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1.
J Biol Chem ; 295(11): 3553-3562, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024693

RESUMO

Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and contribute to the analgesic effect of cannabinoids. However, the epigenetic mechanism regulating the expression of CB1Rs in neuropathic pain is unknown. G9a (encoded by the Ehmt2 gene), a histone 3 at lysine 9 methyltransferase, is a key chromatin regulator responsible for gene silencing. In this study, we determined G9a's role in regulating CB1R expression in the DRG and in CB1R-mediated analgesic effects in an animal model of neuropathic pain. We show that nerve injury profoundly reduced mRNA levels of CB1Rs but increased the expression of CB2 receptors in the rat DRG. ChIP results indicated increased enrichment of histone 3 at lysine 9 dimethylation, a G9a-catalyzed repressive histone mark, at the promoter regions of the CB1R genes. G9a inhibition in nerve-injured rats not only up-regulated the CB1R expression level in the DRG but also potentiated the analgesic effect of a CB1R agonist on nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, in mice lacking Ehmt2 in DRG neurons, nerve injury failed to reduce CB1R expression in the DRG and to decrease the analgesic effect of the CB1R agonist. Moreover, nerve injury diminished the inhibitory effect of the CB1R agonist on synaptic glutamate release from primary afferent nerves to spinal cord dorsal horn neurons in WT mice but not in mice lacking Ehmt2 in DRG neurons. Our findings reveal that nerve injury diminishes the analgesic effect of CB1R agonists through G9a-mediated CB1R down-regulation in primary sensory neurons.

2.
Brain Res ; 1729: 146623, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881186

RESUMO

Both inhibiting ascending nociceptive transmission and activating descending inhibition are involved in the opioid analgesic effect. The spinal dorsal horn is a critical site for modulating nociceptive transmission by descending pathways elicited by opioids in the brain. µ-Opioid receptors (MORs, encoded by Oprm1) are highly expressed in primary sensory neurons and their central terminals in the spinal cord. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MORs expressed in primary sensory neurons contribute to the descending inhibition and supraspinal analgesic effect induced by centrally administered opioids. We generated Oprm1 conditional knockout (Oprm1-cKO) mice by crossing AdvillinCre/+ mice with Oprm1flox/flox mice. Immunocytochemical labeling in Oprm1-cKO mice showed that MORs are completely ablated from primary sensory neurons and are profoundly reduced in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Intracerebroventricular injection of morphine or fentanyl produced a potent analgesic effect in wild-type mice, but such an effect was significantly attenuated in Oprm1-cKO mice. Furthermore, the analgesic effect produced by morphine or fentanyl microinjected into the periaqueductal gray was significantly greater in wild-type mice than in Oprm1-cKO mice. Blocking MORs at the spinal cord level diminished the analgesic effect of morphine and fentanyl microinjected into the periaqueductal gray in both groups of mice. Our findings indicate that MORs expressed at primary afferent terminals in the spinal cord contribute to the supraspinal opioid analgesic effect. These presynaptic MORs in the spinal cord may serve as an interface between ascending inhibition and descending modulation that are involved in opioid analgesia.

3.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 371(2): 242-249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481518

