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1.
Microb Ecol ; 2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064809

RESUMO

The decline in soil nutrients is becoming a major concern of soil degradation. The possibility of using organic waste as a soil additive to increase nutrients and essential components is significant in soil quality protection and waste management. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of composted spent mushroom substrate (MS), giant panda feces (PF), and cattle manure (CM) as organic fertilizers in soil microbial communities and metabolites in blueberry orchard in China, which were measured by using high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. Altogether, 45.66% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 9.08% of the fungal OTUs were detected in all treatments. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated that the bacterial and fungal communities in MS and PF treatments were similar, whereas the communities in the not-organic fertilized control (CK) were significantly different from those in the organic fertilizer treatments. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla, and Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Mortierellomycota the dominant fungal phyla. Redundancy analysis indicated that pH and available potassium were the main factors determining the composition of microbial communities. The fungal genera Postia, Cephalotrichum, and Thermomyces increased in organic fertilizer treatments, and likely promoted the degradation of organic fertilizers into low molecular-weight metabolites (e.g., amino acids). PCA and PLS-DA models showed that the metabolites in CK were different from those in the other three treatments, and those in CM were clearly different from those in MS and PF. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that several taxa correlated positively with amino acid contents. The results of this study provide new insights into organic waste reutilization and new directions for further studies.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 613: 337-348, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051719

RESUMO

Effective removal of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the environment is essential for the ecosystem and human health. Reductive debromination of PBDEs by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has become an important technology. However, the agglomeration and low persistence catalytic activity of nZVI particles have become urgent problems to be improved. Herein, we report the first application of a new organo-attapulgite (OA) supported Fe/Pd nanoparticles (OA-Fe/Pd) composite for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) removal. BDE209 was efficiently removed using OA-Fe/Pd with a reaction rate that was 9.97 times greater than that of the nZVI due to the synergetic effect of support material OA and Pd loading. OA could prevent nZVI particles from agglomeration and adsorb BDE209 molecules to its surface. Pd could supply atomic hydrogen and also prevent the oxidation of nZVI particles. The degradation of BDE209 by OA-Fe/Pd was affected by many factors and followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The degradation of BDE209 by OA-Fe/Pd underwent a stepwise debromination manner with the H-transfer dominant mechanism. BDE209 (25 mg∙L-1) could be degraded to penta-BDEs to diphenyl ether (DE) by 3.0 g∙L-1 OA-Fe/Pd within 240 min under neutral condition. This study provides some inspiration for improving the removal efficiency of PBDEs with nZVI-based materials.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Compostos de Magnésio , Compostos de Silício
3.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 50(1): 33-42, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697081

RESUMO

The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) represent an important family of drug-metabolizing enzymes, with UGT1A1 targeting the conjugation and detoxification of many exogenous substances, including pharmaceutical drugs. In this study we generated humanized UGT1A1 mice expressing the human UGT1A1 gene in either liver (hUGT1A1HEP ) or intestine (hUGT1A1GI ), enabling experiments to examine tissue-specific properties of UGT1A1-specific glucuronidation. Hepatic and intestinal tissue-specific expression and function of UGT1A1 were demonstrated. Although the liver is considered a major organ for detoxification, intestinal UGT1A1 is an important contributor for drug clearance. Mice were challenged with irinotecan (CPT-11), a prodrug hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to form the active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) and detoxified by UGT1A1. Humanized UGT1A1HEP mice that have no intestinal UGT1A1 displayed a greater lethality rate when exposed to CPT-11 than hUGT1A1GI mice. When exposed to a low dose of CPT-11 (10 mg/kg), hUGT1A1HEP mice displayed greater intestinal inflammatory (IL-1ß and IL-6) insult in addition to p53-triggered apoptotic responses. In vitro studies with intestinal crypt organoids exposed to CPT-11 confirmed the results observed in vivo and indicated that CPT-11 impacts stemness, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in organoids deficient in UGT1A1. When we examined the induction of ER stress in organoids with thapsigargin, an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, apoptosis and the caspase surge that occurred in hUGT1A1HEP mice were blocked in hUGT1A1GI organoids. This study reveals the importance of intestinal UGT1A1 in preventing inflammation, apoptosis, and loss of stemness capacity upon systemic challenge with an important chemotherapeutic agent. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hepatic and intestinal UGT1A1 play a key role in the metabolism and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The use of tissue-specific humanized models expressing UGT1A1 in liver or intestine has confirmed the relevance of the intestinal tract in the detoxification of irinotecan. Mechanistic studies using intestinal organoids highlighted the importance of UGT1A1 in reducing inflammation, apoptosis, and loss of stemness. These new models provide valuable tools for studying tissue-specific glucuronidation of substances that are metabolized by human UGT1A1.


