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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 217-224, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078899

RESUMO

R2R3-MYB transcription factors are important regulators of the growth and development of plants. Here, CmMYB8 a chrysanthemum gene encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, was isolated and functionally characterized. The gene was transcribed throughout the plant, but most strongly in the stem. When CmMYB8 was over-expressed, a number of genes encoding components of lignin synthesis were down-regulated, and the plants' lignin content was reduced. The composition of the lignin in the transgenic plants was also altered, and its S/G ratio was reduced. A further consequence of the over-expression of CmMYB8 was to lessen the transcript abundance of key genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, resulting in a reduced accumulation of flavonoids. The indication is that the CmMYB8 protein participates in the negative regulation of both lignin and flavonoid synthesis.

2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 31-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726380

RESUMO

Genes of the ICE (Inducer of CBF Expression) family play a key role in cold and freezing stresses response via the CBF regulatory pathway. In this work, we identified the ICE family gene, CmICE2, from Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'. CmICE2 encodes a 451-amino acid protein with a conserved nuclear localization domain, a bHLH domain and ACT domain. CmICE2 is expressed in abundance in leaves and flowers, and the expression of CmICE2 is induced by freezing and drought stresses. CmICE2 localized to the nucleus, and has transcriptional activity in yeast cells. After a 24-hour 4 °C acclimation, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CmICE2 were more tolerant to freezing stress (-9 °C for 6 h) than the Col-0. When exposed to -9 °C for 6 h, the expression levels of genes such as AtCBF1, AtCBF2, AtCBF4, AtCOR 6.6A, AtCOR 414 and AtKIN1 were up-regulated significantly in CmICE2 overexpression plant lines compared to wild type. The proline contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were also increased in plants overexpressing CmICE2. In summary, CmICE2 confers to plant response to freezing stress.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18382, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861000

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Apatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. It has been shown that apatinib is effective and safe for treatment of multiple solid tumors, including gastric cancer, liver cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. However, there is currently no consensus as to using Apatinib for the treatment of pleural synovial sarcoma, due to the rarity of primary pleural synovial sarcoma and lack of clinical studies as a consequence. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We reported here in the case of a 26-year-old Chinese woman diagnosed with pleural synovial sarcoma. She has undergone 2 surgeries, multiple regimens of chemotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine in other hospitals. Then the patient was admitted to our hospital with the compliant of chest pain and dyspnea. The medical history and available data supported the diagnosis of recurrence of pleural synovial sarcoma. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Due to the lack of efficacy of previous standard treatment, the patient was given apatinib and radiotherapy to relieve the symptoms. This patient achieved stable disease with apatinib at a dose of 500 mg/day. Her progression-free survival time was more than 7 months, and her overall survival was 8.5 months. Except for hand-foot syndrome, no grade 3 or 4 side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Apatinib may thus be an option for treatment of advanced synovial sarcoma after failure of other treatments. However, further study is needed to determine the efficacy of apatinib in pleural synovial sarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma Sinovial/terapia , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia de Salvação
4.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883436

RESUMO

For a flowering plant, the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive growth is probably the most critical developmental switch. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the product of BBX7, group II member of BBX family, acts to delay floral transition. In this study, a presumed chrysanthemum homolog of a second group gene AtBBX8, designated CmBBX8, had been isolated and characterized. The transcription of CmBBX8 followed a diurnal rhythm as the chrysanthemum floral transition regulator. Overexpression of CmBBX8 accelerated flowering, while its (artificial microRNAs) amiR-enabled knockdown delayed flowering in plants grown under both long- and short-day conditions. Global expression analysis revealed that genes associated with photoperiod were down-regulated in amiR-CmBBX8 lines compared with the wild type, which were verified to be up-regulated in overexpressing lines (OX-CmBBX8) by RT-PCR. A number of in vitro assays were used to show that CmBBX8 targets CmFTL1. Furthermore, the function of CmFTL1 as a floral inducer under long-day conditions was confirmed by the behaviour of engineered summer-flowering chrysanthemum plants. The conclusion is that the BBX8-FT regulatory module is an important determinant of reproductive development in summer-flowering chrysanthemum.

