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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046085

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major legume and is frequently attacked by fungal pathogens, including Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (FSP), which cause Fusarium root rot. FSP substantially reduces common bean yields across the world, including China, but little is known about how common bean plants defend themselves against this fungal pathogen. In the current study, we combined next-generation RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques to investigate the changes in gene expression and metabolomic processes in common bean infected with FSP. There were 29,722 differentially regulated genes and 300 differentially regulated metabolites between control and infected plants. The combined omics approach revealed that FSP is perceived by PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. Infected seedlings showed that common bean responded by cell wall modification, ROS generation, and a synergistic hormone-driven defense response. Further analysis showed that FSP induced energy metabolism, nitrogen mobilization, accumulation of sugars, and arginine and proline metabolism. Importantly, metabolic pathways were most significantly enriched, which resulted in increased levels of metabolites that were involved in the plant defense response. A correspondence between the transcript pattern and metabolite profile was observed in the discussed pathways. The combined omics approach enhances our understanding of the less explored pathosystem and will provide clues for the development of common bean cultivars' resistant to FSP.

2.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012454

RESUMO

Until now, the synthesis of Rh particles with unusual three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is still challenging. 3D nanostructure enables fast ion/molecule transport and possesses plenty of exposed active surface, and therefore it is of great interest to construct 3D Rh particle catalyst for N 2 reduction reaction (NRR). Herein, for the first time, we proposed a reactive ionic liquid strategy for fabricating unusual 3D Rh particles with nanowires as the subunits. The ionic liquid n -octylammonium formate simultaneously worked as reaction medium, reductant and template for the successful construction of 3D Rh particles. The as-prepared 3D Rh particles demonstrated excellent activity for electrocatalytic N 2 fixation in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte under ambient conditions with a high NH 3 yield of 35.58 µg h -1 mg cat. -1 at -0.2 V (vs. RHE), surpassing most of the state-of-the-art noble metal catalysts. Our reactive ionic liquid strategy thus holds great promise for rational construction of high-performance electrocatalysts toward NRR.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014456

RESUMO

Radioresistance reduces the success of therapy for patients with ESCC. Enhancing our understanding of the cardinal principles of radioresistance may improve the response of patients to irradiation. MicroRNAs perform a key role in posttranscriptional regulation, which is linked with the response of tumors to irradiation. Here, we successfully constructed a radioresistant cell line model, ECA109R, from parental esophageal cancer cell line ECA109. We used RNA-Seq analysis and qRT-PCR to compare the miRNA expression profiles of the ECA109 and ECA109R cell lines. The results revealed that miR-450a-5p was downregulated in the radioresistant cells. Functional analysis indicated that miR-450a-5p increases cellular radiosensitivity and suppresses autophagy in ESCC cells. We utilized a luciferase reporter assay to identify the target gene, DUSP10, as an indispensable regulator of the p38 and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways. Upregulation or downregulation of DUSP10 expression could reverse the effects of miR-450a-5p overexpression or inhibition. Tumor xenograft experiments verified that miR-450a-5p overexpression could increase sensitivity to radiation therapy in vivo. In general, our findings indicate that miR-450a-5p is a latent radiosensitizer and may represent a potential novel therapeutic target for radioresistance in ESCC.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 30, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic airspace is an uncommon imaging manifestation involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Diffuse cystic lesion is even rarer as pulmonary manifestation of NSCLC. In the present study, we reported a rare case of NSCLC associated with progressive diffusion of cystic lesions misdiagnosed as Pulmonary langerhans cell histocytosis (PLCH), finally diagnosed by transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB). CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to cough and dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) presented diffuse cystic shadow mostly, concomitantly with nodular densities in bilateral lungs. A lung biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with vascular tumor emboli. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation on exon 18 (G719X, G719) was detected by mutation test. The patient received treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (afatinib). CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse cystic lesion can be a rare manifestation of lung cancer. It was important to improve the recognition of diffuse cystic lung diseases to avoid misdiagnosis.

