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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 236: 116090, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172893

RESUMO

The present study aimed at the design and fabrication of a novel co-delivery system to encapsulate and protect curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin and resveratrol had synergistic physiological activities when used together, but it was challenging to co-encapsulate them in traditional delivery vehicles due to their difference in molecular polarity. The curcumin-zein-resveratrol-chitosan nanocomplexes were developed and their formation mechanism and physicochemical properties were investigated. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects were dominant binding forces to stabilize the nanocomplexes. As the relative molecular weight of chitosan was increased, the mean size and surface positive charge of the nanocomplexes were elevated. The optimized nanocomplex based on zein and low molecular weight chitosan (50000-190000 Da) had a relatively high encapsulation efficiency of curcumin (91.3 %) and resveratrol (82.1 %), as well as exhibited the best physical stability. In addition, the half-life times of curcumin and resveratrol in the nanocomplex were extended by 4.5- and 1.9-fold during photodegradation, and the retention rates were increased by 3.7- and 1.1-fold than their free forms during thermal degradation. The nanocomplexes could also remain stable and delay the degradation of both bioactive compounds during long term storage. In summary, the nanocomplex showed to be an effective vehicle for the co-delivery of synergistic nutraceuticals.

2.
Risk Anal ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170781

RESUMO

This article analyzes the linkages between the economy and armed conflict in India using annual frequency data for the period 1989-2016, the maximum time period for which consistent data are available for the country. An adequate set of economic indicators was established to fully reflect the economic condition. Long short-term memory (LSTM), which is a machine-learning algorithm for time series, was employed to simulate the relationship between the economy and armed conflict events. In addition, LSTM was applied to predict the trend of armed conflict with two strategies: multiyear predictions and yearly predictions. The results show that both strategies can adequately simulate the relationship between the economy and armed conflict, with all simulation accuracies above 90%. The accuracy of the yearly prediction is higher than that of the multiyear prediction. Theoretically, the future state and trend of armed conflict can be predicted with LSTM and future economic data if future economic data can be predicted.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159323

RESUMO

Ti3C2Tx MXene has exhibited great potential for use in wearable devices, especially as pressure sensors, due to its lamellar structure, which changes its resistance as a function of interlayer distance. Despite the good performance of the reported pure MXene pressure sensors, their practical applications are limited by moderate flexibility, excessively high MXene conductivity, and environmental effects. To address the above challenges, we incorporated multilayer MXene particles into hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and prepared freestanding, flexible, and stable films via spin-coating. These films were assembled into highly sensitive piezoresistive pressure sensors, which show a fast response time of 16 ms in addition to excellent long-term stability with no obvious responsivity attenuation when the sensor is exposed to air, even after 20 weeks. Moreover, the fabricated sensors could monitor human physiological signals such as knee bending and cheek bulging and could be used for speech recognition. The mapping spatial pressure distribution function was also demonstrated by the designed 10 × 10 integrated pressure sensor array platform.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163287

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanoplatelets exhibit spectrally pure, directional fluorescence. To make polarized light emission accessible and the charge transport effective, nanoplatelets have to be collectively oriented in the solid state. We discovered that the collective nanoplatelets orientation in monolayers can be controlled kinetically by exploiting the solvent evaporation rate in self-assembly at liquid interfaces. Our method avoids insulating additives such as surfactants, making it ideally suited for optoelectronics. The monolayer films with controlled nanoplatelets orientation (edge-up or face-down) exhibit long-range ordering of transition dipole moments and macroscopically polarized light emission. Furthermore, we unveil that the substantial in-plane electronic coupling between nanoplatelets enables charge transport through a single nanoplatelets monolayer, with an efficiency that strongly depends on the orientation of the nanoplatelets. The ability to kinetically control the assembly of nanoplatelets into ordered monolayers with tunable optical and electronic properties paves the way for new applications in optoelectronic devices.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195563