Assuntos
Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Intestinos/metabolismo , Irinotecano/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Enterite/patologia , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Células-Tronco
4.
Food Chem ; 374: 131743, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915365

RESUMO

Pleioblastus amarus (P. amarus) shoots, belong to the grass family Gramineae, a traditional green vegetable in China, are rich in nutritional properties, and can provide various health benefits. This study isolated four compounds, namely (1-4), 3-O-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2), 4-O-feruloylquinic acid (3), and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid (4) from Pleioblastus amarus shoots for the first time. The structures of the extracted compounds were determined using detailed spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant capacity of 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2) was stronger than that of the other compounds, while it also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, significantly restricting the release of nitric oxide (NO) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells, displaying an inhibitory rate of 60.92 percent at a concentration of 400 µg/mL. Furthermore, 3-O-feruloylquinic acid (2) inhibited interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression and may be useful for developing novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
5.
Food Res Int ; 150(Pt A): 110768, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865783

RESUMO

Vinegar is consumed worldwide as a food condiment, especially in the Chinese diet. The present study optimized the addition of A. niger biofortified-bran Qu (0.3%, 0.45%, and 0.6%) as additional starter to improve total acid content and starch utilization rate in industrial-scale Baoning vinegar production. In addition, this novel study determined the quality and microbial community changes of Baoning vinegar during three-round biofortification in industrial scale. Our results indicated that A. niger biofortified-bran Qu added at 0.6% resulted in higher total acid content and starch utilization rate of vinegar Pei. Biofortification imposed minor changes in the microbial community during three-round biofortification, and more variation was observed in fungal community than that in bacterial community. Most importantly, the quality of Baoning vinegar remained relatively stable. This information further confirmed the feasibility of multiple rounds of A. niger biofortification, and can be used to provide theoretical basis for industrial-scale production.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Microbiota , Aspergillus niger , Bactérias , Biofortificação
6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(12): 1571-1591, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dictamnus dasycarpus is a plant of the Rutaceae family, and its root bark is the main part used as a medicine, named 'Bai-Xian-Pi'. It is used to clear away heat, remove dampness, and dispel wind and also used for detoxification. The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic review about the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this plant. KEY FINDINGS: More than 200 compounds have been isolated and identified from the plant, including alkaloids and their glycosides, terpenoids and their derivatives and phenylpropanoids. Extensive pharmacological activities of the extracts or compounds of D. dasycarpus in vivo and in vitro were mainly confirmed, including anti-inflammatory activity, protecting cardiovascular activity, improving liver injury and anti-cancer activity. SUMMARY: In this paper, the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of D. dasycarpus were reviewed. In the future, D. dasycarpus needs further study, such as paying more attention to quality control and the utilization on agriculture. In addition, discussing the medicinal components of decoction as well as the toxicity will also contribute to the progress of clinical trial studies.