5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1102: 24-35, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043993

RESUMO

The analysis of trace hydrophilic targets in complex aqueous-rich matrices is considerably challenging, generally requiring matrix-matched calibration, internal standard, or time-and-labor-intensive sample preparation. To address this analytical bottleneck, a non-matrix-matched calibration strategy without using internal standard was reported for the first time to analyze complicated biosamples such as whole blood, plasma, serum, and cell samples. This strategy, termed micelle-dominated distribution, also aimed at realizing the simple "extract-and-shoot" analytical process for such complex matrices. The micelle-matrix interaction was found to efficiently eliminate the matrix effect by dominating phase separation and analyte distribution between the extraction and matrix phases. Thus, calibration linear curves prepared in water were applicable to the analysis of all the above-mentioned sample types. Rapid distribution equilibrium within 4 min was achieved. This strategy could tolerate direct large volume injection, thereby providing two-order-of-magnitude enhancement in the sensitivity of ion-pair chromatography. The analytical method integrated cell rupture, matrix cleanup, analyte extraction, and on-column preconcentration into a fast and high-throughput operation. The successful application to the determination of exogenous pesticides and endogenous glutathione exhibited low limits of detection (0.0085-0.015 µg mL-1 for pesticides; 0.52 µg mL-1 for glutathione), wide linear ranges (0.028-50 µg mL-1 and 0.049-50 µg mL-1 for pesticides; 1.7-1000 µg mL-1 for glutathione), good linearies (R2 = 0.9994-0.9999), excellent accuracy (recoveries of 91.3-105.2%), and good precision (0.7-6.2% at the levels of 0.028 (or 0.049), 0.1, 0.5, and 50 µg mL-1 for pesticides; 0.5-8.7% at 1.7, 500, and 1000 µg mL-1 for glutathione).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078028

RESUMO

Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has become more widespread, thus attracting global attention. The vaccine against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is currently used in China, being included in planned immunisation regimes. Although ZIKV and JEV are closely related mosquito-borne Flaviviruses, and a complex cross-immune response within flaviviruses has been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on ZIKV infection has not been well described. Thus, this study aimed to explore the impact of different titres of anti-JEV antibodies (Abs) against ZIKV infection using sera from healthy human donors in Guangzhou and anti-JEV rabbit polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) in vitro and vivo. Human anti-JEV Ab titres were tested at decreasing concentrations as the age increased. A neutralising effect on ZIKV infection was observed when anti-JEV Ab titres in human sera or rabbit pAbs were high (the corresponding age was under 30 years). Even though a lower titre in human sera showed no apparent effect, whereas rabbit pAbs had an antibody-dependent enhancement(ADE)effect, we proved an ADE effect in vivo for the first time. This study suggests that individuals over 60 years of age are at high risk for JEV and ZIKV infection, and screening this age group for infection should strengthen. Furthermore, a deep exploration of the relationship between anti-JEV Abs and ZIKV infection is needed.

7.
iScience ; 23(2): 100857, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058968

RESUMO

Hsp90 is a target for anti-cancer drug development. Both the conformational events tuned by ATP/ADP and co-chaperones and the chaperoning cycle timing are required for Hsp90's fully functional display. Interfering with either one of the conformational events or the cycle timing will down-regulate Hsp90's function. In this manuscript, non-covalent allosteric modulators (SOMCL-16-171 and SOMCL-16-175) targeting Hsp90α's middle domain (Hsp90M) were developed for the first time. Multiple techniques were then applied to characterize the interactions between two active compounds and Hsp90α. Two loops and one α-helix (F349-N360, K443-E451, and D372-G387) in Hsp90M were identified responsible for the recognition of SOMCL-16-171 and SOMCL-16-175. Meanwhile, the binding of SOMCL-16-171 and SOMCL-16-175 to Hsp90M was demonstrated to allosterically modulate the structure and function of Hsp90α's N-terminal domain. Finally, cellular assays were conducted to evaluate the cellular activity of SOMCL-16-175, and the results indicate that SOMCL-16-175 destabilizes Hsp90's client proteins and reduces cell viability.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952251

