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2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102915, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While smoking is associated with worse outcomes in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the magnitude of this association is unclear given the heterogenous smoking definitions and outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the association between smoking, survival, and recurrence in HPV-related OPSCC using multiple smoking metrics reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 375 adults with p16+ OPSCC undergoing surgical resection (n = 272) or definitive chemoradiation (n = 103) at a tertiary academic institution from 2006 to 2017. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence. We used multiple smoking metrics commonly cited in previous studies, including ever versus never smokers, current versus former/never smokers, ≤10 versus >10 pack-year, ≤20 versus >20 pack-year, and continuous pack-year. RESULTS: There were 375 patients, median age 58 years, with 326 (87%) males, and median follow-up of 52 months. Of all smoking metrics, >20 pack-year history was the strongest predictor of both OS (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20) and DFS (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.04-2.66) on univariable and multivariable analysis after adjusting for age, overall stage, and comorbidities. Patients with >20 pack-year smoking history were also more likely to have recurrence (HR 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95-2.67) after adjusting for overall stage. CONCLUSION: Heavier smoking >20 pack-years was the strongest smoking metric associated with 2-times worse survival and recurrence. Our findings suggest that >20 pack-year smoking history may be a more useful cutoff for risk stratification models but requires further validation.

3.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; : 1-5, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274661

RESUMO

COVID-19 (from SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of an ongoing pandemic, with an increasing number of cases and significant mortality worldwide. Clinical trials and extensive studies are being conducted on a large scale for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and its effect on different organs. Several experimental treatment protocols have been introduced, in which hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was one of the first drugs used. While patients can develop many side effects of HCQ, studies have documented a rare association of long-term HCQ treatment with zebra-like bodies in the ultrastructural examination of kidney biopsies, a finding typically seen in Fabry's disease, as well as in association with chronic HCQ use, among other drugs. We present a similar finding in the postmortem examination of a male in his early seventies with COVID-19 infection, who received five days of HCQ treatment before stopping the medication due to cardiac and renal toxicity.

4.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(12): 60, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151417

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common phenomenon among general surgery patients, but it is not well described in urologic surgical patients. We sought to define the incidence and predictive risk factors for POD in patients undergoing urologic surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Eighteen articles were included for review. The pooled incidence rate of postoperative delirium after urologic surgery was 1.69% (0.69-46.97%). Longer intraoperative time, male sex, unmarried status, and age were shown to be risk factors for POD. POD is common after many urologic surgeries and leads to worse postoperative outcomes and higher healthcare utilization. Future studies are needed to better assess for and prevent POD.

5.
Simul Healthc ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196612

RESUMO

Talk-through walk-through is a simulation format that enables the rapid development and improvement of complex systems for patient care. This approach was adapted from task analysis literature and used to develop and test processes for the safe management of COVID-19 patients. Talk-through walk-through is a 2-part process that is paired with a simulated clinical scenario. The talk-through focuses on identifying and solving major process issues and establishing a shared mental model. The walk-through tests these proposed solutions and identifies previously unanticipated system and process challenges. The talk-through walk-through approach enables process development and testing in a single session, making it particularly valuable for patient care systems that involve multiple locations and healthcare disciplines, and where the availability of these disciplines and time are scarce.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273

RESUMO

Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

7.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166214

RESUMO

Context: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) often require tracheostomy as an immediate life-saving measure. Successful decannulation, or removal of the tracheostomy, improves patient quality of life, function, and physical appearance and is considered an important rehabilitative milestone for SCI patients. Objective: We sought to synthesize the existing published literature on SCI patients undergoing decannulation. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched through July 2, 2019 using appropriate keywords and MeSH terms pertaining to tracheostomy and SCI. Searches were human-subject only without language restrictions. Published literature discussing the outcomes of SCI patients who underwent decannulation were screened using inclusion/exclusion criteria determined a priori and reviewed. Results: Twenty-six publications were eligible for review and synthesis out of 1,493 unique articles. Over half of the studies were retrospective case series or reports. The research was nearly all published within the fields of physical medicine and rehabilitation, neurology, and pulmonary/critical care. Three themes emerged from review: (1) interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary tracheostomy team management to optimize decannulation processes, (2) non-invasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilatory support instead of tracheostomy-based ventilator support, and (3) wide variation in the reporting of post-decannulation clinical outcomes. Conclusion: Published research lacks a consistent taxonomy for reporting post-decannulation outcomes in SCI patients. Non-invasive ventilation research could benefit many SCI patients but has been studied in depth primarily by a single authorship group. Further investigation into the socioeconomic and fiscal impact on tracheostomies on SCI patients is warranted.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2024191, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026453