RESUMO

Neuronal hyperactivity in the spinal dorsal horn can amplify nociceptive input in diabetic neuropathic pain. The glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors, respectively) are involved in spinal nociceptive transmission. It is unclear, however, whether painful diabetic neuropathy is associated with changes in the activity of synaptic NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in spinal dorsal horn neurons. AMPA receptors lacking GluA2 are Ca2+-permeable (CP-AMPA receptors), and their currents display characteristic inward rectification. In this study, we showed that evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), induced by streptozotocin, exhibited inward rectification in spinal dorsal neurons in diabetic rats. Presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn was similar in diabetic and control rats. In the dorsal spinal cord, the membrane GluA2 protein level was significantly lower in diabetic than in control rats, whereas the cytosolic GluA2 level was greater in diabetic than in control rats. In contrast, the GluA1 subunit levels in the plasma membrane and cytosol did not differ between the two groups. Blocking CP-AMPA receptors significantly reduced the amplitude of EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons in diabetic but not in control rats. Furthermore, blocking spinal CP-AMPA receptors reduced pain hypersensitivity in diabetic rats but had no effect on nociception in control rats. Our study suggests that diabetic neuropathy augments CP-AMPA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn by causing intracellular retention of GluA2 and impairing GluA2 membrane trafficking. Increased prevalence of spinal CP-AMPA receptors sustains diabetic neuropathic pain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study demonstrates that the prevalence of synaptic calcium-permeable AMPA receptors is increased in the spinal dorsal horn, which mediates pain hypersensitivity in diabetic neuropathy. Thus, calcium-permeable AMPA receptors play an important role in glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord in painful diabetic neuropathy. This new knowledge improves our understanding of the mechanisms involved in central sensitization associated with diabetic neuropathic pain and suggests that calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are an alternative therapeutic target for treating this chronic pain condition.

4.
J Physiol ; 597(16): 4325-4340, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241170

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: The angiotensin AT1 receptor expression and protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated NMDA receptor phosphorylation levels in the hypothalamus are increased in a rat genetic model of hypertension. Blocking AT1 receptors or PKC activity normalizes the increased pre- and postsynaptic NMDA receptor activity of hypothalamic presympathetic neurons in hypertensive animals. Inhibition of AT1 receptor-PKC activity in the hypothalamus reduces arterial blood pressure and sympathetic nerve discharges in hypertensive animals. AT1 receptors in the hypothalamus are endogenously activated to sustain NMDA receptor hyperactivity and elevated sympathetic outflow via PKC in hypertension. ABSTRACT: Increased synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a major role in elevated sympathetic output in hypertension. Although exogenous angiotensin II (AngII) can increase NMDAR activity in the PVN, whether endogenous AT1 receptor-protein kinase C (PKC) activity mediates the augmented NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension is unclear. Here we show that blocking AT1 receptors with losartan or inhibiting PKC with chelerythrine significantly decreased the frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and the amplitude of puff NMDA currents of retrogradely labelled spinally projecting PVN neurons in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Also, treatment with chelerythrine abrogated the potentiating effect of AngII on mEPSCs and puff NMDA currents of labelled PVN neurons in SHRs. In contrast, neither losartan nor chelerythrine had any effect on mEPSCs or puff NMDA currents in labelled PVN neurons in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Furthermore, levels of AT1 receptor mRNA and PKC-mediated NMDAR phosphorylation in the PVN were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. In addition, microinjection of losartan or chelerythrine into the PVN substantially reduced blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs but not in WKY rats. Chelerythrine blocked sympathoexcitatory responses to AngII microinjected into the PVN. Our findings suggest that endogenous AT1 receptor-PKC activity is essential for presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and for the augmented sympathetic outflow in hypertension. This information advances our mechanistic understanding of the interplay between angiotensinergic and glutamatergic excitatory inputs in hypertension.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 130(5): 804-819, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic use of µ-opioid receptor agonists paradoxically causes both hyperalgesia and the loss of analgesic efficacy. Opioid treatment increases presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity to potentiate nociceptive input to spinal dorsal horn neurons. However, the mechanism responsible for this opioid-induced activation of presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors remains unclear. α2δ-1, formerly known as a calcium channel subunit, interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and is primarily expressed at presynaptic terminals. This study tested the hypothesis that α2δ-1-bound N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors contribute to presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hyperactivity associated with opioid-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. METHODS: Rats (5 mg/kg) and wild-type and α2δ-1-knockout mice (10 mg/kg) were treated intraperitoneally with morphine twice/day for 8 consecutive days, and nociceptive thresholds were examined. Presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity was recorded in spinal cord slices. Coimmunoprecipitation was performed to examine protein-protein interactions. RESULTS: Chronic morphine treatment in rats increased α2δ-1 protein amounts in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. Chronic morphine exposure also increased the physical interaction between α2δ-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by 1.5 ± 0.3 fold (means ± SD, P = 0.009, n = 6) and the prevalence of α2δ-1-bound N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at spinal cord synapses. Inhibiting α2δ-1 with gabapentin or genetic knockout of α2δ-1 abolished the increase in presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn induced by morphine treatment. Furthermore, uncoupling the α2δ-1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor interaction with an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide fully reversed morphine-induced tonic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at the central terminal of primary afferents. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of gabapentin or intrathecal injection of an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide or α2δ-1 genetic knockout abolished the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by chronic morphine exposure and largely preserved morphine's analgesic effect during 8 days of morphine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: α2δ-1-Bound N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance by augmenting presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression and activity at the spinal cord level.