RESUMO

Ganpu tea is an emerging tea drink produced from Pu-erh tea and the pericarp of Citrus reticulate Chachi (GCP). Recently, it has been increasingly favored by consumers due to the potential health effects and special taste. However, information concerning its chemical profile and biological activities is scarce. In this work, a total of 92 constituents were identified in hot-water extracts of Ganpu tea with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Moreover, the antioxidative and gut microbiota modulatory properties of Ganpu tea were investigated in rats after long-term dietary consumption. Ganpu tea and GCP could significantly enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 13.4% (p < 0.05) and 15.1% (p < 0.01), as well as the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by 16.3% (p < 0.01) and 20.5% (p < 0.01), respectively. Both showed better antioxidant capacities than Pu-erh tea. Ganpu tea increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Lactococcus, suggesting the potential of Ganpu tea in modulating the gut microbiota to benefit human health. The obtained results provide essential information for further investigation of Ganpu tea.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935198

RESUMO

A better understanding of all immune components involved in protecting against M. tuberculosis infection is urgently needed to inform strategies for novel immunotherapy and tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development. While cell-mediated immunity is critical, increasing evidence supports that antibodies also have a protective role against TB. Yet, knowledge of protective antigens is limited. Analyzing sera from 97 US immigrants at various states of M. tuberculosis infection, we showed protective in vitro and in vivo efficacy of polyclonal IgG to the M. tuberculosis capsular polysaccharide arabinomannan (AM). Using recently developed glycan arrays, we established that anti-AM IgG induced in natural infection is highly heterogeneous in its binding specificity and differs in both its reactivity to oligosaccharide motifs within AM and its functions between BCG vaccination and/or controlled (latent) versus uncontrolled (TB) M. tuberculosis infection. We showed that anti-AM IgG from asymptomatic but not diseased individuals was protective, and provided data suggesting a potential role of IgG2 and specific AM oligosaccharides. Filling a gap in the current knowledge of protective antigens in humans, our data support the key role of the M. tuberculosis surface glycan AM and suggest the importance of targeting specific glycan epitopes within AM in antibody-mediated immunity against TB.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(4): 2201-2227, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942887

RESUMO

Due to their excellent and tailorable optoelectronic performance, low cost, facile fabrication, and compatibility with flexible substrates, solution-processed inorganic and hybrid photo-active materials have attracted extensive interest for next-generation photodetector applications. This review gives a comprehensive compilation of solution-processed photodetectors. The basic structures of the device and important parameters of photodetectors will be firstly summarized. Then the development of various solution processing technologies containing solution synthesis and liquid phase film-forming processes for the preparation of semiconductor films is described. From the materials science point of view, we give a comprehensive overview about the current status of solution processed semiconductor materials including inorganic and hybrid photo-active materials for the application of photodetectors. Moreover, challenges and future trends in the field of solution-processed photodetectors are proposed.

11.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1673-1679, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894217

RESUMO

Ribonuclease H (RNase H), an intracellular ribonuclease, plays a crucial role in cellular processes and especially relates to many disease processes. Here, we report a novel signal amplification strategy based on an RNase H-powered DNA walking machine for specific and sensitive RNase H activity detection. The DNA walking machine is composed of a small quantity of DNA walker strands and abundant FAM-labeled DNA-RNA chimeric strands on a single gold nanoparticle (AuNP). RNase H can specifically degrade the RNA fragment in a DNA-RNA hybrid duplex and trigger the autonomous movement of a DNA walker strand on the AuNP surface. During this process, each step of the walking can release the FAM-labeled RNA from the surface of the AuNP, realizing the signal amplification for RNase H sensing. This method has been successfully utilized for RNase H activity detection in a complex system and applied for screening of related inhibitors. Therefore, our RNase H-powered DNA walking machine gives a novel platform for RNase H activity detection and RNase H-associated drug discovery.