Assuntos
Dictamnus/química , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dictamnus/efeitos adversos , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/uso terapêutico
7.
Front Genet ; 12: 781007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34938322

RESUMO

In our previous research, SP600125 (Anthrapyrazolone) was used to induce autotetraploid of crucian carp cells (SP4N cells), and tetraploid fry was generated from the SP4N cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. However, it is still unclear about biological characteristics of the SP4N cells. In this article, the cytological characteristic and gene expression profiles of the SP4N cells are investigated in comparison with the crucian carp cells (2N cells) and the tetraploid crucian carp cells (CC4N cells). The SP4N cells have tetraploid characteristics in terms of morphology and DNA ploidy levels, and their chromosome behavior is stable during the cell proliferation. The migration ability and the mtDNA copy number of SP4N cells are both lower than those in the CC4N cells and the 2N cells, but there exist giant mitochondria in the SP4N cells. The similar expression trends in the cell cycle regulation genes of the SP4N cells and 2N cells, while the corresponding expression profiles are clearly different between the SP4N cells and the CC4N cells. Moreover, the significant difference genes are associated with energy metabolism pathways among the SP4N cells, 2N cells and CC4N cells. These results can provide deeper understanding of SP600125 induction, as well as finding applications in polyploidization breeding of fish species.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 702725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421860

RESUMO

Metals are widely used in animal feed for their growth-stimulating and antimicrobial effects, yet their use may potentially promote the proliferation of antibiotic resistance through co-selection. We studied the prevalence and associations of metal, antibiotic, and disinfectant resistances of 300 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from pig meat, pig manure, chicken meat, poultry manure, and human stool from Sichuan, China. Seventy four percent of the 300 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were considered resistant to Cu, almost 50% to Zn and Cr, over 25% to Mn and Cd, and almost 10% to Co. Most of the isolates carried at least one heavy metal resistance gene (HMRG). The Cr-Zn-Cd-resistance gene czcD was carried by 254 isolates and the Cu-resistance genes pcoR and pcoC by 196 and 179 isolates, respectively. Most of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and almost 80% were multidrug-resistant. The prevalence of resistance to six antibiotics was higher among the pig meat and manure isolates than among other isolates, and that of streptomycin and ampicillin were highest among the pig meat isolates and that of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin among the pig manure isolates. From 55 to 79% of the isolates were considered resistant to disinfectants triclosan, trichloroisocyanuric acid, or benzalkonium chloride. The metal resistances and HMRGs were associated with resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. Especially, Cu-resistance genes were associated with resistance to several antibiotics and disinfectants. The transfer of the Cr-Zn-Cd-resistance gene czcD, Cu-resistance gene pcoC, and Co-Ni-resistance gene cnrA into Escherichia coli and the increased Cu-resistance of the transconjugants implied that the resistance genes were located on conjugative plasmids. Thus, the excessive use of metals and disinfectants as feed additives and in animal care may have the potential to promote antibiotic resistance through co-selection and maintain and promote antibiotic resistance even in the absence of antibiotics.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e96-e104, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterprise stents are widely used for intracranial aneurysms located on small arteries (<2.5 mm in diameter) and change the geometry of parent arteries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between vascular geometry changes and long-term outcomes. METHODS: Between May 2013 and 2018, 1065 consecutive intracranial aneurysms were treated with Enterprise stents at our institution. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 377 aneurysms with >6 months of digital subtraction angiography follow-up were evaluated. The cohort comprised 101 aneurysms located on small parent arteries. After stent-assisted coiling, the vascular geometry parameters of small parent arteries were compared to explore their correlation with procedural complications, delayed stent migration, and recanalization. RESULTS: The rate of delayed aneurysm occlusion in patients with initial efferent artery diameter (De) <2.5 mm was significantly higher than in patients with De >2.5 mm (62.2% vs. 40.2%; P = 0.032). At follow-up, vascular geometry parameters significantly increased (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, larger aneurysms and initial parent artery angle (α) <90° were independent predictors of procedural complications and discrepancy in vessel size (ΔD) >0.5 mm was an independent predictor of delayed stent migration. Larger aneurysms and follow-up angle change (ΔAngle) <30° were independent predictors for recanalization of aneurysms located on small arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Enterprise stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms located on small arteries is safe and effective. Our study found that Enterprise deployment in small arteries had a low procedural complication rate and high stent tolerance. Vascular geometry changes play an important role in aneurysm recanalization.


