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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 721309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458162

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Because it is a new and highly contagious coronavirus, most people, especially pregnant women, lack immunity. It is therefore important to understand the interaction between why pregnant women are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and the specific immune systems of pregnant women. Here, we provide an overview of the changes that occur in the immune system during pregnancy, the activation and response of the immune system in pregnant women with COVID-19, adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19, and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Gravidez , Gestantes , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 589095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995341

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing major threat to global health and has posed significant challenges for the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Several studies have reported that cytokine storms are an important cause of disease deterioration and death in COVID-19 patients. Consequently, it is important to understand the specific pathophysiological processes underlying how cytokine storms promote the deterioration of COVID-19. Here, we outline the pathophysiological processes through which cytokine storms contribute to the deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system, as well as the pathophysiology of immune response dysfunction that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and coagulation impairment. Treatments based on inhibiting cytokine storm-induced deterioration and occurrence are also described.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Humanos
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(24): 26248-26262, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232272

RESUMO

Aging is an important factor affecting the deterioration of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aging and degeneration of various tissues and organs in the elderly lead to impaired organ function. Underlying conditions such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in aged patients are associated with higher mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily interacts with the cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 and other accessory proteins such as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CD147. Thus, altered receptor signals in aging and chronic disease play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and are associated with a higher risk of deterioration in different organs. In this review, after a brief introduction to the link between aging and receptors for SARS-CoV-2, we focus on the risk of deterioration in different organs of COVID-19 patients considering aging as the main factor. We further discuss the structural and/or physiological changes in the immune system and organs (lung, heart, kidney, vessels, nerve system), as well as those associated with diabetes, in aging patients, and speculate on the most likely mechanisms underlying the deterioration of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Vigilância da População , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/toxicidade , COVID-19 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiologia , Fungos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0/fisiologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , SARS-CoV-2 , Alga Marinha/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328146

RESUMO

In Southwestern China, the root of Morinda angustifolia Roxb. has been employed as a folk medicine for treating various types of hepatitis and jaundice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of anthraquinones extract from M. angustifolia root (AEMA) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced liver injury in mice and identify the main bioactive components. Results indicated that AEMA pretreatment could significantly, in a dose-dependent manner, attenuate the increased levels of ALT and AST in mice serum induced by CCl4. At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, AEMA exhibited significant suppression of the elevated hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as marked upregulatory effects on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice exposed to CCl4. However, AEMA treatment had no effect on the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) or the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, two anthraquinone constituents were isolated from AEMA and identified as soranjidiol and rubiadin-3-methyl ether. Soranjidiol exhibited similar protective effects to those of AEMA on liver damage induced by CCl4. Overall, our research clearly demonstrated the hepatoprotective effects of the AEMA, and anthraquinones, particularly soranjidiol, should be considered as the main hepatoprotective principles of M. angustifolia. In addition, the underlying mechanism may be, at least in part, related to its antioxidant properties.

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