12.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901223

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for ~40% of lung cancer cases, and the 5-year relative survival rate is no more than 1%. Dysregulation of components of striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complexes is associated with various diseases, including cancer. Striatin-interacting protein 2 (STRIP2), also called Fam40b, has been reported to regulate tumor cell growth and migration. Here, we investigated the role of STRIP2 in LUAD growth, migration and the underlying mechanisms. Analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that STRIP2 is highly expressed and predicted poor outcomes in patients with LUAD. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the mRNA expression of STRIP2 is greater in all tested LUAD cells than in a normal lung cell line. To investigate the function of STRIP2, we overexpressed STRIP2 in SPC-A1 cells and depleted STRIP2 in Calu-3 cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony-forming assays, and Transwell assay was employed to test cell invasion and migration. Our results indicate that STRIP2 depletion suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and migration in Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of STRIP2 had the opposite effects in SPC-A1 cells. Moreover, we discovered that STRIP2 depletion reduced the protein levels of p-Akt and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in Calu-3 cells, whereas STRIP2 overexpression increased levels of these proteins in SPC-A1 cells. Furthermore, we found that silencing of STRIP2 clearly enhanced protein levels of E-cadherin and reduced levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in Calu-3 cells, whereas overexpression of STRIP2 had the opposite effect in SPC-A1 cells. Our data indicate that STRIP2 promotes the proliferation and motility of LUAD cells, and this may be mediated through the regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These results may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to treat LUAD.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1091-1100, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896257

RESUMO

The physical structure of type 1 resistant starch (RS 1) could influence the metabolite production and stimulate the growth of specific bacteria in the human colon. In the present study, we isolated intact cotyledon cells from pinto bean seeds as whole pulse food and RS 1 model and obtained a series of cell wall integrities through controlled enzymolysis. In vitro human fecal fermentation performance and microbiota responses were tested, and we reported that the cell wall integrity controls the in vitro fecal fermentation rate of heat-treated pinto bean cells. The concentration of butyrate produced by pinto bean cell fermentation enhanced with weakened cell wall integrity, and certain beneficial bacterial groups such as Blautia and Roseburia genera were remarkably promoted by pinto bean cells with damaged cell wall integrity. However, the intact cell sample had a shape more similar to microbiota composition with the purified cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the damaged cells.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Parede Celular/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Phaseolus/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994745

RESUMO

Heat stress impairs both pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, resulting in pollination failure caused by energy imbalance. Invertase plays a critical role in the maintenance of energy homoeostasis; however, few studies investigated this during heat stress. Two rice cultivars with different heat tolerance, namely, TLY83 (heat tolerant) and LLY722 (heat susceptible), were subjected to heat stress. At anthesis, heat stress significantly decreased spikelet fertility, accompanied by notable reductions in pollen germination on stigma and pollen tube elongation in ovule, especially in LLY722. Acid invertase (INV), rather than sucrose synthase, contributed to sucrose metabolism, which explains the different tolerances of both cultivars. Under heat stress, larger enhancements in NAD(H), ATP, and antioxidant capacity were found in TLY83 compared with LLY722, whereas a sharp reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity was found in the former compared with the latter. Importantly, exogenous INV, 3-aminobenzamide (a PARP inhibitor), sucrose, glucose, and fructose significantly increased spikelet fertility under heat stress, where INV activity was enhanced and PARP activity was inhibited. Therefore, INV can balance the energy production and consumption to provide sufficient energy for pollen germination and pollen tube growth under heat stress.