5.
Hortic Res ; 6: 109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666962

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is a leading flower with applied value worldwide. Developing new chrysanthemum cultivars with novel characteristics such as new flower colors and shapes, plant architectures, flowering times, postharvest quality, and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in a time- and cost-efficient manner is the ultimate goal for breeders. Various breeding strategies have been employed to improve the aforementioned traits, ranging from conventional techniques, including crossbreeding and mutation breeding, to a series of molecular breeding methods, including transgenic technology, genome editing, and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In addition, the recent extensive advances in high-throughput technologies, especially genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, which are collectively referred to as omics platforms, have led to the collection of substantial amounts of data. Integration of these omics data with phenotypic information will enable the identification of genes/pathways responsible for important traits. Several attempts have been made to use emerging molecular and omics methods with the aim of accelerating the breeding of chrysanthemum. However, applying the findings of such studies to practical chrysanthemum breeding remains a considerable challenge, primarily due to the high heterozygosity and polyploidy of the species. This review summarizes the recent achievements in conventional and modern molecular breeding methods and emerging omics technologies and discusses their future applications for improving the agronomic and horticultural characteristics of chrysanthemum.

7.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756889

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat is an ornamental plant of worldwide cultivation. Like many other species in the family Asteraceae, C. morifolium is a rich producer of secondary metabolites. There are two objectives in this study: (I) to determine and compare the diversity of apolar secondary metabolites among different cultivars of C. morifolium and (II) to compare their properties as antifungal agents. To attain these objectives, we selected 13 cultivars of C. morifolium that are commonly used for making chrysanthemum tea as experimental materials. Leaves at the same developmental stage were collected from respective mature plants and subjected to organic extraction. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 37 apolar secondary metabolites including 26 terpenoids were detected from the 13 cultivars. These 13 cultivars can be largely divided into three chemotypes based on chemical principal components analysis. Next, the extracts from the 13 cultivars were examined in in vitro assays for their antifungal properties against three species of pathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, and Verticillium dahliae. Significant variability in antifungal activity of the leaf extracts among different cultivars was observed. The 13 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on their antifungal activities, which could be partly correlated to the contents of terpenoids. In short, this study reveals large variations in chemical composition, particularly of terpenoids, of leaf secondary metabolites among different cultivars of C. morifolium and their different abilities in functioning as antifungal agents.

8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 480-487, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655346

RESUMO

Members of the B Box (BBX) family of proteins are known to be important for directing the growth and development of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. Here, an analysis of a newly isolated chrysanthemum gene encoding a BBX family member implied that it was a likely ortholog of AtBBX13. The gene (designated CmBBX13) was most actively transcribed in the leaves and stem apex. CmBBX13 transcription was arrhythmic under either continuous darkness or continuous light, so the observed diurnal variation in its transcription appeared not to respond to the circadian clock. The outcome of transiently expressing CmBBX13 in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmBBX13 protein localized to the nucleus. Both a yeast- and a protoplast-based assay showed that the protein has transactivational activity. When CmBBX13 was constitutively expressed in A. thaliana, flowering was delayed under both short and long day conditions. The presence of the transgene also down-regulated a number of genes known to promote flowering, including APETALA1 (AP1), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FD, while simultaneously up-regulating the floral inhibitor-encoding genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and TARGET OF EAT 2 (TOE2). The data suggested that CmBBX13 regulates flowering time independently of the photoperiod pathway.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Hortic Res ; 6: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645945

RESUMO

MYB transcription factors are widely involved in the development of and physiological processes in plants. Here, we isolated the chrysanthemum R2R3-MYB family transcription factor CmMYB15, a homologous gene of AtMYB15. It was demonstrated that CmMYB15 expression was induced by aphids and that CmMYB15 could bind to AC elements, which usually exist in the promoter of lignin biosynthesis genes. Overexpression of CmMYB15 in chrysanthemum enhanced the resistance of aphids. Additionally, the content of lignin and the expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes increased. In summary, the results indicate that CmMYB15 regulates lignin biosynthesis genes that enhance the resistance of chrysanthemum to aphids.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569563