RESUMO

Importance: In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the routes of transmission to Los Angeles, California, the US West Coast epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and subsequent community spread are limited. Objective: To determine the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 to Southern California and elucidate local community spread within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 192 consecutive patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, from March 22 to April 15, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes were sequenced. Los Angeles isolates were compared with genomes from global subsampling and from New York, New York; Washington state; and China to determine potential sources of viral dissemination. Demographic data and outcomes were collected. Results: The cohort included 192 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 59.5 [43-75] years; 110 [57.3%] men). The genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the Los Angeles population pinpointed community transmission of 13 patients within a 3.81 km2 radius. Variation landscapes of this case series also revealed a cluster of 10 patients that contained 5 residents at a skilled nursing facility, 1 resident of a nearby skilled nursing facility, 3 health care workers, and a family member of a resident of one of the skilled nursing facilities. Person-to-person transmission was detected in a cluster of 5 patients who shared the same single-nucleotide variation in their SARS-CoV-2 genomes. High viral genomic diversity was identified: 20 Los Angeles isolates (15.0%) resembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Asia, while 109 Los Angeles isolates (82.0%) were similar to isolates originating from Europe. Analysis of other common respiratory viral pathogens did not reveal coinfection in the cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the precision of detecting person-to-person transmission and accurate contact tracing directly through SARS-CoV-2 genome isolation and sequencing. Development and application of phylogenetic analyses from the Los Angeles population established connections between COVID-19 clusters locally and throughout the US.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , California/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Washington
9.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on operative case volume in 8 U.S. neurosurgical residency training programs in early 2020 and to survey these programs regarding training activities during this period. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of monthly operative case volumes and types for 8 residency programs for 2019 and January through April 2020. Cases were grouped as elective cranial, elective spine, and nonelective emergent cases. Programs were surveyed regarding residents' perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on surgical training, didactics, and research participation. Data were analyzed for individual programs and pooled across programs. RESULTS: Across programs, the 2019 monthly mean ± SD case volume was 211 ± 82; 2020 mean ± SD case volumes for January, February, March, and April were 228 ± 93, 214 ± 84, 180 ± 73, and 107 ± 45. Compared with 2019, March and April 2020 mean cases declined 15% (P = 0.003) and 49% (P = 0.002), respectively. COVID-19 affected surgical case volume for all programs; 75% reported didactics negatively affected, and 90% reported COVID-19 resulted in increased research time. Several neurosurgery residents required COVID-19 testing; however, to our knowledge, only 1 resident from the participating programs tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a significant reduction in operative volume in 8 neurosurgery residency training programs in early 2020. During this time, neurosurgery residents engaged in online didactics and research-related activities, reporting increased research productivity. Residency programs should collect data to determine the educational impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residents' operative case volumes, identify deficiencies, and develop plans to mitigate any effects.

10.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 197: 106199, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916397

RESUMO

The prediction of outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) of basilar artery occlusion (BAO) remains an area of investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of presenting National Institute Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores in predicting favorable 90-day functional outcome. A survey of 7 electronic databases from inception to May 2020 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for favorable 90-day function outcome (modified Rankin Score 0-2) were extracted and pooled by meta-analysis of proportions with random effects modeling. A total of 10 individual studies satisfied criteria for selection and described a total of 941 BAO patients managed by MT. Analysis revealed 590 (63%) males with a mean age of 66.6 years. The median presenting NIHSS was 19, and 316 (34%) patients were reported to have a favorable functional status 90-days after treatment. Lower presenting NIHSS scores independently and significantly predicted favorable 90-day functional outcome in BAO patients with a pooled OR of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92; I2 = 18%; P-heterogeneity = 0.28). Meta-regression did not detect any clinical parameter that influenced this trend direction or its significance, and bias assessments were unremarkable. We confirm in this study via a consensus within the literature that the presenting NIHSS score predicts 90-day functional outcome in BAO patients treated by MT. Further, its standardized use allows more meaningful comparisons between interventions and anatomical locations.

