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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823147

RESUMO

Peratrial balloon pulmonary valvotomy, an alternative technique for severe pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) in infants, performed exclusively under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance is hereby described. The technique is performed using a hollow-probe via a right mini-thoracotomy in the fourth-intercostal space. The hollow- probe introduces a guidewire through PVS without touching the right ventricular wall, therefore, avoiding eliciting ventricular arrhythmias, spasm of right ventricular outflow tract, and subsequent hemodynamic instability. Unlike conventional approaches, peratrial technique permits quicker orientation, dilatation, and allows quick conversion to open-heart surgery when needed.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1660, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712587

RESUMO

In less than nine months, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) killed over a million people, including >25,000 in New York City (NYC) alone. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights clinical needs to detect infection, track strain evolution, and identify biomarkers of disease course. To address these challenges, we designed a fast (30-minute) colorimetric test (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection from naso/oropharyngeal swabs and a large-scale shotgun metatranscriptomics platform (total-RNA-seq) for host, viral, and microbial profiling. We applied these methods to clinical specimens gathered from 669 patients in New York City during the first two months of the outbreak, yielding a broad molecular portrait of the emerging COVID-19 disease. We find significant enrichment of a NYC-distinctive clade of the virus (20C), as well as host responses in interferon, ACE, hematological, and olfaction pathways. In addition, we use 50,821 patient records to find that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have a protective effect for severe COVID-19 outcomes, unlike similar drugs. Finally, spatial transcriptomic data from COVID-19 patient autopsy tissues reveal distinct ACE2 expression loci, with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. These findings can inform public health and may help develop and drive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
/genética , /genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , /epidemiologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Antígenos HLA/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Pandemias , RNA-Seq , /efeitos dos fármacos
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729378

RESUMO

The functionalization of polysaccharides with synthetic nanopolymers has attracted great attention owing to the applications of this method in many industrial fields. This work aimed to investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide on the functionalization of dextran. Dextran-arsenite nanoparticle formation was induced by microwave with sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Various analytical techniques were used to verify the structure of the nanopolymers. Besides, various reaction conditions, such as dextran concentration, arsenic trioxide concentration and pH, were investigated to determine their impact on particle size. The results indicated that the product was an arsenite-based nanomaterial retaining the basic configuration of dextran and that the product size was positively correlated with pH but negatively correlated with arsenic trioxide concentration. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of the dextran-arsenite nanoparticles on the growth of the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 and human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines Huh-7 and SMMC-7721 were studied. The results showed that the product could inhibit the proliferation of these three tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the product could be a new type of functional nanomaterial for further study on the synthesis, biological activity and development of polysaccharide drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Arsenitos , Nanopartículas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio , Dextranos , Humanos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112176, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780780

RESUMO

Both tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) have widespread commercial applications, resulting in their ubiquitous co-presence in the environment and biota. Although environmental chemicals exist as mixtures, toxicity studies are nearly always conducted with single chemicals. Few studies explore potential interactions of different chemical mixtures. In this study, we employ the sensitive developing nerve system in zebrafish to assess the neurotoxicity of TBBPA/TiO2 NP mixtures. Specifically, zebrafish embryos were exposed to solvent control (0.1% DMSO), 2 µM TBBPA, 0.1 mg/L TiO2 NP, and their mixture from 8 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and motor/social behavioral assessments were conducted on embryos/larvae at different developmental stages. Our results showed that TBBPA/TiO2 NP single or co-exposures increased spontaneous movement, decreased touch response and swim speed, and affected social behaviors of light/dark preference, shoaling, mirror attack and social contact. In particular, many of these phenotypes were manifested with higher magnitude of changes from the mixture exposure. These behavioral deficits were also accompanied with increased cell death in olfactory region and neuromasts in the lateral line system, increased ROS in gallbladder, pancreas, liver, and intestine, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and decreased ATP levels in whole larval tissue homogenates. Further, genes coding for key cell apoptosis marker and antioxidant enzyme were significantly upregulated by these two chemicals, in particular to their mixture. Interestingly, the co-presence of TBBPA also increased the mean particle size of TiO2 NP in the exposure solutions and the TiO2 NP content in larval tissue. Together, our analysis suggests that TBBPA/TiO2 NP induced behavioral changes may be due to physical accumulation of these two chemicals in the target organs, and TiO2 NP may serve as carriers for increased accumulation of TBBPA. To conclude, we demonstrated that TBBPA/TiO2 NP together cause increased bioaccumulation of TiO2, and heightened responses in behavior, cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. Our findings also highlight the importance of toxicity assessment using chemical mixtures.

