8%) being the most common initial T2DM treatment. The most common initial medications were sertraline (17.5%) and escitalopram (17.5%) for depression and hydrochlorothiazide (20.5%) and lisinopril (19.6%) for hypertension. CONCLUSION: We identified wide variations in the treatment of common comorbidities in patients with cancer, similar to the general population, and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting research on patients with cancer across a large-scale observational data network using a common data model.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(4): 542-551, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065600

RESUMO

Importance: Chlorthalidone is currently recommended as the preferred thiazide diuretic to treat hypertension, but no trials have directly compared risks and benefits. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide as first-line therapies for hypertension in real-world practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a Large-Scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation in a Network of Databases (LEGEND) observational comparative cohort study with large-scale propensity score stratification and negative-control and synthetic positive-control calibration on databases spanning January 2001 through December 2018. Outpatient and inpatient care episodes of first-time users of antihypertensive monotherapy in the United States based on 2 administrative claims databases and 1 collection of electronic health records were analyzed. Analysis began June 2018. Exposures: Chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were acute myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and a composite cardiovascular disease outcome including the first 3 outcomes and sudden cardiac death. Fifty-one safety outcomes were measured. Results: Of 730 225 individuals (mean [SD] age, 51.5 [13.3] years; 450 100 women [61.6%]), 36 918 were dispensed or prescribed chlorthalidone and had 149 composite outcome events, and 693 337 were dispensed or prescribed hydrochlorothiazide and had 3089 composite outcome events. No significant difference was found in the associated risk of myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, or stroke, with a calibrated hazard ratio for the composite cardiovascular outcome of 1.00 for chlorthalidone compared with hydrochlorothiazide (95% CI, 0.85-1.17). Chlorthalidone was associated with a significantly higher risk of hypokalemia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.72; 95% CI, 2.38-3.12), hyponatremia (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.16-1.47), acute renal failure (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15-1.63), chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.30). Chlorthalidone was associated with a significantly lower risk of diagnosed abnormal weight gain (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that chlorthalidone use was not associated with significant cardiovascular benefits when compared with hydrochlorothiazide, while its use was associated with greater risk of renal and electrolyte abnormalities. These findings do not support current recommendations to prefer chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension treatment in first-time users was found. We used advanced methods, sensitivity analyses, and diagnostics, but given the possibility of residual confounding and the limited length of observation periods, further study is warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Clortalidona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after cerebral infarction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon in the acute stage of ischemic stroke, and often results in a poor prognosis. Thus, identifying risk factors and making an early prediction of HT in acute cerebral infarction contributes not only to the selections of therapeutic regimen but also, more importantly, to the improvement of prognosis of acute cerebral infarction. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict a patient's risk of HT within 30 days of initial ischemic stroke. METHODS: We utilized a retrospective multicenter observational cohort study design to develop a Lasso Logistic Regression prediction model with a large, US Electronic Health Record dataset which structured to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). To examine clinical transportability, the model was externally validated across 10 additional real-world healthcare datasets include EHR records for patients from America, Europe and Asia. RESULTS: In the database the model was developed, the target population cohort contained 621,178 patients with ischemic stroke, of which 5,624 patients had HT within 30 days following initial ischemic stroke. 612 risk predictors, including the distance a patient travels in an ambulance to get to care for a HT, were identified. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.75 was achieved in the internal validation of the risk model. External validation was performed across 10 databases totaling 5,515,508 patients with ischemic stroke, of which 86,401 patients had HT within 30 days following initial ischemic stroke. The mean external AUC was 0.71 and ranged between 0.60-0.78. CONCLUSIONS: A HT prognostic predict model was developed with Lasso Logistic Regression based on routinely collected EMR data. This model can identify patients who have a higher risk of HT than the population average with an AUC of 0.78. It shows the OMOP CDM is an appropriate data standard for EMR secondary use in clinical multicenter research for prognostic prediction model development and validation. In the future, combining this model with clinical information systems will assist clinicians to make the right therapy decision for patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1816-1826, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the optimal monotherapy for hypertension, with current guidelines recommending any primary agent among the first-line drug classes thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, in the absence of comorbid indications. Randomised trials have not further refined this choice. METHODS: We developed a comprehensive framework for real-world evidence that enables comparative effectiveness and safety evaluation across many drugs and outcomes from observational data encompassing millions of patients, while minimising inherent bias. Using this framework, we did a systematic, large-scale study under a new-user cohort design to estimate the relative risks of three primary (acute myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for heart failure, and stroke) and six secondary effectiveness and 46 safety outcomes comparing all first-line classes across a global network of six administrative claims and three electronic health record databases. The framework addressed residual confounding, publication bias, and p-hacking using large-scale propensity adjustment, a large set of control outcomes, and full disclosure of hypotheses tested. FINDINGS: Using 4·9 million patients, we generated 22 000 calibrated, propensity-score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing all classes and outcomes across databases. Most estimates revealed no effectiveness differences between classes; however, thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics showed better primary effectiveness than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: acute myocardial infarction (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95), hospitalisation for heart failure (0·83, 0·74-0·95), and stroke (0·83, 0·74-0·95) risk while on initial treatment. Safety profiles also favoured thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were significantly inferior to the other four classes. INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive framework introduces a new way of doing observational health-care science at scale. The approach supports equivalence between drug classes for initiating monotherapy for hypertension-in keeping with current guidelines, with the exception of thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics superiority to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the inferiority of non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1831-1832, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438365