RESUMO

There are great interests in understanding localized catalytic activities at the micro- and nano-scale and designing robust catalysts for photoelectrochemical oxidation of water to address the pressing energy and environmental challenges. Here, we demonstrate that scanning photoelectrochemical microscopy (SPECM) can be effectively employed as a novel technique (i) to modify a photocatalyst surface with an electrocatalyst layer in a matrix fashion and (ii) to monitor its localized activity toward the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation reaction. The three-dimensional (3D) SPECM image clearly shows that the loading of the FeOOH electrocatalyst on the BiVO4 semiconductor surface strongly affects its local PEC reaction activity. The optimal photo-electrodeposition time of the FeOOH on the BiVO4 photocatalyst was found to be ~20 min when FeOOH was employed as the electrocatalyst. The electrocatalyst optimization process was conducted on a single photoanode electrode surface, making the optimization process efficient and reliable. The morphology of the formed photocatalyst/electrocatalyst hybrid, inclusive of its localized activity toward the water oxidation reaction was simultaneously probed. A photoanode surface comprised of CuWO4/BiVO4/FeOOH was further prepared in this study and investigated. It was found that the localized photoactivity truly reflects the activity of local area and differ from region to region and is contingent on the morphology of the surface. Moreover, the Pt UME is determined as an efficient probe to analyze the photoactivity of the PEC water splitting reaction. This work highlights the novel SPECM technique for enhancement and examination of the catalytic activity of the nanostructured materials.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196039

RESUMO

This work reports a significant effect of porous structures on the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation performances of Rh-based catalysts. It is demonstrated that a three-dimensional net-like mesoporous structure with ultrathin subunits is beneficial to exposing more active sites and boosting electron transfer inside particles, thus presenting the highest activity.

7.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125326

RESUMO

Transition metal chalcogenide MoS2 catalysts are highly selective for the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) in aqueous electrolytes. However, due to the low solubility of N2 in water, limited N2 diffusion and mass transport have heavily restricted the yield and the faradaic efficiency (FE). Here, we have demonstrated a highly efficacious assembled gas diffusion cathode with hollow Co-MoS2/N@C nanostructures to significantly improve the electrochemical reduction of N2 to NH3. Our results revealed that the synthesized Co-MoS2 heterojunctions with abundant graphitic N groups exhibited a superb NH3 yield of 129.93 µg h-1 mgcat-1 and a high faradaic efficiency of 11.21% at -0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), as well as excellent selectivity and stability. The strategy described in this study offers new inspiration to design high-performance electrocatalyst assemblies for the sustainable environmental and energy applications.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050439

RESUMO

Perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) and its derivatives exhibit excellent thermal, chemical and optical stability, strong electron affinity, strong visible-light absorption and unique fluorescence on/off features. The combination of these features makes PDIs ideal molecular frameworks for development in a broad range of sensors for detecting environmental pollutants such as heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+, etc.), inorganic anions (e.g., F-, ClO4-, PO4-, etc.), as well as poisonous organic compounds such as nitriles, amines, nitroaromatics, benzene homologues, etc. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advance in research and development of PDI-based fluorescent sensors, as well as related colorimetric and multi-mode sensor systems, for environmental detection in aqueous, organic or mixed solutions. The molecular design of PDIs and structural optimization of the sensor system (regarding both sensitivity and selectivity) in response to varying analytes are discussed in detail. At the end, a perspective summary is provided covering both the key challenges and potential solutions for the future development of PDI-based optical sensors.

9.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 137: 103350, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014463

RESUMO

Teratosphaeria destructans is an aggressive fungal pathogen causing leaf and shoot blight on young Eucalyptus trees in plantations. The disease occurs across tropical and subtropical regions of South East Asia and has recently been found in South Africa. Asexual structures of the pathogen are produced on infected tissues, but sexual structures have never been observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of T. destructans by characterising its mating type (MAT1) locus and investigating its potential for sexual recombination. We found that T. destructans has a heterothallic mating system, with either the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-10 genes (MAT1-1 idiomorph) or the MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-2-12 genes (MAT1-2 idiomorph) present in a single individual. With a multiplex PCR assay, it was possible to distinguish the two MAT idiomorphs in several Teratosphaeria species and this approach was applied to six global populations of T. destructans. Although both mating types occurred in the South East Asian populations, a single mating type dominated each population. Isolates from the recent disease outbreak in South Africa comprised only a single mating type. Attempts to induce a sexual cycle in vitro using strains of opposite mating type were not successful. The uneven distribution of mating types in populations of T. destructans and the presence of only an asexual state on infected tissues suggests the absence of or at least a minor role for sexual reproduction where the pathogen occurs on non-native Eucalyptus in plantations.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(20): 3050-3053, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048645