Assuntos
Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital , Angiografia Cerebral , Artérias Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 643149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177893

RESUMO

Fibrosis is the final common pathway of inflammatory diseases in various organs. The inflammasomes play an important role in the progression of fibrosis as innate immune receptors. There are four main members of the inflammasomes, such as NOD-like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), NOD-like receptor C4 (NLRC4), and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), among which NLRP3 inflammasome is the most studied. NLRP3 inflammasome is typically composed of NLRP3, ASC and pro-caspase-1. The activation of inflammasome involves both "classical" and "non-classical" pathways and the former pathway is better understood. The "classical" activation pathway of inflammasome is that the backbone protein is activated by endogenous/exogenous stimulation, leading to inflammasome assembly. After the formation of "classic" inflammasome, pro-caspase-1 could self-activate. Caspase-1 cleaves cytokine precursors into mature cytokines, which are secreted extracellularly. At present, the "non-classical" activation pathway of inflammasome has not formed a unified model for activation process. This article reviews the role of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2 inflammasome, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-18 and IL-33 in the fibrogenesis.


Assuntos
Fibrose/etiologia , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/fisiologia , Caspase 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/classificação , Interleucina-1beta/fisiologia , Interleucina-33/fisiologia , Rim/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Proteínas NLR/fisiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11107, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045606

RESUMO

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice is associated with kernicterus, resulting in permanent neurological damage or even death. Conventional phototherapy does not prevent hyperbilirubinemia or eliminate the need for exchange transfusion. Here we investigated the potential of therapeutic bile acids ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and obeticholic acid (OCA, 6-α-ethyl-CDCA), a farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) agonist, as preventive treatment options for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia using the hUGT1*1 humanized mice and Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats. Treatment of hUGT1*1 mice with UDCA or OCA at postnatal days 10-14 effectively decreased bilirubin in plasma (by 82% and 62%) and brain (by 72% and 69%), respectively. Mechanistically, our findings indicate that these effects are mediated through induction of protein levels of hUGT1A1 in the intestine, but not in liver. We further demonstrate that in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats, UDCA but not OCA significantly decreases plasma bilirubin, indicating that at least some of the hypobilirubinemic effects of UDCA are independent of UGT1A1. Finally, using the synthetic, non-bile acid, FXR-agonist GW4064, we show that some of these effects are mediated through direct or indirect activation of FXR. Together, our study shows that therapeutic bile acids UDCA and OCA effectively reduce both plasma and brain bilirubin, highlighting their potential in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.


Assuntos
Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/uso terapêutico , Bilirrubina/sangue , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangue , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos Gunn , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Food Res Int ; 143: 110294, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992393