RESUMO

Observational research in cancer requires substantially more detail than most other therapeutic areas. Cancer conditions are defined through histology, affected anatomical structures, staging and grading, and biomarkers, and are treated with complex therapies. Here, we show a new cancer module as part of the OMOP CDM, allowing manual and automated abstraction and standardized analytics. We tested the model in EHR and registry data against a number of typical use cases.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias , Pesquisa , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sistema de Registros
19.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1228, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231330

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are the most common cause of onychomycosis, counting for 90% fungal nail infection. Although dermatophyte pathogens are normally susceptible to antifungal agents, onychomycosis often results in refractory chronic disease, and the formation of biofilms frequently underlines the inadequate responses and resistance to standard antifungal treatment. Numerous in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) studies have shown biofilm eradication or substantial reduction, however, such investigation has not yet been expanded to the biofilms of dermatophytes involved in onychomycosis. To shed a light on the potential application of aPDT in the clinic management of onychomycosis, in particular with the manifestation of dermatophytoma, we investigated photodynamic effects on the viabilities and the drug susceptibilities of the biofilm of dermatophytes in vitro. Here, methylene blue at the concentration of 8, 16, and 32 µg/ml applied as photosensitizing agent and LED (635 ± 10 nm, 60 J/cm2) as light source were employed against six strains of Trichophyton rubrum, ten strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and three strains of Microsporum gypseum isolated from clinical specimens. Our results indicated highly efficient photodynamic inhibition, exhibiting CFU (colony forming unit) reduction up to 4.6 log10, 4.3 log10, and 4.7 log10 against the biofilms formed by T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and M. gypseum, respectively. Subjected biofilms displayed considerable decreases in SMICs (sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations) to multiple antifungal agents when compared with untreated groups, indicating the biofilms of dermatophytes became more susceptible to conventional antifungal drugs after aPDT. Additionally, the obliteration of biofilm after aPDT could be observed as shattered and ruptured structures being evident in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) images. These findings suggest that aPDT is an attractive alternative treatment holding great promise for combating recalcitrant onychomycosis associated with the biofilm formation.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(4)2017 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral medication, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), is used by most human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in the United States despite higher risks of chronic kidney disease. Although chronic kidney disease is a strong risk factor for heart failure (HF), the association of TDF with incident HF is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 21 435 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the United States Veterans Health Administration actively using antiretrovirals between 2002 and 2011. We excluded patients with a prior diagnosis of HF. TDF was analyzed categorically (current, past, or never use) and continuously (per year of use). Proportional hazards regression and fully adjusted marginal structural models were used to determine the association of TDF exposure with risk of incident HF after adjustment for demographic, human immunodeficiency virus-related, and cardiovascular risk factors. During follow-up, 438 incident HF events occurred. Unadjusted 5-year event rates for current, past, and never users of TDF were 0.9 (95%CI 0.7-1.1), 1.7 (1.4-2.2), and 4.5 (3.9-5.0), respectively. In fully adjusted analyses, HF risk was markedly lower in current TDF users (HR=0.68; 95%CI 0.53-0.86) compared with never users. Among current TDF users, each additional year of TDF exposure was associated with a 21% lower risk of incident HF (95%CI: 0.68-0.92). When limited to antiretroviral-naive patients, HF risk remained lower in current TDF users (HR=0.53; 95%CI 0.36-0.78) compared to never users. CONCLUSIONS: Among a large national cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, TDF use was strongly associated with lower risk of incident HF. These findings warrant confirmation in other populations, both with TDF and the recently approved tenofovir alafenamide fumarate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
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