6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(10): 1889-1899, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788514

RESUMO

Chronic neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that remains challenging to treat. Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been used to treat neuropathic pain, but the exact sites of their actions have been unclear until recently. Although conventionally postsynaptic, NMDARs are also expressed presynaptically, particularly at the central terminals of primary sensory neurons, in the spinal dorsal horn. However, presynaptic NMDARs in the spinal cord are normally quiescent and are not actively involved in physiological nociceptive transmission. In this review, we describe the emerging role of presynaptic NMDARs at the spinal cord level in chronic neuropathic pain and the implications of molecular mechanisms for more effective treatment. Recent studies indicate that presynaptic NMDAR activity at the spinal cord level is increased in several neuropathic pain conditions but not in chronic inflammatory pain. Increased presynaptic NMDAR activity can potentiate glutamate release from primary afferent terminals to spinal dorsal horn neurons, which is crucial for the synaptic plasticity associated with neuropathic pain caused by traumatic nerve injury and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Furthermore, α2δ-1, previously considered a calcium channel subunit, can directly interact with NMDARs through its C-terminus to increase presynaptic NMDAR activity by facilitating synaptic trafficking of α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes in neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapeutic agents and peripheral nerve injury. Targeting α2δ-1-bound NMDARs with gabapentinoids or α2δ-1 C-terminus peptides can attenuate nociceptive drive form primary sensory nerves to dorsal horn neurons in neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Dor Nociceptiva/fisiopatologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Camundongos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Dor Nociceptiva/metabolismo , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos/metabolismo
7.
J Neurochem ; 149(3): 381-398, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716174

RESUMO

Inflammatory pain is associated with peripheral and central sensitization, but the underlying synaptic plasticity at the spinal cord level is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels expressed at peripheral nerve endings, including TRP subtypes ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), can detect nociceptive stimuli. In this study, we determined the contribution of presynaptic TRPA1 and TRPV1 at the spinal cord level to regulating nociceptive drive in chronic inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. CFA treatment caused a large increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in lamina I, but not lamina II outer zone, dorsal horn neurons. However, blocking NMDA receptors had no effect on spontaneous EPSCs in lamina I neurons of CFA-treated rats. Application of a specific TRPA1 antagonist, AM-0902, or of a specific TRPV1 antagonist, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin, significantly attenuated the elevated frequency of spontaneous EPSCs and miniature EPSCs, the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked from the dorsal root in lamina I neurons of CFA-treated rats. AM-0902 and 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin had no effect on evoked or miniature EPSCs in lamina I neurons of vehicle-treated rats. In addition, intrathecal injection of AM-0902 or 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin significantly reduced pain hypersensitivity in CFA-treated rats but had no effect on acute nociception in vehicle-treated rats. Therefore, unlike neuropathic pain, chronic inflammatory pain is associated with NMDA receptor-independent potentiation in glutamatergic drive to spinal lamina I neurons. Endogenous presynaptic TRPA1 and TRPV1 activity at the spinal level contributes to increased nociceptive input from primary sensory nerves to dorsal horn neurons in inflammatory pain. OPEN SCIENCE BADGES: This article has received a badge for *Open Materials* because it provided all relevant information to reproduce the study in the manuscript. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/.