11.
J Endod ; 46(12): 1913-1919, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New tricalcium silicate cements have been shown to induce less coronal discoloration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of color change induced by various silicate materials in the presence and absence of blood. METHODS: One hundred human extracted anterior single-canal teeth were sectioned to standardized root lengths, accessed, and instrumented. Eight random experimental groups and 2 control groups were created wherein specimens were filled with experimental materials below the buccal cementoenamel junction as follows: EndoSequence RRM putty (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), EndoSequence RRM fast set putty (Brasseler USA), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), and white mineral trioxide aggregate (Dentsply Sirona, York, PA) either with the presence or absence of blood. Blood-only and saline-only samples were used for the positive and negative controls. After incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C, color changes were evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL) on days 0, 30, 60, and 180 after material placement. Data were transformed into Commission International de I'Eclairage's L∗a∗b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. The 1-way analysis of variance test was performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Discoloration was observed in all specimens in the presence of blood. There was no statistical significance when comparing different materials in contact with blood. Intragroup observation at various time points, Biodentine, and EndoSequence RRM fast set putty showed significant difference between the presence and absence of blood at 180 days (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination with blood of tricalcium silicate materials has the potential to cause coronal tooth discoloration.


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Descoloração de Dente , Dente , Compostos de Alumínio , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , França , Humanos , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/efeitos adversos , Silicatos/efeitos adversos , Descoloração de Dente/induzido quimicamente
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 622-635, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946763

RESUMO

Quantifying the functional effects of complex disease risk variants can provide insights into mechanisms underlying disease biology. Genome-wide association studies have identified 39 regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The vast majority of these variants lie in the non-coding genome, where they likely function through interaction with gene regulatory elements. In this study we first estimated the heritability explained by known common low penetrance risk alleles for EOC. The narrow sense heritability (hg2) of EOC overall and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOCs) were estimated to be 5%-6%. Partitioned SNP heritability across broad functional categories indicated a significant contribution of regulatory elements to EOC heritability. We collated epigenomic profiling data for 77 cell and tissue types from Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE, and from H3K27Ac ChIP-seq data generated in 26 ovarian cancer and precursor-related cell and tissue types. We identified significant enrichment of risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in active regulatory elements marked by H3K27Ac in HGSOCs. To further investigate how risk SNPs in active regulatory elements influence predisposition to ovarian cancer, we used motifbreakR to predict the disruption of transcription factor binding sites. We identified 469 candidate causal risk variants in H3K27Ac peaks that are predicted to significantly break transcription factor (TF) motifs. The most frequently broken motif was REST (p value = 0.0028), which has been reported as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. Overall, these systematic functional annotations with epigenomic data improve interpretation of EOC risk variants and shed light on likely cells of origin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histonas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
13.
World Neurosurg ; 143: e503-e515, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for the development of acute ischemic stroke. However, its effect on clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke has remained controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke (LVOS). METHODS: We reviewed our prospective endovascular database for patients who had undergone MT for LVOS from 2015 to 2018. The BMI was analyzed as a continuous and categorical variable, with the latter defined as BMI, <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight); BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal); BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), and BMI, >30 kg/m2 (obese). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the outcome predictors. RESULTS: A total of 335 patients had undergone MT, with 7 (2.1%) classified as underweight, 107 (31.9%) normal, 141 (42.1%) overweight, and 80 (23.9%) obese. The procedural times, techniques, and reperfusion success (treatment in cerebral infarction score >2b) were not significantly different among the BMI categories. A significant inverse linear correlation was found between the BMI and symptomatic hemorrhagic. For patients with successful reperfusion (treatment in cerebral infarction score >2b), we also found a significant bell-shaped relationship between the BMI and functional independence (modified Rankin scale score <3), with high and low BMIs associated with worse outcomes. For patients without post-MT symptomatic hemorrhage, a significant linear correlation was found between BMI and inpatient mortality. CONCLUSION: For LVOS patients treated with MT, a high BMI will not affect procedural success. However, it was independently associated with lower rates of functional independence in recanalized patients. Thus, the obesity paradox does not appear to pertain to MT, although larger prospective studies are necessary.

14.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 36(11): 1897-1911, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) to determine the epidemiology and clinical burden of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and to describe how the addition of biologics has affected outcomes for patients with CRSwNP. METHODS: The SLR adhered to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases were searched using OVID. Relevant studies published between 1 January 2008 and 8 February 2019, for epidemiology, and 1 January 2008 and 16 February 2019, for clinical burden, and relevant conference abstracts from 1 January 2017 to 7 March 2019, for epidemiology and 1 January 2017-16 February 2019 for clinical burden were included. RESULTS: For the epidemiology and clinical burden SLR, 147 and 119 records, respectively, met the inclusion criteria. We found the prevalence of CRSwNP was 1-2.6% and was greater in men. Asthma, allergy, and allergic rhinitis were the most common comorbidities identified. Reported risk factors included asthma, gene polymorphisms, age, and eosinophilia. Studies indicated that dupilumab, mepolizumab, and omalizumab each improved different clinical outcomes. Non-biologics (drugs such as corticosteroids or antibiotics, surgery, or aspirin desensitization) improved clinical outcomes as well. CONCLUSIONS: CRSwNP is fairly prevalent in the general population. Despite the significant efficacy of existing treatments, several unmet needs remain. The high burden of uncontrolled symptoms, frequent recurrence of nasal polyps after surgery, and long-term adverse effects of oral corticosteroids indicate that new therapies addressing these unmet needs should be developed. Although data on biologics from randomized controlled trials look promising, the efficacy of biologics in the real world has yet to be established. The SLR of the epidemiology and clinical burden of CRSwNP revealed key gaps in the literature. There was a paucity of prevalence data across many geographic areas, and no prevalence projections could be determined. Studies showed varying efficacy of non-biologics and no studies directly compared biologics for efficacy. Data regarding clinical efficacy of agents for eosinophilic CRSwNP or severe CRSwNP were lacking, and these patient populations would be served by more trials.

