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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314677

RESUMO

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (Tb ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.

2.
Fitoterapia ; 141: 104450, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837410

RESUMO

Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA), a bioactive constituent isolated from pigeon pea leaves, exhibited neuroprotective activities in previous studies. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant effects of CSA by using behavioral despair models of tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. CSA (30 or 60 mg/kg), intragastrically administrated for 7 days, could significantly reduce the immobility time of mice in TST and FST. CSA treatment (15 or 30 mg/kg) significantly reversed the depressive-like behavioral changes of mice induced by 3 or 6 weeks CUMS that caused the decrease of sucrose preference, the increase of latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and the increase of immobility time in TST of mice. Furthermore, the related mechanisms of the effect were explored by accessing the metabolite levels of kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and the expression of some related proteins in cerebral cortex of CUMS mice. Our results showed that the kynurenine pathway was upregulated after CUMS, while the alteration could be significantly reversed by CSA. CSA also reversed the CUMS-induced decrease in the levels of BDNF, PSD-95, p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR. Therefore, the antidepressant-like effects of CSA might be achieved through regulating tryptophan metabolism, promoting BDNF and PSD-95 expression, and activating Akt/mTOR pathway in the cerebral cortex.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Cajanus/química , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química
3.
Life Sci ; 234: 116751, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415771

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aims to investigate the impacts of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats, and to explore the regulation effects of fluoxetine. MAIN METHODS: OBX model was developed by aspiration of olfactory bulbs. After fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, urine samples were collected and behavior tests were applied. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolites and neurotransmitters in PFC were determined by prominence ultrafast liquid chromatography-QTRAP-mass spectrometry, and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were evaluated by western blot. Urinary metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabonomics strategy. KEY FINDING: OBX rats showed hyperlocomotion in open field, hyperactivity in open arm and despair status, and fluoxetine reserved these behavioral abnormalities. The levels of TRP, 5-HIAA, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and DA increased, while kynurenine and 5-HT decreased in PFC of OBX rats. The activities of TPH2 and IDO1were inhibited after OBX. Twenty-six altered metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers in OBX rats involved in tryptophan metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, energy metabolism, purine metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism. Among them, 15 abnormal metabolites were corrected by fluoxetine to some extent. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed that urinary metabolic profile changed greatly in OBX rats, and identified biomarkers might be helpful for the diagnosis of agitated depression. The regulation effects of fluoxetine on urinary metabolic profile and tryptophan metabolites in PFC might contribute to its antidepressant action in OBX rats.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Depressão/urina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Masculino , Bulbo Olfatório/cirurgia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triptofano/metabolismo
4.
Mil Med Res ; 3: 15, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27134755

RESUMO

Recently, studies on the extent to which spaceflight affects the psychology of individuals has received attention. In order to reveal the mental challenges that humans face in space, we need practical viewpoints to integrate the psychological effects, behavior, performance and the environment itself for space exploration. The present review discusses the individual variables related to space psychology and manned spaceflight, in addition to their growing trends. These items include patterns of emotional changes in extreme environments and the approaches to evaluating emotions. Moreover, the review concludes with suggested future research on emotion during spaceflight and its analogs. These data and information are needed to plan for the exploration of the Moon and Mars, along with contributions to the construction of the international space station (ISS) and astronaut training.