15.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(3): 703-715, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We proposed a 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) automatic detection method, and studied the prognosis of comatose patients by combining the 40-Hz ASSR detection results of multiple paradigms of auditory stimulation. METHODS: The 40-Hz ASSR elicitation experiments were carried out on 32 comatose patients, with the detection results used as prognosis predictors. To achieve automatic detection, the detection was modeled as a binary hypothesis test for a sinusoidal waveform with unknown amplitude and phase, based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT). The patients were followed up for 6 months, and each patient's outcome was classified as either favorable outcome (severe disability, moderate disability or good recovery) or unfavorable outcome (vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or death) according to the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The performance of the prognosis predictors was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). RESULTS: The largest AUC in univariate analysis involving a single stimulation paradigm was 0.849, while the AUC obtained by combining multiple predictors was increased to 0.966. CONCLUSIONS: For comatose patients, the absence of 40-Hz ASSR in multiple stimulation paradigms may indicate an unfavorable prognosis. Furthermore, the combination of multiple auditory stimulation paradigms may increase the outcome prediction accuracy. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of multi-paradigm 40-Hz ASSR automatic detection results may provide a feasible automatic outcome prediction method for comatose patients.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2256-2262, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927923

RESUMO

Fat deposition is one of the most important economic traits of pigs. Decreasing the subcutaneous fat and increasing the intramuscular fat are believed to be an effective way to improve pork quality, which is one of the main goals of pig breeding. Identifying key genes that control porcine lipid metabolism is essential for achieving this goal. Apolipoprotein R (apoR) was identified as the crucial molecule in the process of pig adipose reduction by clenbuterol. In this study, transgenic mice with adipose-tissue-specific overexpression of pig apoR (apoR mice) were constructed. The apoR mice gained less weight than wild-type (WT) mice after 18 weeks of feeding a high-fat diet. A comparison of organs between the two genotypes revealed that the weight of white adipose tissue, including inguinal and epididymal fat tissue, was significantly decreased and the weight of liver tissue was increased in apoR mice compared with WT mice. Glucose and insulin intolerance tests showed that the glucose metabolism of apoR mice was similar to that of WT mice. Histological staining proved that the adipocytes of apoR mice had a reduced average size, and gene expression analysis indicated that lipolysis in the adipose tissue of apoR mice was enhanced. Finally, the primary culture of inguinal adipocytes revealed that apoR promotes lipolysis via the Erk1/2 pathway. Taken together, the results indicate that adipose-tissue-specific expression of pig apoR protects mice from diet-induced obesity by enhancing lipolysis.

17.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(2): 244-254, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928425

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) had been reported to be involved in the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in previous studies. This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of EMMPRIN and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributed to the onset and severity of CHD. One thousand seventy patients suspected to have CHD were enrolled into the study. Each patient had undergone coronary angiogram, and the severity of coronary artery stenosis was assessed by Gensini score. Eight hundred twelve patients were confirmed to have CHD, while 258 patients were selected as non-CHD control. All patients were genotyped for five EMMPRIN polymorphisms (rs8259, rs28915400, rs4919859, rs6758, and rs8637) and one MMP-9 polymorphism (rs3918242) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed by direct sequencing. EMMPRIN polymorphism rs8259 and MMP-9 polymorphism rs3918242 were found to be associated with CHD (rs8259: AT vs. AA, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.038, adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.080-3.847, p = 0.028; rs3918242: CT vs. CC, adjusted OR = 0.607, adjusted 95% CI = 0.403-0.916, p = 0.017, TT vs. CC, adjusted OR = 2.559, adjusted 95% CI = 1.326-4.975, p = 0.006). No crossover effects were observed although a single environmental or genetic factor had an impact on the occurrence of CHD. The value of the Gensini score revealed that severity of CHD decreased in the rs3918242 CT carriers in both the male and female population. Our study suggested that EMMPRIN rs8259 and MMP-9 rs3918242 polymorphisms may contribute to pathological process of CHD. It could play a critical role in the prediction of CHD.