15.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 36(11): 1913-1926, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of randomized controlled trials and real-world evidence (RWE) studies to determine the humanistic (e.g. health-related/disease-specific quality of life [QOL]) and economic (e.g. direct and indirect costs) burdens of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). METHODS: The SLR adhered to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases were searched using OVID. Relevant studies involving adult patients with CRSwNP published between 1 January 2008 and 16 February 2019 were included, with relevant conference abstracts from 1 January 2017, onward. RESULTS: Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT)-22 was the most frequently used disease-specific health-related QOL/patient-reported outcomes instrument for patients with CRSwNP. Baseline SNOT-22 scores ranged from 25 to 73 for surgical candidates and from 14 to 56 for medically managed patients with CRSwNP. Mean baseline EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) index for patients with CRSwNP ranged from 0.81 to 0.86, and mean baseline Short Form-6 Dimensions (SF-6D) ranged from 0.67 to 0.75. Three months (EQ-5D) and 5 years (SF-6D) post-endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), rates increased from 0.81 to 0.89 and from 0.69 to 0.80, respectively. One year post-diagnosis, patients with CRSwNP had significantly more systemic prescriptions, underwent significantly more medical procedures, demonstrated greater health care resource utilization and had significantly greater mean health care costs compared with matched controls (all p < .001). Overall, for patients with initial ESS, CRSwNP was associated with higher disease-related expenditures compared with CRS without nasal polyposis (NP), even for patients who did not undergo revision surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This SLR identified substantial humanistic burden among surgery candidates. RWE shows that surgeries were used to treat relatively more severe CRSwNP patients as recommended by guidelines. Patient QOL is improved significantly after surgery; however, there is a lack of evidence on patients with revision surgery. Surgery is also associated with higher costs, and the presence of NP was a predictor of revision surgery. Patients with CRSwNP demonstrate greater health care resource utilization and costs compared to those with CRS without NP. Costs associated with different severity of CRSwNP and revision surgery need to be assessed further.

16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many neurointerventionalists have transitioned to transradial access (TRA) as the preferred approach for neurointerventions as studies continue to demonstrate fewer access site complications than transfemoral access. However, radial artery spasm (RAS) remains one of the most commonly cited reasons for access site conversions. We discuss the benefits, techniques, and indications for using the long radial sheath in RAS and present our experience after implementing a protocol for routine use. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients undergoing neurointerventions via TRA at our institution from July 2018 to April 2020 was performed. In November 2019, we implemented a long radial sheath protocol to address RAS. Patient demographics, RAS rates, radial artery diameter, and access site conversions were compared before and after the introduction of the protocol. RESULTS: 747 diagnostic cerebral angiograms and neurointerventional procedures in which TRA was attempted as the primary access site were identified; 247 were performed after the introduction of the long radial sheath protocol. No significant differences in age, gender, procedure type, sheath sizes, and radial artery diameter were seen between the two cohorts. Radial anomalies and small radial diameters were more frequently seen in patients with RAS. Patients with clinically significant RAS more often required access site conversion (p<0.0001), and in our multivariable model use of the long sheath was the only covariate protective against radial failure (OR 0.061, 95% CI 0.007 to 0.517; p=0.0103). CONCLUSION: In our experience, we have found that the use of long radial sheaths significantly reduces the need for access site conversions in patients with RAS during cerebral angiography and neurointerventions.