5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(11): 2923-2931, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712918

RESUMO

Detection of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. However, traditional PCR-based pathogen nucleic acid detection methods require relatively high experimental facilities and are difficult to apply in areas with limited resources. In this study, a self-driven microfluidic chip was designed to carry out multiplex detection of HBV, HCV and HIV by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Benefitting from the air permeability of the polydimethylsiloxane material, the chip could accomplish sample loading within 12 min driven by the pressure difference between the reaction chambers and vacuum chambers in the chip without using pumps or any injection devices. Multiplex detection is achieved by presetting LAMP primers specific to different targets in different reaction chambers. Calcein was used as an indicator to indicate the positive amplification reaction, and the result can be recorded by a smartphone camera. After 50 min of isothermal amplification at 63 °C, 2 copies/µL of HBV, HCV and HIV target nucleic acids could be detected. The results of HBV detection of 20 clinical plasma samples by using the chip are consistent with that of the qPCR-based kit, indicating that the LAMP-based self-driven chip has the clinical application potential for blood-borne pathogen detection, especially in resource-limited areas.

6.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 37, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has become an effective therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) who do not respond to conservative treatment. However, an effective treatment strategy for patients who fail SNM has not yet been identified. An option for LUTD is needed when the clinical response to the SNM diminishes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Chinese man presented to an outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty in urination for > 3 years. The patient also complained of urinary frequency and urgency, accompanied by perineal discomfort. He was diagnosed with LUTD based on his symptoms and previous examinations. The patient underwent sacral neuromodulation with a permanent implantable pulse generator (IPG) (provided free of charge by Chengnuo Medical Technology Co., Ltd.; General Stim, Hangzhou, China) in the left buttock, as he participated in the company's clinical trial to test the long-term effects of IPG. He reported loss of efficacy of the device 3 months after the implantation. We performed bilateral electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) therapy for him. After 2 weeks of treatment, he began to report smooth voiding within 2 h after EPNS, and a moderate improvement in urinary frequency, urgency, and perineal discomfort. After 4 weeks of EPNS, the patient reported > 50% improvement in his urination, evaluated with the short form of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. He reported smooth voiding, moderate improvements in urinary frequency and urgency, and the disappearance of the perineal discomfort. He also reported improved sleep and erections. The patient was discharged after 8 weeks of EPNS treatment. CONCLUSION: EPNS could be an option as an additional therapy for patients with LUTD who have failed SNM.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5457, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750846

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a major cause of death in males. Cyproterone acetate (CPA), the steroidal anti-androgen for part of androgen deprivation therapy, may block the androgen-receptor interaction and then reduce serum testosterone through its weak anti-gonadotropic action. In addition to CPA inducing hepatitis, CPA is known to cause liver tumors in rats also. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytoplasmic receptor and regulates multiple physiological functions. CYP1A1 is an AhR-targeted gene. We found that CPA induced CYP1A1 expression, transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon response element (AHRE), and the nuclear localization of AhR in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 cells. However, CPA suppressed CYP1A1 mRNA expression and the transcriptional activity of AHRE in human HepG2 and MCF7 cells, and also decreased AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 protein expression and transcriptional activity of AHRE in HepG2 cells. In summary, CPA is an AhR agonist in mouse cells, but an AhR antagonist in human cells. Accordingly, CPA potentially plays a role as an endocrine disruptor of the AhR. This study helps us to understand why CPA induces acute hepatitis, gene mutation, and many other side effects. In addition, it may trigger further studies investigating the relationships between CPA, glucocorticoid receptor and castration-resistant prostate cancer in the future.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 259: 117775, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674017

