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1.
Exp Eye Res ; : 108335, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) is a major cause of permanent loss of vision after blunt head trauma. Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study concentrated on JNK/c-Jun-driven NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia during the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in ITON. METHODS: An impact acceleration (IA) model was employed to induce ITON, which could produce significant neurodegeneration in the visual system. Pharmacological approaches were employed to disrupt JNK and to explore whether JNK and the microglial response contribute to RGC death and axonal degeneration. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the ITON model induced significant RGC death and axonal degeneration and activated JNK/c-Jun signaling, which could further induce the microglial response and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, JNK disruption is sufficient to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia and to prevent RGC death and axonal degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: ITON could promote JNK/c-Jun signaling, which further activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia and contributes to the degeneration of axons and death of RGCs. JNK inhibition is able to suppress the inflammatory reaction and improve RGC survival. Although further work is needed to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome can prevent ITON, our findings indicated that such intervention could be promising for translational work.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145809

RESUMO

Opportunistic screening for osteoporosis can be performed using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging obtained for other clinical indications. In this study we explored the CT-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalence of osteoporosis from thoracic LDCT in a large population cohort of Chinese men and women. A total of 69,095 adults (40,733 men and 28,362 women) received a thoracic LDCT scan for the purpose of lung cancer screening between 2018 and 2019, and data were obtained for analysis from the China Biobank Project, a prospective nationwide multicenter population study. Lumbar spine (L1 -L2 ) trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was derived from these scans using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) software and the American College of Radiology QCT diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis were applied. Geographic regional differences in the prevalence of osteoporosis were assessed and the age-standardized, population prevalence of osteoporosis in Chinese men and women was estimated from the 2010 China census. The prevalence of osteoporosis by QCT for the Chinese population aged >50 years was 29.0% for women and 13.5% for men, equating to 49.0 million and 22.8 million, respectively. In women, this rate is comparable to estimates from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but in men, the prevalence is double. Prevalence varied geographically across China, with higher rates in the southwest and lower rates in the northeast. Trabecular vBMD decreased with age in both men and women. Women had higher peak trabecular vBMD (185.4 mg/cm3 ) than men (176.6 mg/cm3 ) at age 30 to 34 years, but older women had lower trabecular vBMD (62.4 mg/cm3 ) than men (92.1 mg/cm3 ) at age 80 years. We show that LDCT-based opportunistic screening could identify large numbers of patients with low lumbar vBMD, and that future cohort studies are now required to evaluate the clinical utility of such screening in terms of fracture prevention and supporting national health economic analyses. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196176

RESUMO

Small differences in electronic structures, such as an emerging energy band gaps or the splitting of degenerated orbitals, are very challenging to resolve but important for nanomaterials properties. A signature electrochemical property called quantized double layer charging, i.e., "continuous" one-electron transfers (1e, ETs), in atomically precise Au133(TBBT)52, Au144(BM)60, and Au279(TBBT)84 is analyzed to reveal the nonmetallic to metallic transitions (whereas TBBT is 4-tert-butylbenzenethiol and BM is benzyl mercaptan; abbreviated as Au133, Au144, and Au279). Subhundred milli-eV energy differences are resolved among the "often-approximated uniform" peak spacings from multipairs of reversible redox peaks in voltammetric analysis, with single ETs as internal standards for calibration and under temperature variations. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry experiments reveal a 0.15 eV energy gap for Au133 and a 0.17 eV gap for Au144 at 298 K. Au279 is confirmed metallic, displaying a "bulk-continuum" charging response without an energy gap. The energy gaps and double layer capacitances of Au133 and Au144 increase as the temperature decreases. The temperature dependences of charging energies and HOMO-LUMO gaps of Au133 and Au144 are attributed to the counterion permeation and the steric hindrance of ligand, as well as their molecular compositions. With the subtle energy differences resolved, spectroelectrochemistry features of Au133 and Au144 are compared with ultrafast spectroscopy to demonstrate a generalizable analysis approach to correlate steady-state and transient energy diagram for the energy-in processes. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL), one of the energy-out processes after the charge transfer reactions, is reported for the three samples. The ECL intensity of Au279 is negligible, whereas the ECLs of Au133 and Au144 are relatively stronger and observable (but orders of magnitudes weaker than our recently reported bimetallic Au12Ag13). Results from these atomically precise nanoclusters also demonstrate that the combined voltammetric and spectroscopic analyses, together with temperature variations, are powerful tools to reveal subtle differences and gain insights otherwise inaccessible in other nanomaterials.