8.
J Neurochem ; 148(2): 275-290, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444263

RESUMO

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance can lead to dose escalation and inadequate pain treatment with µ-opioid receptor agonists. Opioids cause tonic activation of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at primary afferent terminals, increasing nociceptive input. However, the signaling mechanisms responsible for opioid-induced activation of pre-synaptic NMDARs in the spinal dorsal horn remain unclear. In this study, we determined the role of MAPK signaling in opioid-induced pre-synaptic NMDAR activation caused by chronic morphine administration. Whole-cell recordings of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were performed on dorsal horn neurons in rat spinal cord slices. Chronic morphine administration markedly increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs, increased the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked from the dorsal root, and reduced the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs. These changes were fully reversed by an NMDAR antagonist and normalized by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, intrathecal injection of a selective ERK1/2, p38, or JNK inhibitor blocked pain hypersensitivity induced by chronic morphine treatment. These inhibitors also similarly attenuated a reduction in morphine's analgesic effect in rats. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that NMDARs formed a protein complex with ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in the spinal cord and that chronic morphine treatment increased physical interactions of NMDARs with these three MAPKs. Our findings suggest that opioid-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance are mediated by tonic activation of pre-synaptic NMDARs via three functionally interrelated MAPKs at the spinal cord level. OPEN SCIENCE BADGES: This article has received a badge for *Open Materials* because it provided all relevant information to reproduce the study in the manuscript. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Células do Corno Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Pré-Sinápticos/metabolismo
9.
J Neurochem ; 148(2): 252-274, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431158

RESUMO

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a severe and difficult-to-treat neurological complication associated with cancer chemotherapy. Although chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel are known to cause tonic activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) to potentiate nociceptive input, the molecular mechanism involved in this effect is unclear. α2δ-1, commonly known as a voltage-activated calcium channel subunit, is a newly discovered NMDAR-interacting protein and plays a critical role in NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity. Here we show that paclitaxel treatment in rats increases the α2δ-1 expression level in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord and the mRNA levels of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B in the spinal cord. Paclitaxel treatment also potentiates the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction and synaptic trafficking in the spinal cord. Strikingly, inhibiting α2δ-1 trafficking with pregabalin, disrupting the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction with an α2δ-1 C-terminus-interfering peptide, or α2δ-1 genetic ablation fully reverses paclitaxel treatment-induced presynaptic NMDAR-mediated glutamate release from primary afferent terminals to spinal dorsal horn neurons. In addition, intrathecal injection of pregabalin or α2δ-1 C-terminus-interfering peptide and α2δ-1 knockout in mice markedly attenuate paclitaxel-induced pain hypersensitivity. Our findings indicate that α2δ-1 is required for paclitaxel-induced tonic activation of presynaptic NMDARs at the spinal cord level. Targeting α2δ-1-bound NMDARs, not the physiological α2δ-1-free NMDARs, may be a new strategy for treating chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. OPEN SCIENCE BADGES: This article has received a badge for *Open Materials* because it provided all relevant information to reproduce the study in the manuscript. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Paclitaxel/toxicidade , Células do Corno Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Physiol ; 597(6): 1661-1675, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578671