RESUMO

Triple-helical aggregates (THAs) have been proven to affect the biological activities and functional properties of triple-helix polysaccharides. Thus, it's urgent to seek a method to reduce the size of THAs while preserving independent triple helices (ITHs). In this study, the effects of alkali-neutralization (AN) treatment on THAs and ITHs of curdlan were studied. The positive values of the Congo red test data (R2>0.99) fitted using a Logistic model indicated that AN treatment (CNaOH/HCl>0.28 mol/L) facilitated the disaggregation of THAs. Congo red test, sedimentation test, and turbidity test showed that AN treatment (CNaOH/HCl = 1.0 mol/L) significantly reduced the size of THAs to approximately 1 µm while effectively increasing the relative amount of ITHs to approximately 199 %. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that AN treatment basically unchanged the primary structure of curdlan chains, but affected the crystalline structure and the intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding of curdlan.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High mobility group box 1 protein participates in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Activation of the inflammasome can mediate the release of high mobility group box 1. The role of the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome in allergic rhinitis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the function of absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome in murine allergic rhinitis and the interaction between high mobility group box 1 and the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome. METHODS: A murine allergic rhinitis model was established using twenty Balb/c mice. Expression of the components of the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome: absent in melanoma 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (Asc), caspase-1 p20, and additional nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) were detected by western blotting during allergic rhinitis. Alterations of absent in melanoma 2, caspase-1, and high mobility group box 1 after ovalbumin challenge were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick end labeling, TUNEL assay, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 were used for the observation of pyroptosis. RESULTS: Eosinophilia and goblet cell infiltration were observed in the nasal mucosa of mice in the allergic rhinitis group. Absent in melanoma 2, Asc, and caspase-1 p20 increased after ovalbumin exposure while Nlrp3 did not. High mobility group box 1 was released in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice. TUNEL-positive cells increased in the epithelium and laminae propria, whereas cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome was activated and pyroptosis may occur in the nasal mucosa after ovalbumin treatment. These may contribute to the translocation of high mobility group box 1 and the development of allergic rhinitis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703876

RESUMO

The construction of multiple heteroatom-doped porous carbon with unique nanoarchitectures and abundant heteroatom active sites is promising for reversible oxygen-involving electrocatalysis. However, most of the synthetic methods required the use of templates to construct precisely designed nanostructured carbon. Herein, we introduced an ultrasound-triggered route for the synthesis of a piperazine-containing covalent triazine framework (P-CTF). The ultrasonic energy triggered both the polycondensation of monomers and the assembly into a nanoflower-shaped morphology without utilizing any templates. Subsequent carbonization of P-CTF led to the formation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and fluorine tri-doped porous carbon (NPF@CNFs) with a well-maintained nanoflower morphology. The resultant NPF@CNFs showed high electrocatalytic activity and stability toward bifunctional electrolysis, which was better than the commercial Pt/C and IrO2 electrocatalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively. As a further demonstration, employing NPF@CNFs as air electrode materials resulted in an excellent performance of liquid-state and solid-state Zn-air batteries, showing great potentials of the obtained multiple heteroatom-doped porous carbon electrocatalysts for wearable electronics.

11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 402-413, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534037

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the effects of 11-day exposure of sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethazine (SM2), norfloxacin (NOR), and enrofloxacin (ENR) on the growth, chlorophyll a (Chl. a) content, phycobiliproteins (PBPs) content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Chrysosporum ovalisporum, examined the removal rate of these antibiotics by C. ovalisporum, and performed acute toxicology test with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria on aquatic animals. The results showed that the stress of SD and SM2 increased extracellular ALP activity and weakly inhibited the algal growth and the contents of Chl. a and PBPs compared with that noted in the control. ENR and NOR treatment groups exerted significant inhibition on algal growth as well as Chl. a and PBPs contents and ALP activity, although the cyanobacterium could degrade these two antibiotics more than SD and SM2. The results also revealed that the interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria could inhibit D. magna feeding.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Clorofila A , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565360

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) refers to a set of heterogeneous vascular diseases defined by elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), leading to right ventricular (RV) remodeling and often death. Early increases in pulmonary artery stiffness in PAH drive pathogenic alterations of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs), leading to vascular remodeling. Dysregulation of microRNAs can drive PAEC dysfunction. However, the role of vascular stiffness in regulating pathogenic microRNAs in PAH is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrated that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening downregulated miR-7 levels in PAECs. The RNA binding protein Quaking (QKI) has been implicated in the biogenesis of miR-7. Correspondingly, we found that ECM stiffness up-regulated QKI, and QKI knockdown led to increased miR-7. Downstream of the QKI-miR-7 axis, the serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) was identified as a direct target of miR-7. Correspondingly, SRSF1 was reciprocally up-regulated in PAECs exposed to stiff ECM and was negatively correlated with miR-7. Decreased miR-7 and increased QKI and SRSF1 were observed in lungs from PAH patients and PAH rats exposed to SU5416/hypoxia. Lastly, miR-7 upregulation inhibited human PAEC migration, while forced SRSF1 expression reversed this phenotype, proving that miR-7 depended upon SRSF1 to control migration. In aggregate, these results define the QKI-miR-7-SRSF1 axis as a mechanosensitive mechanism linking pulmonary arterial vascular stiffness to pathogenic endothelial function. These findings emphasize implications relevant to PAH and suggest the potential benefit of developing therapies that target this miRNA-dependent axis in PAH.