4.
Psych J ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034167

RESUMO

Personality affects how emerging adults select friends and how they are selected on social networking sites (SNSs). Big Five personality traits and frequency of contacts on SNSs were collected from 160 college freshmen (M = 18 years) under a round-robin design over 2 months. Using social network analyses, we examined how personality and dyadic similarity affect online friend selections among new acquaintances. Our results show that people with high extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness and low openness selected more friends, verifying both the social enhancement hypothesis and the social compensation hypothesis. People with low extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism and high openness were selected as online friends more often. Only openness dissimilarity had a salutary effect. We discuss the role of personality in social networking friend selection.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 554725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072095

RESUMO

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease in which type I interferons (IFN) play a key role. The IFN response can be triggered when oxidized DNA engages the cytosolic DNA sensing platform cGAS-STING, but the repair mechanisms that modulate this process and govern disease progression are unclear. To gain insight into this biology, we interrogated the role of oxyguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which repairs oxidized guanine 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), in the pristane-induced mouse model of SLE. Ogg1 -/- mice showed increased influx of Ly6Chi monocytes into the peritoneal cavity and enhanced IFN-driven gene expression in response to short-term exposure to pristane. Loss of Ogg1 was associated with increased auto-antibodies (anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP), higher total IgG, and expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISG) to longer exposure to pristane, accompanied by aggravated skin pathology such as hair loss, thicker epidermis, and increased deposition of IgG in skin lesions. Supporting a role for type I IFNs in this model, skin lesions of Ogg1 -/- mice had significantly higher expression of type I IFN genes (Isg15, Irf9, and Ifnb). In keeping with loss of Ogg1 resulting in dysregulated IFN responses, enhanced basal and cGAMP-dependent Ifnb expression was observed in BMDMs from Ogg1 -/- mice. Use of the STING inhibitor, H151, reduced both basal and cGAMP-driven increases, indicating that OGG1 regulates Ifnb expression through the cGAS-STING pathway. Finally, in support for a role for OGG1 in the pathology of cutaneous disease, reduced OGG1 expression in monocytes associated with skin involvement in SLE patients and the expression of OGG1 was significantly lower in lesional skin compared with non-lesional skin in patients with Discoid Lupus. Taken together, these data support an important role for OGG1 in protecting against IFN production and SLE skin disease.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089663

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) organic inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP) ferroelectrics have attracted widespread interest in the field of optoelectronics, due to the combination of excellent semiconducting and ferroelectric properties. Curie temperature ( T c ) below which ferroelectricity exists, is a crucial parameter for ferroelectrics. However, the lack of research on T c tuning of 2D OIHP ferroelectrics hinders their further progress. Here, through incorporating ethylammonium (EA) as cage-confined rotators, we obtained two 2D OIHP ferroelectrics, (IBA) 2 (EA)Pb 2 Br 7 ( 2L ; IBA = isob utylammonium), and (IBA) 2 (EA) 2 Pb 3 Br 10 ( 3L ). Intriguingly, T c is successfully tuned from 326 K ( 2L ) to 370 K ( 3L ) with increased layer-thickness. Structural and computational analyses suggest that the improvement of T c is due to the higher phase transition energy barrier triggered by cage-confined EAs rotators with increased layer-thickness. This work suggests that EA is an effective "cage-confined rotator" to rationally design high- T c 2D OIHP ferroelectrics. In light of "cage-confined rotator" strategy, one can expect more 2D OIHP ferroelectrics with promising performance.

7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1564-1567, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018291

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been one of the most powerful and valuable imaging methods for medical diagnosis and staging of disease. Due to the long scan time of MRI acquisition, k-space under-samplings is required during the acquisition processing. Thus, MRI reconstruction, which transfers undersampled k-space data to high-quality magnetic resonance imaging, becomes an important and meaningful task. There have been many explorations on k-space interpolation for MRI reconstruction. However, most of these methods ignore the strong correlation between target slice and its adjacent slices. Inspired by this, we propose a fully data-driven deep learning algorithm for k-space interpolation, utilizing the correlation information between the target slice and its neighboring slices. A novel network is proposed, which models the inter-dependencies between different slices. In addition, the network is easily implemented and expended. Experiments show that our methods consistently surpass existing image-domain and k-space-domain magnetic resonance imaging reconstructing methods.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Algoritmos , Cintilografia
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1186-1189, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018199