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: µ-Opioid receptors (MORs) are expressed peripherally and centrally, but the loci of MORs responsible for clinically relevant opioid analgesia are uncertain. Crossing Oprm1flox/flox and AdvillinCre/+ mice completely ablates MORs in dorsal root ganglion neurons and reduces the MOR expression level in the spinal cord. Presynaptic MORs expressed at primary afferent central terminals are essential for synaptic inhibition and potentiation of sensory input by opioids. MOR ablation in primary sensory neurons diminishes analgesic effects produced by systemic and intrathecal opioid agonists and abolishes chronic opioid treatment-induced hyperalgesia. These findings demonstrate a critical role of MORs expressed in primary sensory neurons in opioid analgesia and suggest new strategies to increase the efficacy and reduce adverse effects of opioids. ABSTRACT: The pain and analgesic systems are complex, and the actions of systemically administered opioids may be mediated by simultaneous activation of µ-opioid receptors (MORs, encoded by the Oprm1 gene) at multiple, interacting sites. The loci of MORs and circuits responsible for systemic opioid-induced analgesia and hyperalgesia remain unclear. Previous studies using mice in which MORs are removed from Nav1.8- or TRPV1-expressing neurons provided only an incomplete and erroneous view about the role of peripheral MORs in opioid actions in vivo. In the present study, we determined the specific role of MORs expressed in primary sensory neurons in the analgesic and hyperalgesic effects produced by systemic opioid administration. We generated Oprm1 conditional knockout (Oprm1-cKO) mice in which MOR expression is completely deleted from dorsal root ganglion neurons and substantially reduced in the spinal cord, which was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemical labelling. Both opioid-induced inhibition and potentiation of primary sensory input were abrogated in Oprm1-cKO mice. Remarkably, systemically administered morphine potently inhibited acute thermal and mechanical nociception and persistent inflammatory pain in control mice but had little effect in Oprm1-cKO mice. The analgesic effect of intrathecally administered morphine was also profoundly reduced in Oprm1-cKO mice. Additionally, chronic morphine treatment-induced hyperalgesia was absent in Oprm1-cKO mice. Our findings directly challenge the notion that clinically relevant opioid analgesia is mediated mostly by centrally expressed MORs. MORs in primary sensory neurons, particularly those expressed presynaptically at the first sensory synapse in the spinal cord, are crucial for both opioid analgesia and opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

12.
Stroke ; 49(10): 2464-2472, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355118

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Glutamate NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) play a major role in the initiation of ischemic brain damage. However, NMDAR antagonists have no protective effects in stroke patients, possibly because they impair physiological functions of NMDARs. α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1) is strongly expressed in many brain regions. We determined the contribution of α2δ-1 to NMDAR hyperactivity and brain injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. Methods- Mice were subjected to 90 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Neurological deficits, brain infarct volumes, and calpain/caspase-3 activity in brain tissues were measured. NMDAR activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons was measured in an in vitro ischemic model. Results- Middle cerebral artery occlusion increased α2δ-1 protein glycosylation in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that ischemia rapidly enhanced the α2δ-1-NMDAR physical interaction in the mouse brain tissue. Inhibiting α2δ-1 with gabapentin, uncoupling the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction with an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide, or genetically ablating Cacna2d1 had no effect on basal NMDAR currents but strikingly abolished oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced NMDAR hyperactivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Systemic treatment with gabapentin or α2δ-1 C-terminus-interfering peptide or Cacna2d1 genetic knock-out reduced middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced infarct volumes, neurological deficit scores, and calpain/caspase-3 activation in brain tissues. Conclusions- α2δ-1 is essential for brain ischemia-induced neuronal NMDAR hyperactivity, and α2δ-1-bound NMDARs mediate brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Targeting α2δ-1-bound NMDARs, without impairing physiological α2δ-1-free NMDARs, may be a promising strategy for treating ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sais de Tetrazólio/farmacologia
13.
J Biol Chem ; 293(50): 19354-19364, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355732

RESUMO

The striatum receives extensive cortical input and plays a prominent role in motor learning and habit formation. Glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) is a major synaptic plasticity involved in learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NMDAR plasticity in corticostriatal LTP is unclear. Here, we show that theta-burst stimulation (TBS) consistently induced corticostriatal LTP and increased the coincident presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of medium spiny neurons. We also found that α2δ-1 (previously known as a subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels; encoded by the Cacna2d1 gene) physically interacted with NMDARs in the striatum of mice and humans, indicating that this cross-talk is conserved across species. Strikingly, inhibiting α2δ-1 trafficking with gabapentin or disrupting the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction with an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide abolished TBS-induced LTP. In Cacna2d1-knockout mice, TBS failed to induce corticostriatal LTP and the associated increases in presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activities. Moreover, systemic gabapentin treatment, microinjection of α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide into the dorsomedial striatum, or Cacna2d1 ablation impaired the alternation T-maze task and rotarod performance in mice. Our findings indicate that the interaction between α2δ-1 and NMDARs is of high physiological relevance and that a TBS-induced switch from α2δ-1-free to α2δ-1-bound NMDARs is critically involved in corticostriatal LTP and LTP-associated learning and memory. Gabapentinoids at high doses may adversely affect cognitive function by targeting α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Memória/fisiologia , Neostriado/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neostriado/citologia , Neostriado/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Aprendizagem Espacial , Sinapses/metabolismo
14.
J Biol Chem ; 293(49): 19078-19091, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327427