13.
World J Urol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens extract (SRE) for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical phase 4 study of 221 patients with CP/CPPS across 11 centers. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive SRE or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in total score on the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Secondary efficacy endpoints included improvements within each domain of NIH-CPSI, clinical response rate, and International Index of Erectile Function 5 items (IIEF-5). RESULTS: In total, 226 patients were enrolled and randomized between January 2017 and June 2018. Of these 221 patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis: 148 in the SRE group and 73 patients in the placebo group. Compared to the placebo, SRE led to statistically significant improvements in the NIH-CPSI total score and sub-scores. The significant improvements of NIH-CPSI scores were established after 2 weeks from the first dose, and continued to the end of the treatment. Furthermore, a significantly higher rate of patients achieved a clinical response in the SRE group compared with that in the placebo group (73.0% vs 32.9%, P < 0.0001). Only minor adverse events were observed across the entire study population. CONCLUSIONS: SRE was effective, safe, and clinically superior to placebo for the treatment of CP/CPPS. ChiCTR-IPR-16010196, December 21, 2016 retrospectively registered.

14.
Urology ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the efficacy and safety of Ningmitai capsule (NMT) in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 120 men with CP/CPPS to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NMT. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to NMT or placebo treatment for 4 weeks at 3 centres. The patients were evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) at baseline, the end of 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. The primary endpoints were the changes of the NIH-CPSI pain scores from baseline to the end of 2 and 4 weeks of the treatment. The secondary endpoints include the changes of the NIH-CPSI total scores, urinary symptoms scores and the quality of life (QoL) as well as the responder rate. RESULTS: After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decreases of the NIH-CPSI pain scores, total scores and QoL in the NMT group were all significantly superior to those in the placebo group. The responder rate was significantly higher in the NMT group than that in the placebo group at both 2 and 4 weeks. No adverse events were reported during the treatment. CONCLUSION: NMT could significantly improve the pain symptoms and QoL in the patients with CP/CPPS as early as in 2 weeks, and the efficacy enhanced at the end of the 4-week treatment. The safety of NMT was confirmed in this trial.

15.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2619-2626, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427440

RESUMO

Plasmonic nanoparticles, which have excellent local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optical and chemical properties, have been widely used in biology, chemistry, and photonics. The single-particle light scattering dark-field microscopy (DFM) imaging technique based on a color-coded analytical method is a promising approach for high-throughput plasmonic nanoparticle scatterometry. Due to the interference of high noise levels, accurately extracting real scattering light of plasmonic nanoparticles in living cells is still a challenging task, which hinders its application for intracellular analysis. Herein, we propose an automatic and high-throughput LSPR scatterometry technique using a U-Net convolutional deep learning neural network. We use the deep neural networks to recognize the scattering light of nanoparticles from background interference signals in living cells, which have a dynamic and complicated environment, and construct a DFM image semantic analytical model based on the U-Net convolutional neural network. Compared with traditional methods, this method can achieve higher accuracy, stronger generalization ability, and robustness. As a proof of concept, the change of intracellular cytochrome c in MCF-7 cells under UV light-induced apoptosis was monitored through the fast and high-throughput analysis of the plasmonic nanoparticle scattering light, providing a new strategy for scatterometry study and imaging analysis in chemistry.

16.
J Card Surg ; 36(3): 928-938, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Both open heart surgery and percutaneous approaches retain several limitations in closing large apical muscular ventricular septal defects (AmVSD) in infants. We present probe-assisted percardiac device closure (PDC), an exclusively transoesophageal-echocardiography guided technique, as an alternative with midterm results. METHODS: Thirty-six infants with large AmVSDs (single or multiple-holed) underwent PDC in our department. Mean AmVSD for single and multiple-holed measured 7.2 ± 2.4 mm and 6.3 ± 3.4 mm, respectively. Subjects presented with a spectrum of cardiopulmonary sequelae and growth retardation, either alone or combined. Some were ventilator dependent and re-do cases. In addition, AmVSDs were categorized: cylindrical, tunnel and cave-like shaped as per color Doppler interrogation. Pursuant to cardiac access and deployment technique, subjects were apportioned: group A; inferior median sternotomy (perventricular), B; right mini-thoracotomy (peratrial) and C; complete median sternotomy (perventricular). Under exclusive echocardiography, the Z- or J probe-assisted delivery system was utilized to access AmVSDs and implant device(s) via aforementioned techniques. RESULTS: Forty-two muscular ventricular septal devices (8.4 ± 2.6 mm) were implanted in 36 subjects uneventfully. Seventeen "complex," and 10 cylindrical or straight tunnel-shapedAmVSDs (including 2 re-do patients) suited perventricular and peratrial techniques respectively. Comparatively, group B exhibited shorter procedural indices than A (p < .01). Five of 15 multiple-holed AmVSDs (four Swiss cheese) required two or three devices for a satisfactory occlusion. Nevertheless, post occlusion insignificant residual shunts( ≤ 2 mm) seldom achieved spontaneous closure, and at 36-month follow-up complete closure was 67%. Residual shunt persisted amongst multiple-holed. All patients improved during follow up. CONCLUSION: PDC is feasible, safe and effective alternative technique for AmVSD in infants.