RESUMO

Complex microbiomes of pit mud (PM) play significant roles in imbuing flavors and qualities of Chinese strong-flavor liquor (CSFL) during fermentation. However, understanding both of the taxonomic and functional diversity of the whole microorganisms in PM still remain a major challenge. Here, PM microbiomes were investigated based on metagenomic sequencing, assembly and binning. Metagenomic data revealed that Euryarchaeota was the predominant phylum, followed by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. For further functional exploration, 703 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), including 304 novel strains, 197 novel species, and 94 novel genera were reconstructed. Three primary groups of Firmicutes (n = 406), Euryarchaeota (n = 130) and Bacteroidetes (n = 74), particularly genus of them Syntrophomonas, Thermacetogenium and Clostridium, methanogens (Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanosarcina), Proteiniphilum and Prevotella, contained most of metabolic potential genes. Additionally, Chloroflexi was firstly reported to have potential to be involved in the caproic acid (CA) production. Bacteroidetes could be the key phylum to synthesize terpenes, and Armatimonadetes, Firmicutes, Ignavibacteriae and Verrucomicrobia may possess the same metabolic potential as well. Overall, this study will significantly improve our understanding of the diverse PM microbiome and help guide the future exploration of microbial resources for modifying PM fermentation processes.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , China , Fermentação
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e21087, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use disorder has high potential for relapse and imposes an enormous burden on public health in China. Since the promulgation of the Anti-drug law in 2008, community-based rehabilitation has become the primary approach to treat drug addiction. However, multiple problems occurred in the implementation process, leading to a low detoxification rate in the community. Mobile health (mHealth) serves as a promising tool to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of community-based rehabilitation. Community-based addiction rehabilitation electronic system (CAREs) is an interactive system for drug users and their assigned social workers. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of CAREs in community-based rehabilitation from the perspective of drug users and social workers in Shanghai, China. METHODS: In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 40 participants were recruited from the community in Shanghai from January to May 2019. Participants randomized to the intervention group (n=20) received CAREs + community-based rehabilitation, while participants in the control group (n=20) received community-based rehabilitation only for 6 months. CAREs provided education, assessment, and SOS (support) functions for drug users. The assigned social workers provided service and monitored drug use behavior as usual except that the social workers in the intervention group could access the webpage end to obtain drug users' information and fit their routine workflow into CAREs. The primary outcome was the feasibility of CAREs, reflected in the overall proportion and frequency of CAREs features used in both app and webpage end. The secondary outcomes were the effectiveness of CAREs, including the percentage of drug-positive samples, longest period of abstinence, contact times with social workers, and the change of Addiction Severity Index (ASI) from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: The number of participants logged in to the app ranged from 7 to 20 per week, and CAREs had relatively high levels of continued patient use. Drug users preferred assessment and education features in the app end while their social workers showed high levels of use in urine results record and viewing assessment results on the webpage end. After the 6-month intervention, 3.3% (17/520) of samples in the intervention group and 7.5% (39/520) in the control group were drug-positive (F=4.358, P=.04). No significant differences were noted between the control and intervention groups in terms of longest duration of abstinence, number of contact times and ASI composite scores. CONCLUSIONS: The study preliminarily demonstrated that with relatively good feasibility and acceptability, CAREs may improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the community-based rehabilitation, which provided instruction for further improvement of the system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03451344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03451344. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00556.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , China , Eletrônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(4): 1475-1487, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655547

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (CY) is a synthetic pyrethroid widely used to control insect pests and it elicits a toxic effect on the human body. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis B-1 isolated from tea garden soil was used to degrade CY effectively. A specific enzyme was mainly localized in the extracellular compartments of B-1. This enzyme was identified as an esterase that could be produced without CY. The enzyme was purified 23.03-fold to apparent homogeneity with 8.38% overall recovery by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the CY-degrading enzyme was 66.4 kDa, and its optimal pH and temperature were 8.5 and 40 °C, respectively. Appropriate Zn2+ , Mn2+ , Mg2+ , Tween 80, SDS, Triton X-100, and BSA concentrations could greatly increase the activity of this enzyme. By contrast, EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, NaF, and PMSF strongly inhibited its activity. The purified enzyme showed Km and Vmax values were 5.532 nmol/mL and 33.445 nmol/min. The CY residue in lettuce and cherry tomatoes could be removed more than 50% under the conditions of the treatment concentration for 500 mg/L and the enzyme preparation dilution of 100 times. These results suggested that the CY-degrading enzyme, a constitutive enzyme that mainly exists in the extracellular space, was a novel esterase that might be used to detoxify CY, and could remove CY in vegetables effectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our research found a novel cypermethrin-hydrolyzing esterase from Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and proved that the enzyme could remove cypermethrin in vegetables effectively.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Esterases/isolamento & purificação , Esterases/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Gel , Estabilidade Enzimática , Esterases/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Temperatura
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 253: 119577, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636494

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of a novel probe based on magnetic room-temperature phosphorescence quantum dots with molecularly imprinted polymers (MQD-MIPs) for the rapid detection of trace norfloxacin (NFX) residual in complex food matrix. The highly selective probe was constructed by surface molecular imprinting technology using magnetic materials (Fe3O4 nanoparticles) as core, Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn-ZnS QDs) as phosphorescent materials, NFX as template, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as functional monomer, and tetraethoxysilane as crosslinking agent. The as-obtained MQD-MIPs were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometer. A magnetic strength of 37.64 emu g-1 was recorded. Also, the probe displayed excellent room temperature phosphorescence properties with excitation/emission peaks at 300/590 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the detection time was less than 40 min, phosphorescence intensity varied linearly with concentration from 1 to 90 µg·L-1, and detection limit reached as low as 0.80 µg·L-1. Furthermore, the MQD-MIPs-based probe successfully detected norfloxacin residues in spiked fish and milk samples with recoveries of 90.92-111.53% and RSD <7%, outperforming the standard control method-HPLC-FLD (recoveries of 85.89-118.28%).