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is associated with persistent changes in gene expression in primary sensory neurons, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that cause these changes remain unclear. The muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs), particularly the M2 subtype (encoded by the cholinergic receptor muscarinic 2 (Chrm2) gene), are critically involved in the regulation of spinal nociceptive transmission. However, little is known about how Chrm2 expression is transcriptionally regulated. Here we show that nerve injury persistently increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST, also known as neuron-restrictive silencing factor [NRSF]), a gene-silencing transcription factor, in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Remarkably, nerve injury-induced chronic but not acute pain hypersensitivity was attenuated in mice with Rest knockout in DRG neurons. Also, siRNA-mediated Rest knockdown reversed nerve injury-induced chronic pain hypersensitivity in rats. Nerve injury persistently reduced Chrm2 expression in the DRG and diminished the analgesic effect of muscarine. The RE1 binding site on the Chrm2 promoter is required for REST-mediated Chrm2 repression, and nerve injury increased the enrichment of REST in the Chrm2 promoter in the DRG. Furthermore, Rest knockdown or genetic ablation in DRG neurons normalized Chrm2 expression and augmented muscarine's analgesic effect on neuropathic pain and fully reversed the nerve injury-induced reduction in the inhibitory effect of muscarine on glutamatergic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons. Our findings indicate that nerve injury-induced REST up-regulation in DRG neurons plays an important role in the acute-to-chronic pain transition and is essential for the transcriptional repression of Chrm2 in neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Neuralgia/metabolismo , Receptor Muscarínico M2/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Muscarina/farmacologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Muscarínico M2/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Regulação para Cima
15.
J Neurochem ; 147(4): 526-540, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203849

RESUMO

Vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2) mediates the uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles in neurons. Spinal cord dorsal horn interneurons are highly heterogeneous and molecularly diverse. The functional significance of VGluT2-expressing dorsal horn neurons in physiological and pathological pain conditions has not been explicitly demonstrated. Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are a powerful chemogenetic tool to reversibly control neuronal excitability and behavior. Here, we used transgenic mice with Cre recombinase expression driven by the VGluT2 promoter, combined with the chemogenetic approach, to determine the contribution of VGluT2-expressing dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive regulation. Adeno-associated viral vectors expressing double-floxed Cre-dependent Gαq-coupled human M3 muscarinic receptor DREADD (hM3D)-mCherry or Gαi-coupled κ-opioid receptor DREADD (KORD)-IRES-mCitrine were microinjected into the superficial spinal dorsal horn of VGluT2-Cre mice. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that VGluT2 was predominantly expressed in lamina II excitatory interneurons. Activation of excitatory hM3D in VGluT2-expressing neurons with clozapine N-oxide caused a profound increase in neuronal firing and synaptic glutamate release. Conversely, activation of inhibitory KORD in VGluT2-expressing neurons with salvinorin B markedly inhibited neuronal activity and synaptic glutamate release. In addition, chemogenetic stimulation of VGluT2-expressing neurons increased mechanical and thermal sensitivities in naive mice, whereas chemogenetic silencing of VGluT2-expressing neurons reversed pain hypersensitivity induced by tissue inflammation and peripheral nerve injury. These findings indicate that VGluT2-expressing excitatory neurons play a crucial role in mediating nociceptive transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. Targeting glutamatergic dorsal horn neurons with inhibitory DREADDs may be a new strategy for treating inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Nociceptividade , Dor/genética , Dor/metabolismo , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Limiar da Dor , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Receptor Muscarínico M2/biossíntese , Receptor Muscarínico M2/genética , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética
16.
J Physiol ; 596(17): 4269-4283, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971791