RESUMO

With the development of Convolutional Neural Network, the classification on ordinary natural images has made remarkable progress by using single feature maps. However, it is difficult to always produce good results on coronary artery angiograms because there is a lot of photographing noise and small class gaps between the classification targets on angiograms. In this paper, we propose a new network to enhance the richness and relevance of features in the training process by using multiple convolutions with different kernel sizes, which can improve the final classification result. Our network has a strong generalization ability, that is, it can perform a variety of classification tasks on angiograms better. Compared with some state-of-the-art image classification networks, the classification recall increases by 30.5% and precision increases by 19.1% in the best results of our network.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Angiografia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1612-1615, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018303

RESUMO

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used in medical image segmentation. Vessel segmentation in coronary angiography remains a challenging task. It is a great challenge to extract fine features of coronary artery for segmentation due to the poor opacification, numerous overlap of different artery segments and high similarity between artery segments and soft tissues in an angiography image, which results in a sub-optimal segmentation performance. In this paper, we propose an adapted generative adversarial networks (GANs) to complete the conversion from coronary angiography image to semantic segmentation image. We implemented an adapted U-net as the generator, and a novel 3-layer pyramid structure as the discriminator. During the training period, multi-scale inputs were fed into the discriminator to optimize the objective functions, producing high-definition segmentation results. Due to the generative adversarial mechanism, both generator and discriminator can extract fine feature of coronary artery. Our method effectively solves the problems of segmentation discontinuity and intra-class inconsistencies. Experiment shows that our method improves the segmentation accuracy effectively comparing to other vessel segmentation methods.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Angiografia , Semântica
10.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1637-1642, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of Shh singaling related gene, including Shh, Ptch1, Smo and Gli1 in bone marrow CD34+ cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes(AML-MRC), and to explore their clinical significance. METHODS: The count of CD34+ cells in bone marrow was detected by flow cytometry in 53 patients with MDS and 30 patients with AML-MRC. Magnetic beads were used to separate CD34+ cells. The expression of Shh, Ptch1,Smo and Gli1 on CD34+ cells was detected by qRT-PCR, the effect of the 4 gene expression on prognosis of patients in MDS and AML-MRC group was compared, 25 patients with iron-deficiency anemia were used as controls. RESULTS: The expression levels of Shh, Smo and Gli1 of patients in MDS and AML-MRC group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), moreover increased with disease progression(P<0.05). The expression of Ptch1 was not statistically significantly different between 3 groups(P>0.05). In comparison of prognosis, the expression of Smo and Gli1 in the patients of relatively high risk groups and AML-MRC groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). The median overall survival time of patients in MDS and AML-MRC groups was 12(7.5,16.5) and 6(3.0,9.0) months (P=0.000) respectively. The median survival time of MDS and AML-MRC patients with high expression of Smo and Gli1 was significantly shorter than that of MDS and AML-MRC patients with low expression of Smo and Gli1(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Shh signaling pathway in the patients with MDS is activated, which is involved in the progress and prognosis of MDS.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Medula Óssea , Células da Medula Óssea , Proteínas Hedgehog , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1648-1653, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transfusion effectiveness of suspended leucocyte depleted red blood cells (sld RBC) and fresh and irradiated apheresis platelets (fia Plt) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and to explore the causes and mechanisms of ineffective platelet transfusion in patients with MDS. METHODS: Clinical data of 37 patients with confirmed MDS (WHO standard) such as the sex, age, Hb levels, Plt count, hemorrhage and coagulation functions, TEG and so on, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 37 patients, 15 patients (40.5%) received only sld RBC transfusion, 9 patients (24.3%) received only fia Plt transfusion, and 13 patients (35.1%) received both transfusion. Among the 15 patients with only red blood cell transfusion, 3 patients were ineffective and the ineffectual transfusion rate was 20.0%. Among the 9 patients with only received platelet transfusion, 5 patients were ineffective and the ineffectual transfusion rate was 55.6%, there were significant statistical differences between the two groups (P﹤0.01). The red blood cell transfusion ineffective were 3 patients (23.1%) , the platelet transfusion ineffective were 8 patients (61.5%) and the both transfusion ineffective were 2 patients (15.4%) among the patients both transfusion . The positive rate of platelet antibody in MDS patients with ineffective platelet transfusion was 23.1%. Compared with the normal control group, Human P selectin (P-SelectinCD62P) (P<0.001) and human anti-thrombin 3 antibody (AT-III Ab) (P<0.001) significantly increased and human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) significantly decreased (P<0.05) in MDS patients with ineffective platelet transfusion. CONCLUSION: In the process of component transfusion for MDS patients, compared with the transfusion of red blood cells, the inefficiencies of platelet transfusion significantly increased, mainly due to the disorder of blood coagulation and the generation of platelet antibodies in MDS patients with ineffective platelet transfusion. Compared with the normal control group, human P selectin and human anti-thrombin 3 antibody significantly increase and human tissue factor pathway inhibitor significantly decreases in MDS patients with ineffective platelet transfusion. Human P selectin, human anti-thrombin 3 antibody and human tissue factor pathway inhibitor in molecular markers and fibrinolytic markers can be used as indicators of platelet transfusion time and efficiency in patients with MDS.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128392, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002804