RESUMO

We constructed a carbon-based polymer dot (CPD) sensor to detect breast cancer based on the differences of peripheral blood cells, providing a new minimally invasive method for cancer diagnosis. This simple and extensible system exhibits clinically relevant accuracy in terms of cancer identification, making it an attractive strategy for diagnosis and prognosis.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 389: 122140, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004842

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose an efficient simultaneous refractory organics degradation and electricity generation method for carbonate-containing wastewater based on carbonate radical reactions initiated by a BiVO4-Au/PVC (PVC: photovoltaic cell) system. In the system, nanoporous BiVO4 film and Au modified PVC were used as photoanode and photocathode, respectively. HCO3- was used as the electrolyte. Carbonate radicals, which have lower recombination rates than hydroxyl radicals and strong oxidation abilities, can be generated easily by the capture reaction of hydroxyl radicals with HCO3-, which is one of the most abundant anions in the aquatic environment. The results show that the removal ratios of rhodamine b, methyl orange and methylene blue in the system increased sharply to 77.98 %, 89.15 % and 93.2 % from 18.23 %, 21 % and 23.14 % (BiVO4-Pt/ SO42-), respectively, after 120 min. Meanwhile, the short-circuit current density is up to 2.19-2.41 times larger than the traditional system. Other common ions in natural water minimally affected the properties of the new system. The excellent performance could be ascribed to large amounts of carbonate radicals in the system, which have great potential for efficient carbonate-containing wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

12.
Oncogene ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051553

RESUMO

The homeotic protein SIX3 is a transcription factor vital for neurogenesis and has a bivalent promoter. We previously showed that SIX3 can be transcriptionally silenced by DNA hypermethylation, functions as a tumor suppressor gene, and inhibits human glioblastoma transcriptionally. Here, we show that the activation of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) induces DNA methylation of SIX3 promoter through the MAPK pathway. ERK, when activated, binds with ZNF263, consequently abrogating the ubiquitination of ZNF263 and leading to its stabilization. ZNF263 binds to the core promoter region of SIX3 and recruits the KAP1/HATS/DNMT corepressor complex to induce transcriptional silencing of SIX3 through H3K27me3 and methylation of SIX3 promoter. Activation of the EGFR-ZNF263 signaling axis in phenotypically normal astrocytes or glioblastoma cells triggers or enhances tumorigenic activities, while elevated expression of the EGFR-ZNF263 signaling components in glioblastoma tissues is associated with poor prognosis of the patients. Together, our findings demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of SIX3 is controlled by a sophisticated and highly ordered oncogenic signaling pathway and therefore provide new insights into initiation and progression of glioblastoma.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068225

RESUMO

The directional propulsion of liquid droplets at the nanoscale is quite an interesting topic of research in the fields of micro/nano-fluidics, water filtration, precision medicine, and cooling of electronics. In this study, the unidirectional spontaneous transport of a water nanodroplet on a solid surface with a multi-gradient surface (MGS) inspired by natural species is modeled and analyzed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. There are three different MGSs considered in this study containing different wedge angles of the hydrophilic region of the solid surface. The MGSs contain two regions: a hydrophilic wedge-shaped region with a constant surface energy parameter equal to 50 meV and a hydrophobic region with a tuned surface energy parameter. The energy parameter of the hydrophobic region is set equal to 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 meV in order to alter the intensity of the wettability gradient of the two surfaces and its effect on the propulsion of the water nanodroplet is analyzed. Furthermore, three different sizes of water droplets containing 6000, 8000, and 10 000 water molecules are also used in this study and their effect on the transport behavior of the water nanodroplet is also measured. Moreover, two different designs on a solid surface with a continuous wettability gradient are modelled and the impact of solid surface geometry on the transport of the water droplet is calculated by means of mean square displacement (MSD) and average velocity data. In addition, the wedge-shaped surface is found to be more superior to the parallel-shaped surface for the spontaneous propulsion of the water droplet.