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: α2δ-1 is upregulated, promoting the interaction with NMDA receptors (NMDARs), in the hypothalamus in a rat model of hypertension. The prevalence of α2δ-1-bound NMDARs at synaptic sites in the hypothalamus is increased in hypertensive animals. α2δ-1 is essential for the increased presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of hypothalamic neurons in hypertension. α2δ-1-bound NMDARs in the hypothalamus are critically involved in augmented sympathetic outflow in hypertensive animals. ABSTRACT: Increased glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to augmented sympathetic outflow in hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. α2δ-1, previously considered to be a voltage-activated calcium channel subunit, is a newly discovered powerful regulator of NMDARs. In the present study, we determined the role of α2δ-1 in regulating synaptic NMDAR activity of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurons in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We show that the protein levels of α2δ-1 and NMDARs in synaptosomes and the α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes in the hypothalamus were substantially higher in SHRs than in normotensive control rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated synaptic glutamate release in RVLM-projecting PVN neurons were significantly increased in SHRs. Strikingly, inhibiting α2δ-1 activity with gabapentin or disrupting the α2δ-1-NMDAR association with an α2δ-1 C-terminus peptide completely normalized the amplitude of evoked NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated synaptic glutamate release in RVLM-projecting PVN neurons in SHRs. In addition, microinjection of the α2δ-1 C-terminus peptide into the PVN substantially reduced arterial blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings indicate that α2δ-1-bound NMDARs in the PVN are required for the potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons and for the elevated sympathetic outflow in hypertension. α2δ-1-bound NMDARs may be an opportune target for treating neurogenic hypertension.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/fisiopatologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
17.
J Neurosci ; 38(27): 6090-6101, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875269

RESUMO

Nerve injury-induced hyperactivity of primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to chronic pain development, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we determined genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in the nervous system in neuropathic pain. Spinal nerve ligation (SNL), but not paclitaxel treatment, in male Sprague Dawley rats induced a consistent low-level hypomethylation in the CpG sites in the DRG during the acute and chronic phases of neuropathic pain. DNA methylation remodeling in the DRG occurred early after SNL and persisted for at least 3 weeks. SNL caused DNA methylation changes at 8% of CpG sites with prevailing hypomethylation outside of CpG islands, in introns, intergenic regions, and repetitive sequences. In contrast, SNL caused more gains of methylation in the spinal cord and prefrontal cortex. The DNA methylation changes in the injured DRGs recapitulated developmental reprogramming at the neonatal stage. Methylation reprogramming was correlated with increased gene expression variability. A diet deficient in methyl donors induced hypomethylation and pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor RG108 caused long-lasting pain hypersensitivity. DNA methylation reprogramming in the DRG thus contributes to nerve injury-induced chronic pain. Restoring DNA methylation may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat neuropathic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epigenetic mechanisms are critically involved in the transition from acute to chronic pain after nerve injury. However, genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in the nervous system and their roles in neuropathic pain development remain unclear. Here we used digital restriction enzyme analysis of methylation to quantitatively determine genome-wide DNA methylation changes caused by nerve injury. We showed that nerve injury caused DNA methylation changes at 8% of CpG sites with prevailing hypomethylation outside of CpG islands in the dorsal root ganglion. Reducing DNA methylation induced pain hypersensitivity, whereas increasing DNA methylation attenuated neuropathic pain. These findings extend our understanding of the epigenetic mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain and suggest new strategies to treat nerve injury-induced chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Animais , Dor Crônica/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Gânglios Espinais/lesões , Masculino , Neuralgia/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
J Neurosci ; 38(28): 6388-6398, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921713