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Manganês , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Norfloxacino , Sulfetos , Compostos de Zinco
16.
Food Chem ; 347: 129000, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465690

RESUMO

In this study, the cypermethrin binding characteristics of lactic acid bacteria were investigated for the first time. Two strains, Lactobacillus plantarum RS60 and Pediococcus acidilactici D15, possessed the highest cypermethrin removal capacity and good tolerance to simulated digestive juices. They were employed for further studies on cypermethrin binding characteristics. 55.06% and 56.46% of cypermethrin were removed within 0.25 h by strains RS60 and D15, respectively. The effect of pH on binding capacity was negligible. Heat treatment enhanced cypermethrin binding rate. Moreover, inactive cells were capable of removing cypermethrin from fruit and vegetable juices, with over 60% cypermethrin reduction within 2 h. No adverse effect was found on the quality of juice during the biosorption process. Besides, these two strains also could bind other several pyrethroids and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid. These findings indicated that L. plantarum RS60 and P. acidilactici D15 may be useful to reduce cypermethrin in contaminated foods.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Pediococcus acidilactici/química , Piretrinas/análise , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
17.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 49(1): 12-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154041

RESUMO

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the only transferase capable of conjugating serum bilirubin. However, temporal delay in the development of the UGT1A1 gene leads to an accumulation of serum bilirubin in newborn children. Neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice, which accumulate severe levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB), were treated by oral gavage with obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent FXR agonist. OCA treatment led to dramatic reduction in TSB levels. Analysis of UGT1A1 expression confirmed that OCA induced intestinal and not hepatic UGT1A1. Interestingly, Cyp2b10, a target gene of the nuclear receptor CAR, was also induced by OCA in intestinal tissue. In neonatal hUGT1/Car -/- mice, OCA was unable to induce CYP2B10 and UGT1A1, confirming that CAR and not FXR is involved in the induction of intestinal UGT1A1. However, OCA did induce FXR target genes, such as Shp, in both intestines and liver with induction of Fgf15 in intestinal tissue. Circulating FGF15 activates hepatic FXR and, together with hepatic Shp, blocks Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1 gene expression, key enzymes in bile acid metabolism. Importantly, the administration of OCA in neonatal hUGT1 mice accelerates intestinal epithelial cell maturation, which directly impacts on induction of the UGT1A1 gene and the reduction in TSB levels. Accelerated intestinal maturation is directly controlled by CAR, since induction of enterocyte marker genes sucrase-isomaltase, alkaline phosphatase 3, and keratin 20 by OCA does not occur in hUGT1/Car -/- mice. Thus, new findings link an important role for CAR in intestinal UGT1A1 induction and its role in the intestinal maturation pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Obeticholic acid (OCA) activates FXR target genes in both liver and intestinal tissues while inducing intestinal UGT1A1, which leads to the elimination of serum bilirubin in humanized UGT1 mice. However, the induction of intestinal UGT1A1 and the elimination of bilirubin by OCA is driven entirely by activation of intestinal CAR and not FXR. The elimination of serum bilirubin is based on a CAR-dependent mechanism that facilitates the acceleration of intestinal epithelium cell differentiation, an event that underlies the induction of intestinal UGT1A1.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Intestinos , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/farmacocinética , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacocinética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113478, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069788