RESUMO

Both the presence of, and the important contribution to growth and development made by TCP transcription factors, have been established in various plant species. Here, a TCP4 homolog isolated from Chrysanthemum nankingense was shown to be more strongly transcribed in the diploid than in the autotetraploid form of the species. CnTCP4 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family and to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers. Its transcription was found to be substantially inhibited by spraying the plant with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine. The transient expression of CnTCP4 in onion epidermal cells showed that its product localized to the nucleus, and a yeast one hybrid assay suggested that its product had transcriptional activation ability. The constitutive expression of CnTCP4 in fission yeast suppressed cell proliferation, inducing the formation of longer and a higher frequency of multinuclated cells. Its constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the size of the leaves. The presence of the transgene altered the transcription of a number of cell division-related genes. A yeast one hybrid assay identified a second TCP gene (CnTCP2) able to interact with the CnTCP4 promoter. A transient expression experiment in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that CnTCP2 was able to activate the CnTCP4 promoter. Like CnTCP4, CnTCP2 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family, to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers, and to be suppressed by exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine treatment. The CnTCP2 protein also localized to the nucleus, but had no transcriptional activation ability. Its constitutive expression in A. thaliana had similar phenotypic consequences to those induced by CnTCP4.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Leveduras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/classificação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcriptoma , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/metabolismo
11.
Plant Sci ; 285: 165-174, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203881

RESUMO

The TPL/TPR co-repressor is involved in many plant signaling pathways, including those regulating the switch from vegetative to reproductive growth. Here, a TPL homolog (TPL 1-2) was isolated from chrysanthemum. Its product was found to be deposited in the nucleus. The abundance of TPL1-2 transcript varied across the plant, with its highest level being recorded in the stem apex, and its lowest in the root and stem. In the leaf, the abundance of TPL1-2 transcript was highest at dusk in plants exposed to long days, and at dawn in those exposed to short days. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to induce an N176H mutation in TPL1-2. The constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of the wild type and the mutated alleles of TPL1-2 had a contrasting effect on flowering time, with the mutant transgene expressors flowering later than the wild type transgene expressors. The flowering-related genes FT, TSF, FUL and AP1 were all more strongly transcribed in the mutant transgene expressors than in the wild type transgene expressors.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
12.
J Pineal Res ; 67(2): e12582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012494

RESUMO

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a key developmental event in a plant's life cycle. The process is mediated by a combination of phytohormones, including melatonin (MT) and strigolactone (SL). Here, the Arabidopsis mutants, d14-1 and max4-1, which are compromised with respect to either SL synthesis or signaling, were shown to flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content in both mutants was higher than in wild types, as a result of the up-regulation of various genes encoding enzymes involved in MT synthesis. The abundance in the mutants of transcripts derived from each of the genes SPLs, AP1, and SOC1 was reduced with exogenously supplied MT, while FLC was induced. Plants exposed to a high concentration of MT did not flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content of a mutant unable to synthesize caffeic acid O-methyltransferase was less than that of wild type and flowered earlier than did wild types. The suggestion is that the flowering time of Arabidopsis is altered if the tissue content of MT is either higher than ~ 8 ng/g F.W, or lower than ~ 0.9 ng/g. Within this range, SL acts to determine flowering time by its regulation of SPL genes. The application of exogenous SL reduces tissue MT content. The flowering time of the flc-3 mutant was unaffected by exogenously supplying either MT or/and SL. It is proposed that MT acts downstream of SL to activate FLC, inducing a delay to flowering if its concentration lies outside a certain range.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Melatonina/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/genética , Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Plant Sci ; 280: 248-257, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824003

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most popular ornamental species worldwide, with high ornamental and economic value. Petal size is an important factor that influences the ornamental value. CmTCP20 is a member of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORs (TCPs) gene family, which is closely associated with the growth and development of plants. Our previous study found that the expression of CmTCP20 was obviously down-regulated during chrysanthemum petal elongation, but its function in petal elongation has not yet been revealed. We show here that the overexpression CmTCP20 in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum leads to similar phenotypes, including larger flower buds (or inflorescences) and longer petals. Interestingly, ectopic expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast cells showed that CmTCP20 could repress cell division and promote cell elongation. Moreover, the yeast two-hybrid, BiFC and pull-down experimental results indicated that CmTCP20 may regulate petal size via interacting with CmJAZ1-like and inducing down-regulation of CmBPE2 gene expression. This study preliminarily clarifies the function of CmTCP20 on chrysanthemum petal elongation, providing the basic theory for improving the ornamental characteristic of chrysanthemum.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação para Baixo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 99(4-5): 407-420, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701353