14.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126164, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065997

RESUMO

This study attempted to investigate the effect of impregnation sequence of the Pd/Ce/γ-Al2O3 sorbents on Hg0 removal. To this end, five kinds of sorbents were prepared and tested in simulated coal derived fuel gas (N2-H2-CO-H2S-Hg), including Pd/γ-Al2O3, Ce/γ-Al2O3 and three kinds of Pd-based sorbents with Ce impregnation on γ-Al2O3 substrate. The tests were conducted at 250 and 300 °C respectively. According to the results, bimetallic Ce-Pd/γ-Al2O3 sorbent prepared by simultaneously impregnating Pd and Ce showed much higher and more stable removal efficiency of Hg0 than the other three kinds of sorbents. The Hg0 removal efficiency of Ce-Pd/γ-Al2O3 sorbent reached above 98% within 480 min at 250 °C and 91% within 200 min at 300 °C. Characterization results indicated that the sorbent Ce-Pd/γ-Al2O3 prepared by the co-impregnation method had bigger specific surface area (216.6 m2/g) than the other three kinds of Pd-based sorbents. The content Pd and Ce on the sorbent Ce-Pd/γ-Al2O3 surface is 0.21% and 0.61%, which proved higher than that of the other three kinds of Pd-based sorbents, and observation from STEM-XEDS maps showed it demonstrated the highest dispersion. It is found that Ce is likely to promote the dispersion of Pd on the support surface during the preparation of the sorbent under the co-impregnation method. Meanwhile, Ce enhanced the H2S resistance of the sorbent. Thereby, Ce-Pd/γ-Al2O3 sorbent is found to have the optimal performance of mercury removal. In this study, the Hg0 removal mechanism of the Pd/Ce/γ-Al2O3 sorbents in the simulated coal derived fuel gas was also elaborated.

15.
New Phytol ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917861

RESUMO

Cellular abscisic acid (ABA) concentration is determined by both de novo biosynthesis and recycling via ß-glucosidase(s). However, which rice ß-glucosidase(s) are involved in this process remains unknown. Here, we report on a chloroplastic ß-glucosidase isoenzyme, Os3BGlu6, that functions in ABA recycling in rice. Disruption of Os3BGlu6 in rice resulted in dwarfism, lower ABA content in leaves, drought-sensitivity, lower photosynthesis rate and higher intercellular CO2 concentration. Os3BGlu6 could hydrolyze ABA-GE to ABA in vitro. The reversion and overexpression rice lines restored or increased the drought tolerance as shown by the higher ß-glucosidase activity, ABA concentrations and expressions of ABA- and drought-responsive genes. Drought induced Os3BGlu6 to form dimers, and the degree of polymerization correlated well with the increase in cellular ABA concentrations and drought tolerance in rice. Os3BGlu6 was responsive to drought and ABA treatments, and the protein was localized to the chloroplast. Disruption of Os3BGlu6 resulted in the increased stomatal density and impaired stomatal movement. Transcriptomics revealed that disruption of Os3BGlu6 resulted in chloroplastic oxidative stress and lowered Rubisco activity even under normal conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that chloroplastically localized Os3BGlu6 significantly affects cellular ABA pools, thereby affecting drought tolerance and photosynthesis in rice.

16.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975524

RESUMO

Kenaf is an annual crop that is widely cultivated as a source of bast (phloem) fibres, the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated farmlands and textile-relevant compounds. Leaf shape played a unique role in kenaf improvement, due to the inheritance as a single locus and the association with fibre development in typical lobed-leaf varieties. Here we report a high-quality genome assembly and annotation for var. 'Fuhong 952' with 1078 Mbp genome and 66 004 protein-coding genes integrating single-molecule real-time sequencing, a high-density genetic map and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques. Gene mapping assists the identification of a homeobox transcription factor LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY 1 (HcLMI1) gene controlling lobed-leaf. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of HcLMI1 in a lobed-leaf variety was critical to induce round (entire)-like leaf formation. Candidate genes involved in cell wall formation were found in quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fibre yield and quality-related traits. Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses revealed key genes involved in bast fibre formation, among which there are twice as many cellulose synthase A (CesA) genes due to a recent whole-genome duplication after divergence from Gossypium. Population genomic analysis showed two recent population bottlenecks in kenaf, suggesting domestication and improvement process have led to an increase in fibre biogenesis and yield. This chromosome-scale genome provides an important framework and toolkit for sequence-directed genetic improvement of fibre crops.