5.
Behav Brain Res ; 302: 60-8, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747207

RESUMO

Good sleep is necessary for optimal health, especially for mental health. Insomnia, sleep deprivation will make your ability to learn and memory impaired. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sleep disorders-induced cognitive decline is still largely unknown. In this study, the sleep deprivation of animal model was induced by chronical sleep interruption (CSI), the behavioral tests, biochemical index determinations, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based serum metabolic profiling analysis were performed to explore the effects of CSI on cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. After 14-days CSI, the cognitive function of the mice was evaluated by new objects preference (NOP) task and temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Serum corticosterone (CORT), and brain Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Catalase (CAT) levels were determined by ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares project to latent structures-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Student's t-test. We found that the cognitive function of the mice was significantly affected by CSI. Besides, levels of CORT and MDA were higher, and SOD and CAT were lower in CSI mice than those of control. Obvious body weight loss of CSI mice was also observed. Thirteen potential serum biomarkers including choline, valine, uric acid, allantoic acid, carnitines, and retinoids were identified. Affected metabolic pathways involve metabolism of purine, retinoid, lipids, and amino acid. These results showed that CSI can damage the cognitive performance notably. The cognitive decline may ascribe to excessive oxidative stress and a series of disturbed metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Animais , Peso Corporal , Catalase/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 9: 418, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26236224

RESUMO

Neuroimaging-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses have revealed significant developmental trends in specific intrinsic connectivity networks linked to cognitive and behavioral maturation. However, knowledge of how brain functional maturation is associated with FC dynamics at rest is limited. Here, we examined age-related differences in the temporal variability of FC dynamics with data publicly released by the Nathan Kline Institute (NKI; n = 183, ages 7-30) and showed that dynamic inter-region interactions can be used to accurately predict individual brain maturity across development. Furthermore, we identified a significant age-dependent trend underlying dynamic inter-network FC, including increasing variability of the connections between the visual network, default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum as well as within the cerebellum and DMN and decreasing variability within the cerebellum and between the cerebellum and DMN as well as the cingulo-opercular network. Overall, the results suggested significant developmental changes in dynamic inter-network interaction, which may shed new light on the functional organization of typical developmental brains.

7.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 8: 187, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24904338

RESUMO

Space is characterized by risk and uncertainty. As humans play an important role in long-duration space missions, the ability to make risky decisions effectively is important for astronauts who spend extended time periods in space. The present study used the Balloon Analog Risk Task to conduct both behavioral and fMRI experiments to evaluate the effects of simulated microgravity on individuals' risk-taking behavior and the neural basis of the effect. The results showed that participants' risk-taking behavior was not affected by bed rest. However, we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) showed less deactivation after bed rest and that the VMPFC activation in the active choice condition showed no significant difference between the win outcome and the loss outcome after bed rest, although its activation was significantly greater in the win outcome than in the loss outcome before bed rest. These results suggested that the participants showed a decreased level of value calculation after the bed rest. Our findings can contribute to a better understanding of the effect of microgravity on individual higher-level cognitive functioning.

8.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 8: 200, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24926242

RESUMO

Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of -6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC), to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies), in the male volunteers after 45 days of -6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS-MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function, and central neural activity.

9.
Mil Med Res ; 1: 23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26000169

RESUMO

The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth's environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we summarize our understanding of both the influence of the space environment on the circadian timing system and sleep and the impact of these changes on astronaut physiology and performance.

10.
Ergonomics ; 56(8): 1225-31, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23789793

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Accurate evaluation of emergencies is a critical concern in long-duration space flights. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 45 days of - 6° head-down bed rest - a model that simulates the conditions in microgravity environments - on the evaluation of orally reported emergencies. Sixteen male participants listened to corresponding emergency scenarios and assessed the severity of these situations eight times before, during and after bed rest. The results revealed a ' recency effect': compared with emergency descriptions in the order of serious to mild, those framed in the reverse order were judged to be more serious. However, the severity ratings did not vary with time spent in the simulated microgravity environment. These findings are similar to those observed in a regular environment on Earth, indicating that the design principles of information presentation for situations on Earth may also be extended to designs intended for outer space. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: A recency effect was found in the evaluation of orally reported emergencies under simulated microgravity conditions. The design principles of information presentation for situations on Earth may also be extended to designs intended for outer space.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Emergências/psicologia , Julgamento , Simulação de Ausência de Peso/psicologia , Adulto , Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing) ; 17(5): 386-90, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15926242

RESUMO

In recent years, the interest of researchers has grown in the study on emotional speech. This article is a review of the choice of corporas, acoustic feature extraction and recognition from emotional speech.


Assuntos
Emoções , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fala
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