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: 81 SNPs were identified for three inflorescence-related traits, in which 15 were highly favorable. Two dCAPS markers were developed for future MAS breeding, and six candidate genes were predicted. Chrysanthemum is a leading ornamental species worldwide and demonstrates a wealth of morphological variation. Knowledge about the genetic basis of its phenotypic variation for key horticultural traits can contribute to its effective management and genetic improvement. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on two years of phenotype data and a set of 92,617 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a panel of 107 diverse cut chrysanthemums to dissect the genetic control of three inflorescence-related traits. A total of 81 SNPs were significantly associated with the three inflorescence-related traits (capitulum diameter, number of ray florets and flowering time) in at least one environment, with an individual allele explaining 22.72-38.67% of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen highly favorable alleles were identified for the three target traits by computing the phenotypic effect values for the stable associations detected in 2 year-long trials at each locus. Dosage pyramiding effects of the highly favorable SNP alleles and significant linear correlations between highly favorable allele numbers and corresponding phenotypic performance were observed. Two highly favorable SNP alleles correlating to flowering time and capitulum diameter were converted to derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers to facilitate future breeding. Finally, six putative candidate genes were identified that contribute to flowering time and capitulum diameter. These results serve as a foundation for analyzing the genetic mechanisms underlying important horticultural traits and provide valuable insights into molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in chrysanthemum breeding programs.


Assuntos
Alelos , Chrysanthemum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inflorescência/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(1): 15-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238422

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CmBBX22, a transcription factor of chrysanthemum, was verified to confer drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The BBX proteins are known to operate as regulators of plant growth and development, but as yet their contribution to the abiotic stress response has not been well defined. Here, the chrysanthemum BBX family member CmBBX22, an ortholog of AtBBX22, was found to be transcribed throughout the plant, although at varying intensity, and was induced by imposing moisture deficiency via exposure to polyethylene glycol. The heterologous, constitutive expression of this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised germination and seedling growth, but enhanced the plants' ability to tolerate drought stress. In transgenic plants challenged with abscisic acid, leaf senescence was delayed and the senescence-associated genes and chlorophyll catabolic genes SAG29, NYE1, NYE2 and NYC1 were down-regulated. We speculated that CmBBX22 may serves as a regulator in mediating drought stress tolerance and delaying leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia
16.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(1): 20-31, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448907

RESUMO

AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) represent valuable targets for the genetic manipulation of crop plants, as they participate in the control of metabolism, growth and development, as well as in the plants' response to environmental stimuli. Here, an ERF TF encoded by the chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) genome, designated CmERF110, was cloned and functionally characterized. The predicted CmERF110 polypeptide included a conserved DNA-binding AP2/ERF domain. A transient expression experiment revealed that the protein was deposited in the nucleus, and a transactivation experiment in yeast suggested that it had no transcriptional activity. The gene was transcribed in the chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, with its transcript level following a circadian rhythm under both long and short days. The effect of constitutively expressing the gene in Arabidopsis thaliana was to accelerate flowering. Transcriptional profiling implied that its effect on floral initiation operated through the photoperiod pathway.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Plant Sci ; 276: 99-104, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348332

RESUMO

The product of CmFTL, a gene represented by multiple transcripts, is an important determinant of floral development in chrysanthemum. Here, a new transcript CmFTL3ps4 which contains three different amino acid residues compared to CmFTL3 was characterized. When driven by the Arabidopsis thaliana FT promoter, CmFTL3ps4 expression did not rescue the late flowering phenotype of the A. thaliana ft-10 mutant. When the variant sequences CmFTL3Q130K, CmFTL3G136A and CmFTL3D145N were heterologously expressed in A. thaliana, both CmFTL3G136A and CmFTL3D145N were shown to accelerate flowering, although to a different extent. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves which had formed before the flowering of either the CmFTL3Q130K or the CmFTL3ps4 transgenic lines. Neither the transgenic expression of CmFTL3ps4 or CmFTL3Q130K was able to rescue the ft-10 mutant phenotype. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that CmFTL3Q130K did not interact with CmFDL1, a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. The conclusion was that a novel residue change affected FT activity through its disruption of the interaction with CmFDL1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Florígeno/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Modelos Estruturais , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transgenes
18.
Mol Plant ; 11(12): 1482-1491, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342096