17.
Environ Int ; 136: 105484, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999967

RESUMO

Swine farming generates a large amount of wastes containing various contaminants, resulting in environmental contamination and human health problems. Here we investigated the contamination profiles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as well as microbial community in groundwater of the two villages with or without swine farms, and then assessed the human exposure risks of antibiotics, ARGs and indicator bacteria through drinking groundwater. The results showed that swine farming could lead to enhanced concentration levels of various veterinary antibiotics and ARGs in the groundwater in comparison to the reference village without swine farming. The microbial diversity of groundwater was significantly decreased with predominance of conditional pathogens Acinetobacter (up to 90%) in some wells of the swine farming village. Meanwhile, the abundance of Acinetobacter was significantly correlated to bacterial abundance, ARGs and integrons. The local residents could ingest various antibiotic residues and ARGs as well as pathogens, with daily intake of Acinetobacter up to approximately 10 billion CFU/resident through drinking groundwater contaminated by swine farming. The findings from this study suggest potential health risks of changing gut microbial community and resistome by drinking contaminated groundwater.

18.
Reproduction ; 159(4): 371-382, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990667

RESUMO

In mammals, around the time of ovulation, the hormonal profile dynamically changes in synchrony with reproductive events occurring in the oviduct, that is, sperm arrival, fertilization, and early embryo development. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently recognized as key components of the embryonic milieu; however, composition and function of oviductal EVs during this crucial period remains to be further explored. Therefore, we initially characterized EVs from porcine oviductal fluid specifically around the critical ovulation window: that is, estrus (E), late estrus (LE, day of expected ovulation), post ovulation (PO), and additionally diestrus (D). Total EV numbers gradually rose from D to E, LE and PO (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the total EV protein amount (P < 0.05). Strikingly, the mean size of EVs in PO was significantly smaller than in E and LE groups, which also had a lesser proportion of small EVs (P < 0.05). The EV protein cargoes during the periovulatory period were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. Qualitative analysis detected 1118 common proteins, which are most enriched in the cellular component of EVs/exosomes. Hierarchical clustering indicated similar protein profile within the biological replicates, but large discrepancy among stages. Further quantitative analysis discovered 34 and 4 differentially expressed proteins in the comparison between E and PO and in the comparison between E and LE, respectively. The dynamic EV protein profile together with the quick adaption in EV size and quantity suggests that porcine oviductal EV secretion are under the hormonal influence during the estrus cycle.

19.
Talanta ; 209: 120527, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892079

RESUMO

Photoacoustic (PA) effect has been widely applied in many fields, e.g., physics, chemistry and biomedicine. Herein, a miniaturized PA device is developed by integrating laser source, photo chopper, PA cell, microphone, and laptop for point-of-care testing in bioassay. With glucose assay as model, a piece of paper strip preloading chitosan, starch-potassium iodide (KI) and glucose oxidase (GOD) as lab-on-paper is employed for loading sample prior to PA detection. In the presence of glucose, the product generated on the paper strip would give rise to a strong PA signal in the PA cell under the irradiation of frequency-modulated laser at 520 nm via laptop readout. With a sample volume of 20 µL, a detection limit of 0.03 mM is obtained for glucose assay, along with a linear range of 0.08-1 mM. The accuracy and practicability of the present PA device is well demonstrated by detecting glucose in whole blood. Differing from the conventional PA instrument, the present PA device is really small in bulk with competitive sensitivity and excellent stability, offering a promising tool for point-of-care testing in bioassay.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 479, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980602

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by vertebral malformations. The precise etiology of CS is not fully defined. Here, we identify that mutation in dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase (dstyk) lead to CS-like vertebral malformations in zebrafish. We demonstrate that the scoliosis in dstyk mutants is related to the wavy and malformed notochord sheath formation and abnormal axial skeleton segmentation due to dysregulated biogenesis of notochord vacuoles and notochord function. Further studies show that DSTYK is located in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and is involved in the lysosome biogenesis in mammalian cells. Dstyk knockdown inhibits notochord vacuole and lysosome biogenesis through mTORC1-dependent repression of TFEB nuclear translocation. Inhibition of mTORC1 activity can rescue the defect in notochord vacuole biogenesis and scoliosis in dstyk mutants. Together, our findings reveal a key role of DSTYK in notochord vacuole biogenesis, notochord morphogenesis and spine development through mTORC1/TFEB pathway.

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