17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 117: 103965, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310083

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), which are discovered in invertebrates and vertebrates, play an important role in antibacterial immunity. However, the function of PGRPs is largely uninvestigated in reptiles. In the present study, a short-type PGRP gene, designed as C-turtle-PGRP-S, was identified in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. The C-turtle-PGRP-S contains a highly conserved PGRP domain and has close relationship with PGRP-S orthologues in other species according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. C-turtle-PGRP-S gene was constitutively expressed in all detected tissues and was induced by Edwardsiella tarda. Additionally, recombinant C-turtle-PGRP-S showed PGN binding activity and antibacterial function against E. tarda. Therefore, it is suggested that the function of PGRP-S is likely to be conserved in reptile vertebrates, as observed in other vertebrates, shedding light on the evolutionary conservation of PGRPs.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 169: 60-66, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338523

RESUMO

To study dextran degradation by sonoenzymolysis, the degradation rate, the change of molecular weight, the mass fractions of fragments of certain molecular weight, and the degradation kinetics were analyzed and compared with the corresponding parameters under ultrasonic and enzymolysis treatments. The degradation rate improved greatly and the time required to stabilize the rate was shortened compared with ultrasonic treatment, for example, more than 120 min was needed at 4 W/mL for ultrasonic treatment before stabilization with the degradation rate of 77.41%, whereas 80 min was needed for sonoenzymolysis treatment with the degradation rate of 91.44%. A lower molecular weight limit was established (7.15 × 104 Da at 4 W/mL for sonoenzymolysis treatment compared with 19.61 × 104 Da at 4 W/mL for ultrasonic treatment), with decreased time to approach the new limiting molecular weight (80 min compared with more than 120 min). The mass fraction of 104-105 Da fragment increased (61.02% at 4 W/mL for sonoenzymolysis treatment compared with 42.98% at 4 W/mL for ultrasonic treatment) and the dextran degradation kinetics for sonoenzymolysis under lower ultrasonic intensity fitted the Malhotra model well. Sonoenzymolysis treatment at the ultrasonic intensity of 4 W/mL for 80 min resulted in more 104-105 Da fragments in a shorter time. The results indicated that sonoenzymolysis can be applied as an efficient method to obtain clinical dextran.

19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103780, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745481

RESUMO

As a key molecule in innate immune signalling pathway, interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) mediates downstream signalling cascades in immune response. In the present study, an IRAK1 orthologue was characterized from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with a 2115 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a protein of 704 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignments showed that IRAK1 contains highly conserved features among different species, with a conservative N-terminal death domain (DD) and a C-terminal conserved serine/threonine protein kinase (STKc) domain. Expression analysis indicated that IRAK1 was widely expressed in examined organs/tissues, with the highest level observed in muscle and lowest in stomach. In RTG-2 cell line, the induced expression of IRAK1 was observed following the stimulation by the fish bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Luciferase activity assays revealed that IRAK1 induced significantly the activity of NF-κB in Human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cell line; but after co-transfected with rainbow trout IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), the induction was significantly down-regulated when compared with the expression of IRAK1 alone. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays indicated that IRAK1 was associated with rainbow trout myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), IRAK4 and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in transfected HEK293T cells, and may form a complex with MyD88, IRAK4 and TRAF6 during the signalling pathway.

20.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103846, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888970

RESUMO

In vertebrates, a total of eleven interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs), IRF1 to IRF11 are reported, with the conserved presence of IRF1 to IRF9 in all classes of vertebrates. However, IRF10 has been reported only in fish and birds, and IRF11 seems to be a fish specific IRF member. In this study, IRF11 in mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi was found upregulated following virus infection, and IRF11 was localized constitutively in nucleus as revealed through immunofluorescence test. The overexpression and/or luciferase reporter assays showed that IRF11 can induce transcriptionally the ISRE activity, and the expression of type I IFNs, IFNc and IFNh, as well as the IFN-stimulated gene, Mx, thus inhibiting the Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) replication as indicated in the reduced expression of virus protein genes. It is thus suggested that IRF11 in mandarin fish and probably in other teleost fish can exert its antiviral effect through the upregulation of type I IFNs and ISGs.

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