RESUMO

The Asteraceae (Compositae), a large plant family of approximately 24 000-35 000 species, accounts for ∼10% of all angiosperm species and contributes a lot to plant diversity. The most representative members of the Asteraceae are the economically important chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum L.) that diversified through reticulate evolution. Biodiversity is typically created by multiple evolutionary mechanisms such as whole-genome duplication (WGD) or polyploidization and locally repetitive genome expansion. However, the lack of genomic data from chrysanthemum species has prevented an in-depth analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in their diversification. Here, we used Oxford Nanopore long-read technology to sequence the diploid Chrysanthemum nankingense genome, which represents one of the progenitor genomes of domesticated chrysanthemums. Our analysis revealed that the evolution of the C. nankingense genome was driven by bursts of repetitive element expansion and WGD events including a recent WGD that distinguishes chrysanthemum from sunflower, which diverged from chrysanthemum approximately 38.8 million years ago. Variations of ornamental and medicinal traits in chrysanthemums are linked to the expansion of candidate gene families by duplication events including paralogous gene duplication. Collectively, our study of the assembled reference genome offers new knowledge and resources to dissect the history and pattern of evolution and diversification of chrysanthemum plants, and also to accelerate their breeding and improvement.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Biodiversidade , Cruzamento , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Duplicação Gênica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Retroelementos/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 178, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is among the top ten traditional flowers in China, and one of the four major cut flowers in the world, but the growth of chrysanthemum is severely restricted by high temperatures which retard growth and cause defects in flowers. DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, whether the DREB A-6 subgroup is involved in heat tolerance has not been reported conclusively. RESULT: In the present study, CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) 'Jinba'. CmDREB6, containing a typical AP2/ERF domain, was classed into the DREB A-6 subgroup and shared highest homology with Cichorium intybus L. CiDREB6 (73%). CmDREB6 was expressed at its highest levels in the leaf. The CmDREB6 protein localized to the nucleus. Based on the yeast one hybrid assay, CmDREB6 showed transcription activation activity in yeast, and the transcriptional activation domain was located in the 3 'end ranging from 230 to 289 amino acids residues. CmDREB6 overexpression enhanced the tolerance of chrysanthemum to heat. The survival rate of two transgenic lines was as high as 85%, 50%, respectively, in contrast to 3.8% of wild-type (WT). Over-expression of CmDREB6 promoted the expression of CmHsfA4, CmHSP90, and the active oxygen scavenging genes CmSOD and CmCAT. CONCLUSION: In this study, DREB A-6 subgroup gene CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. Overexpression of CmDREB6 enhanced heat tolerance of chrysanthemum by regulating genes involved in the heat shock response and ROS homeogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Chrysanthemum , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 686, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079072

RESUMO

Low availability of phosphorus (P) in the soil is the principal limiting factor for the growth of cut chrysanthemum. Plant phosphate transporters (PTs) facilitate acquisition of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and its homeostasis within the plant. In the present study, CmPht1;2 of the Pht1 family was cloned from chrysanthemum. CmPht1;2 is composed of 12 transmembrane domains and localized to the plasma membrane. Expression of CmPht1;2 in roots was induced by Pi starvation. Chrysanthemum plants with overexpression of CmPht1;2 (Oe) showed higher Pi uptake, as compared to the wild type (WT), both under Pi-starvation and Pi-sufficient conditions, and also showed a higher root biomass compared to WT in the Pi-starvation conditions. Seven days after the P-deficiency treatment, 85 distinct analytes were identified in the roots and 27 in the shoots between the Oe1 plant and WT, in which sophorose, sorbitol (sugars), hydroxybutyric acid (organic acids), and ornithine (amino acid) of CmPht1;2 overexpressing chrysanthemum are specific responses to P-starvation.

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