RESUMO

Both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate NMDAR in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that α2δ-1 interacted with the NMDAR in the hypothalamus of male rats and humans (both sexes). Ang II increased the prevalence of synaptic α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes in the hypothalamus. Also, Ang II increased presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity via AT1 receptors, and such effects were abolished either by treatment with pregabalin, an inhibitory α2δ-1 ligand, or by interrupting the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction with an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide. In Cacna2d1 knock-out mice (both sexes), Ang II failed to affect the presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of PVN neurons. In addition, the α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide blocked the sympathoexcitatory response to microinjection of Ang II into the PVN. Our findings indicate that Ang II augments sympathetic vasomotor tone and excitatory glutamatergic input to PVN presympathetic neurons by stimulating α2δ-1-bound NMDARs at synapses. This information extends our understanding of the molecular basis for the interaction between the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems and suggests new strategies for treating neurogenic hypertension.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are closely involved in hypertension development, the molecular mechanisms mediating this involvement remain unclear. We showed that α2δ-1, previously known as a calcium channel subunit, interacts with NMDARs in the hypothalamus of rodents and humans. Angiotensin II (Ang II) increases the synaptic expression level of α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes. Furthermore, inhibiting α2δ-1, interrupting the α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction, or deleting α2δ-1 abolishes the potentiating effects of Ang II on presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity in the hypothalamus. In addition, the sympathoexcitatory response to Ang II depends on α2δ-1-bound NMDARs. Thus, α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes in the hypothalamus serve as an important molecular substrate for the interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system. This evidence suggests that α2δ-1 may be a useful target for the treatment neurogenic hypertension.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Cell Rep ; 22(9): 2307-2321, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490268

RESUMO

α2δ-1, commonly known as a voltage-activated Ca2+ channel subunit, is a binding site of gabapentinoids used to treat neuropathic pain and epilepsy. However, it is unclear how α2δ-1 contributes to neuropathic pain and gabapentinoid actions. Here, we show that Cacna2d1 overexpression potentiates presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons to cause pain hypersensitivity. Conversely, Cacna2d1 knockdown or ablation normalizes synaptic NMDAR activity increased by nerve injury. α2δ-1 forms a heteromeric complex with NMDARs in rodent and human spinal cords. The α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction predominantly occurs through the C terminus of α2δ-1 and promotes surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of NMDARs. Gabapentin or an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide normalizes NMDAR synaptic targeting and activity increased by nerve injury. Thus, α2δ-1 is an NMDAR-interacting protein that increases NMDAR synaptic delivery in neuropathic pain. Gabapentinoids reduce neuropathic pain by inhibiting forward trafficking of α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/deficiência , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Gabapentina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Células do Corno Posterior/metabolismo , Células do Corno Posterior/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Sinapses/metabolismo
20.
J Biol Chem ; 292(50): 20644-20654, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074619

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel cause painful peripheral neuropathy in many cancer patients and survivors. Although NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at primary afferent terminals are known to be critically involved in chemotherapy-induced chronic pain, the upstream signaling mechanism that leads to presynaptic NMDAR activation is unclear. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play a role in synaptic plasticity and NMDAR regulation. Here we report that the Group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) significantly increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked from the dorsal root. DHPG also reduced the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in spinal dorsal horn neurons. These effects were blocked by the selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), but not by an mGluR1 antagonist. MPEP normalized the frequency of miniature EPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats but had no effect in vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, mGluR5 protein levels in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord synaptosomes were significantly higher in paclitaxel- than in vehicle-treated rats. Inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC) or blocking NMDARs abolished DHPG-induced increases in the miniature EPSC frequency of spinal dorsal horn neurons in vehicle- and paclitaxel-treated rats. Moreover, intrathecal administration of MPEP reversed pain hypersensitivity caused by paclitaxel treatment. Our findings suggest that paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy is associated with increased presynaptic mGluR5 activity at the spinal cord level, which serves as upstream signaling for PKC-mediated tonic activation of NMDARs. mGluR5 is therefore a promising target for reducing chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neurônios Aferentes/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/patologia , Neurônios Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Aferentes/patologia , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/agonistas , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Resorcinóis/farmacologia , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/patologia , Sinaptossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/patologia
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