17.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732255

RESUMO

A number of prospective randomized trials have shown that the radial artery is a safer access site than the femoral artery for endovascular procedures.1-4 In the cardiac literature there was a 60% reduction in access site complications as well as significant decreases in all-cause mortality with the transradial approach compared with the transfemoral approach, which has led to the adoption of a radial first strategy.5-7 The neurointerventional literature has demonstrated similar safety benefits as well as improved patient preference.8-14 However, the technical aspects of how to perform neurointervention via the radial approach are still unknown to the majority of neurointerventionalists. This technical video 1 covers the details of how to perform a diagnostic angiogram via the radial approach. Initially, steps such as pre-procedure preparation, room set-up, and patient positioning are discussed. Following this, puncture techniques and sheath placement are outlined, including the snuffbox technique. The steps of a full six-vessel cerebral angiogram are then shown in detail. Finally, closure techniques are demonstrated. neurintsurg;neurintsurg-2019-015692v2/V1F1V1Video 1 The image in the opening frame and at 2:24 is reused with permission from Brunet et al, Distal transradial access in the anatomical snuffbox for diagnostic cerebral angiography. J Neurointerv Surg 2019;11:710-3. Copyright 2019 BMJ Publishing Group.The other image in the opening frame is reused with permission from Chen et al, Transradial approach for flow diversion treatment of cerebral aneurysms: a multicenter study. J Neurointerv Surg, 2019;11:796-800. Copyright 2019 BMJ Publishing Group.The images at 0:38 and 8:24 are reused with permission from Snelling et al, Transradial cerebral angiography: techniques and outcomes. J Neurointerv Surg 2018;10:874-81. Copyright 2018 BMJ Publishing Group.

18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(12): 5852-5863, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607195

RESUMO

A key focus of ecologists is explaining the origin and maintenance of morphological diversity and its association with ecological success. We investigate potential benefits and costs of a common and varied morphological trait, cuticular spines, for foraging behavior, interspecific competition, and predator-prey interactions in naturally co-occurring spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) in an experimental setting. We expect that a defensive trait like spines might be associated with more conspicuous foraging, a greater number of workers sent out to forage, and potentially increased competitive ability. Alternatively, consistent with the ecological trade-off hypothesis, we expect that investment in spines for antipredator defense might be negatively correlated with these other ecological traits. We find little evidence for any costs to ecological traits, instead finding that species with longer spines either outperform or do not differ from species with shorter spines for all tested metrics, including resource discovery rate and foraging effort as well as competitive ability and antipredator defense. Spines appear to confer broad antipredator benefits and serve as a form of defense with undetectable costs to key ecological abilities like resource foraging and competitive ability, providing an explanation for both the ecological success of the study genus and the large number of evolutionary origins of this trait across all ants. This study also provides a rare quantitative empirical test of ecological effects related to a morphological trait in ants.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 144: 125-135, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma metastasizing to a skull base meningioma remains an extremely rare phenomenon, with only 3 studies reported. Furthermore, no documented cases have been reported in the petroclival region. Thus, we have presented the first 2 cases of tumor-to-tumor metastasis (TTM) in which a petroclival lesion, initially thought to be purely meningioma, was also found to contain metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the cases of 2 patients with a known history of lung adenocarcinoma and stable petroclival meningioma who had presented with new-onset neurologic deficits. Repeat imaging studies for both patients found an increased lesion size and peritumoral enhancement; thus, both patients underwent emergent craniotomy for complete lesion resection. Intraoperatively, both lesions had zones of markedly different tumoral texture. On histologic analysis, both lesions showed metastatic lung adenocarcinoma contained within the primary petroclival meningioma. CONCLUSION: Skull base TTM is a rare entity for which no specific management guidelines have been created. Therefore, even if the imaging characteristics suggest a more benign process, skull base TTM should remain high on the differential diagnosis for patients with a known primary cancer and new-onset, rapidly progressive, neurologic deficits. Close clinical follow-up with short-interval repeat imaging in this subset of patients might prevent misdiagnosis and facilitate prompt treatment.

20.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections are associated with indwelling devices. Yet, data regarding prevalence of indwelling devices in noncritically ill hospitalized patients remains scant. METHODS: Adult, noncritically ill patients on general care, telemetry, and surgical floors at our quaternary care hospital were surveyed on 2 separate days. Data regarding presence of indwelling vascular, urinary, and gastrointestinal devices, as well as nurse to patient ratio on each unit were collected. RESULTS: There were 1,229 devices observed among the 857 patients surveyed across 2 days. Of the surveyed patients, 780 (91.0%) had at least 1 indwelling device. Among all devices, intravenous catheters were the most common (90.1%), followed by gastrointestinal devices (12.8%) and urinary catheters (10.2%). The most prevalent device was peripheral intravenous catheters. The median nurse to patient ratio was 3 patients to 1 nurse; no difference in nurse to patient ratio based on the number of devices present was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Indwelling device use appears highly prevalent in general care settings and variation among devices is common. Healthcare associated infections prevention strategies targeting these devices are necessary.

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