RESUMO

Metallic glasses (MGs) are promising candidates for catalysts with high efficiency for dyeing wastewater remediation, due to their metastable nature, disordered structure, and large residual stresses. However, dyeing wastewater usually contains a high concentration of inorganic ions which may have adverse effects on the degradation process, while the impacts of these ions on MGs' degradation capability have often been overlooked and still remain unknown. Thus, the roles of inorganic ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and H2PO4-) on the degradation of azo dye by Fe-based MG with nominal composition of Fe81Si4B14Cu1 were systematically investigated. The results showed that the inorganic ions have significant influence on MG's surface morphology, degradation capability, mineralization and durability. All these aspects need to be considered prior to application of MGs for azo dyes degradation in real natural contaminated water or saline wastewater.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111734

RESUMO

Alloying is an effective tool to comprehend the packing mechanism and adjust the properties of nanomaterials. Herein, two crystal structures of alloy nanoclusters with M13 icosahedron cores, formulated as [Pt2Ag51(S-Adm)28(PPh3)2Cl7](SbF6)2 and [Au3Ag48(S-Adm)28Cl7](SbF6)2, are determined. The preferable site(s) of alloy metals in M13 induces various packing patterns of M13. The Pt2Ag21 and Au3Ag22 kernels are observed in Pt2Ag51 and Au3Ag48, respectively. The electronic structures of these two nanoclusters are evaluated. Overall, this work presents the effect of alloying on the packing patterns of M13 and electronic structures of the metal nanoclusters.

15.
Demography ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123983

RESUMO

A large body of research has examined the relationship between family size and child well-being in developing countries, but most of this literature has focused on the consequences of high fertility. The impact of family size in a low-fertility developing country context remains unknown, even though more developing countries are expected to reach below-replacement fertility levels. Set in China between 2010 and 2016, this study examines whether an increase in family size reduces parental investment received by the firstborn child. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), this study improves on previous research by using direct measures of parental investment, including monetary and nonmonetary investment, and distinguishing household-level from child-specific resources. It also exploits the longitudinal nature of the CFPS to mediate the bias arising from the joint determination of family size and parental investment. Results show that having a younger sibling significantly reduces the average household expenditure per capita. It also directly reduces parental investment received by the firstborn child, with two exceptions: (1) for firstborn boys, having a younger sister does not pose any competition; and (2) for firstborn children whose mothers have completed primary education or more, having a younger brother does not reduce parental educational aspirations for them. Findings from this study provide the first glimpse into how children fare as China transitions to a universal two-child policy regime but have wider implications beyond the Chinese context.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of age and refractive status on anterior segment anatomical structures, including the ciliary body, using a new swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) device. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 63 healthy volunteers (mean age: 44.2 years). Images of the anterior segment were obtained using a new swept-source AS-OCT (ANTERION, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) with tracking and image averaging from the right eye of all participants. Repeatability as well as inter- and intra-observer reliability of biometric measurements were evaluated. The impact of image tracking and averaging on ciliary muscle measurements was tested. Univariate and multivariable statistical models were developed to evaluate the relationship of age and refractive status on anterior segment biometric measurements. RESULTS: For all test-retest repeatability and inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of swept-source AS-OCT measurements, high intraclass correlation (ICC) was noted (0.88-1.00). The nasal maximum ciliary muscle thickness (CMTMAX) and distance between scleral spur to the thickest point of the ciliary muscle (SSMAX) were larger than those on the temporal side (p<0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Nasal and temporal CMTMAX (p = 0.004 and p<0.001, respectively) and lens thickness (p<0.01) increased with age. Nasal and temporal SSMAX decreased with older age and increasing hyperopia (p = 0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Image averaging resulted in improved ciliary muscle measurements (p = 0.008 to 0.02). Lens vault increased with older age and increased hyperopia (p<0.01). OCT measurements of the angle decreased with older age and increased hyperopia (p<0.001 to 0.03). Aqueous depth decreased with older age and increased hyperopia (p<0.01). Pupil diameter decreased with older age (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Repeatability and reproducibility of biometric measurements using the ANTERION AS-OCT were excellent. Image averaging improved the accuracy of ciliary muscle measurements. The device produced measurements of biometric parameters that described superficial and deep structures including the ciliary body and full lens thickness from a single image.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of prism adaptation (PA) on unilateral spatial neglect post- stroke. METHODS: Searching databases and referring to randomized controlled trial (RCT) until December 30, 2019. There were two reviewers searched some keywords like unilateral spatial neglect and prism adaptation, only RCT included. There were two evaluators screened literature and data regarding research design, treatment plan, et al. Assessment tool recommended in Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.1.0 was adopted to assess the risks of bias of RCT and Revman 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mean differences (MD) and 95% of confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed through I2 statistics. RESULTS: 8 RCTs included, involving 244 patients of which 130 in experimental group and 114 in control group. According to Meta-analysis results, PA group scored significantly higher than control group in improving Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) [MD=8.99, 95%CI (0.93, 17.06) P=0.03] and star cancellation test [MD=3.04, 95%CI (0.19, 5.88), P=0.04]. However, there was no significant statistical difference in Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) between groups [MD = -0.30, 95% CI (-1.83, 1.23), P=0.70]. The long-term follow-up visits (over one month) appeared no statistical difference in BIT scores between the patiets of two groups [MD = 8.93, 95% CI (-1.98, 19.84), P=0.1]. CONCLUSIONS: Prism adaptation can improve neglect symptoms of patients with unilateral spatial neglect after stroke temporarily.