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tussilago farfara L. (commonly called coltsfoot), known as a vital folk medicine, have long been used to treat various respiratory disorders and consumed as a vegetable in many parts of the world since ancient times. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide a critical evaluation of the current knowledge on the ethnobotanical value, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and quality control of coltsfoot, thus provide a basis for further investigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature search was obtained using various online search engines (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Baidu Scholar, PubMed and CNKI). Additional information was sourced from ethnobotanical literature focusing on Chinese and European flora. The plant synonyms were validated by the database 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Coltsfoot has diverse uses in local and traditional medicine, but similarities have been noticed, specifically for relieving inflammatory conditions, respiratory and infectious diseases in humans. Regarding its pharmacological activities, many traditional uses of coltsfoot are supported by modern in vitro or in vivo pharmacological studies such as anti-inflammatory activities, neuro-protective activity, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant activity. Quantitative analysis (e.g. GC-MS, UHPLC-MRMHR) indicated the presence of a rich (>150) pool of chemicals, including sesquiterpenes, phenolic acids, flavonoids, chromones, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and others from its leaves and buds. In addition, adverse events have resulted from a collection of the wrong plant which contains PAs that became the subject of public concern attributed to their highly toxic. CONCLUSIONS: So far, remarkable progress has been witnessed in phytochemistry and pharmacology of coltsfoot. Thus, some traditional uses have been well supported and clarified by modern pharmacological studies. Discovery of therapeutic natural products and novel structures in plants for future clinical and experimental studies are still a growing interest. Furthermore, well-designed studies in vitro particularly in vivo are required to establish links between the traditional uses and bioactivities, as well as ensure safety before clinical use. In addition, the good botanical identification of coltsfoot and content of morphologically close species is a precondition for quality supervision and control. Moreover, strict quality control measures are required in the studies investigating any aspect of the pharmacology and chemistry of coltsfoot.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tussilago , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/normas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/normas , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade , Tussilago/química
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124350, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176957

RESUMO

Cypermethrin is a common food contaminant and environmental pollutant that cause health threats to animals and humans. In this study, the characterization, mechanism, and application of cypermethrin removal by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. The binding of cypermethrin by the strains S. cerevisiae YS81 and HP was rapid and reached equilibrium at 2-8 h. The removal efficiency was dependent on incubation temperature and yeast concentration, whereas cypermethrin binding was not affected by pH. Heat and acid treatments enhanced the binding ability. Both strains survived in simulated digestion juices and removed cypermethrin effectively under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Among the strains tested, the YS81 strain was the better candidate for cypermethrin concentration reduction. For the two S. cerevisiae strains, the biosorption kinetics and isotherm followed the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model well. The cell walls and the protoplasts were the main yeast cell components involved in cypermethrin binding. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that -OH, -NH, -C-N, -COO-, and -C-O played a major role in binding cypermethrin. Inactive cells effectively removed cypermethrin from apple and cucumber juices and did not affect the physico-chemical properties. Therefore, S. cerevisiae strains YS81 and HP may be used for cypermethrin reduction in food or feed.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Malus , Adsorção , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Piretrinas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(49): 31259-31266, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229553

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS), employed as an antiseptic and disinfectant, comes into direct contact with humans through a plethora of consumer products and its rising environmental release. We have demonstrated that TCS promotes liver tumorigenesis in mice, yet the biological and molecular mechanisms by which TCS exerts its toxicity, especially in early stages of liver disease, are largely unexplored. When mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), we found that fatty liver and dyslipidemia are prominent early signs of liver abnormality induced by TCS. The presumably protective HFD-induced hepatic expression of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was blunted by TCS. TCS-altered Fgf21 expression aligned with aberrant expression of genes encoding metabolic enzymes manifested as profound systemic metabolic changes that disturb homeostasis of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. Using a type 1 diabetic animal model, TCS potentiates and accelerates the development of steatohepatitis and fibrosis, accompanied by increased levels of hepatic lipid droplets and oxidative stress. Analysis of fecal samples revealed that HFD-fed mice exhibited a reduction in fecal species richness, and that TCS further diminished microbial diversity and shifted the bacterial community toward lower Bacteriodetes and higher Firmicutes, resembling changes in microbiota composition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients. Using reverse-genetic approaches, we demonstrate that, along with HFD, TCS induces hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis jointly regulated by the transcription factor ATF4 and the nuclear receptor PPARα, which participate in the transcriptional regulation of the Fgf21 gene. This study provides evidence linking nutritional imbalance and exposure to TCS with the progression of NASH.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR alfa/genética , Triclosan/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia
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