18.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 47(3): 445-453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931671

RESUMO

The present study was designed to assess the stress responses to a simulation model of the undersea environment that is similar to some undersea working conditions such as submarine rescue, underwater salvage and underwater construction. Restraint, hyperbaric air and immersion were chosen to produce the simulation stress model in rats for four hours. Rats were randomized into five groups: control group, restraint (R) group, hyperbaric air (H) group, restraint plus hyperbaric air (RH) group, and restraint plus hyperbaric air plus immersion (RHI) group. The results showed that the responses to the simulation stress model of the undersea environment induced by R, H, RH and RHI involved the upregulated norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of the central nervous system (CNS), upregulated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose of the neuroendocrine system, upregulated interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of the immune system, and increased anxiety in rats. Compared with hyperbaric air, restraint tended to activate stronger stress responses. Conclusively, this work established a simulation stress model of the undersea environment induced by restraint, hyperbaric air and immersion. It further provided experimental data of such a model that showed significant activation of the CNS, neuroendocrine and immune systems and anxiety in rats. In this experiment we provided an experimental basis for undersea work such as working aboard a submarine.

19.
Korean J Radiol ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess biochemical alterations in the cartilage of the subtalar and midtarsal joints in chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI) patients with isolated anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injuries and combined calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries using MRI T2 mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed according to regulations of the Committee for Human Research at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty CLAI patients (26 with isolated ATFL injuries and 14 with combined ATFL and CFL injuries) and 25 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. All participants underwent MRI scans with T2 mapping. Patients were assessed with the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) rating system. The subtalar and midtarsal joints were segmented into 14 cartilage subregions. The T2 value of each subregion was measured from T2 mapping images. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, the Student's t test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: T2 values of most subregions of the subtalar joint and the calcaneal facet of the calcaneocuboid joint in CLAI patients with combined CFL injuries were higher than those in healthy controls (all p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in T2 values in subtalar and midtarsal joints between patients with isolated ATFL injuries and healthy controls (all p > 0.05). Moreover, T2 values of the medial talar subregions of the posterior subtalar joint in patients with combined CFL injuries showed negative correlations with the AOFAS scores (r = -0.687, p = 0.007; r = -0.609, p = 0.021, respectively). CONCLUSION: CLAI with combined CFL injuries can lead to cartilage degeneration in subtalar and calcaneocuboid joints, while an isolated ATFL injury might not have a significant impact on the cartilage in these joints.

20.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992447

RESUMO

In this study, the detailed volatile compositions of Chinese herbaceous aroma-type Baijiu (HAB) were characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). A total of 606 compounds were tentatively identified by similarity, mass spectral data, and retention indices, among which 247 compounds were positively verified by authentic standards. Esters were present in higher numbers (179), followed by aldehydes and ketones (111), and alcohols (81). In addition, there were also many terpenes (82), sulfides (37), furans (29), nitrogenous compounds (29), lactones (17), and so on. Meanwhile, the extraction effects of volatile components from different sample pretreatment methods (headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)) for HAB were also revealed. The results indicated that HS-SPME has a better extraction effect on easily volatile compounds, such as alcohols and sulfides, especially for terpenes. SPE was particularly beneficial for the analysis of nitrogen-containing compounds; SBSE showed medium extraction ability for most types of compounds and was more suitable for the target analysis of trace content substances.

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