Assuntos
Basigina/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 389-401, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894456

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study revealed that the Arabidopsis UGT75B1 plays an important role in modulating ABA activity by glycosylation when confronting stress environments. The cellular ABA content and activity can be tightly controlled in several ways, one of which is glycosylation by family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Previous analysis has shown UGT75B1 activity towards ABA in vitro. However, the biological role of UGT75B1 remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the function of UGT75B1 in abiotic stress responses via ABA glycosylation. GUS assay and qRT-PCR indicated that UGT75B1 is significantly upregulated by adverse conditions, such as osmotic stress, salinity and ABA. Overexpression of UGT75B1 in Arabidopsis leads to higher seed germination rates and seedling greening rates upon exposure to salt and osmotic stresses. In contrast, the big UGT75B1 overexpression plants are more sensitive under salt and osmotic stresses. Additionally, the UGT75B1 overexpression plants showed larger stomatal aperture and more water loss under drought condition, which can be explained by lower ABA levels examined in UGT75B1 OE plants in response to water deficit conditions. Consistently, UGT75B1 ectopic expression leads to downregulation of many ABA-responsive genes under stress conditions, including ABI3, ABI5 newly germinated seedlings and RD29A, KIN1, AIL1 in big plants. In summary, our results revealed that the Arabidopsis UGT75B1 plays an important role in coping with abiotic stresses via glycosylation of ABA.

19.
Nanotoxicology ; : 1-16, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909648

RESUMO

The annual increase in the production and the use of engineering quantum dots (QDs) have led to concern about exposure and safety of QDs. To resolve the risk of Cd release from QDs, a series of Cd-free QDs, represented by CuInS2/ZnS QDs, has been developed in recent years. However, the toxicological profile of CuInS2/ZnS QDs has not been fully elucidated, especially, their immunotoxicity. Here, we performed a detailed in vitro cytotoxicity study on PEGylated CuInS2/ZnS QDs using the DC2.4 cell line and investigated their in vivo immunotoxicity using BALB/c mice. In vitro experiments showed that CuInS2/ZnS QDs were taken up by cells, promoted cell viability, enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor-α, and decreased the level of interleukin (IL)-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. More than 5000 genes at the transcriptome level were observed by high-throughput RNA sequencing after CuInS2/ZnS QD exposure. In vivo study showed that CuInS2/ZnS QDs increased the levels of IL-4 on day 1 and enhanced the levels of IL-10 and IL-13 on day 28 in mice. There was no obvious difference in the number of spleen-derived lymphocytes, organic index, hematology and immune organ histology on days 1 and 28 after treatment. These findings demonstrated that PEGylated CuInS2/ZnS QDs disturbed the function of DC2.4 immune cells in vitro, but caused no obvious toxicity to immune system in vivo, suggesting that PEGylated CuInS2/ZnS QDs are biocompatible and have potential for bioapplication in the future.

20.
Environ Res ; 181: 108946, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer ambulance response time (ART) delaying treatment would worsen conditions of seriously ill or injured patients, but limited evidence is available on the effects of weather factors on ART. This study aims to assess precipitation- and temperature-ART associations and their potential lagged effects using a novel modeling strategy. METHODS: Based on 779,156 emergency records during 2010-2016 from the whole population in Shenzhen, China, we creatively combined quantile regression with distributed-lag nonlinear models to examine the non-linear and lagged effects of hourly precipitation and temperature on ART at the 50th and 90th percentiles. RESULTS: A linear precipitation-ART association with a delay of 9.01 (95%CI, 7.82-10.20) seconds at median ART for a 1 mm increase in hourly precipitation, and the effects lasted for 5 h with the greatest effect at the current hour. A two linear thresholds temperature-ART association revealed 1 °C decrease below 19 °C caused 1.68 (95%CI, 0.92-2.44) seconds delay in total ART over lag 0-7 h, and 1 °C increase above 24 °C caused 2.44 (95%CI, 1.55-3.33) seconds delay. The hourly call volumes exceeding 54 calls caused 8.79 (95%CI, 8.71-8.86) seconds delay in total ART for 1 more call, but not affected the effects of weather factors. The internal ART suffered more from the hourly call volumes, while the external ART suffered more from precipitation and temperature. The effects were apparently greater on ART at the 90th percentile than median. CONCLUSIONS: Precipitation and temperature are independent risk factors for ambulance services performance, and their lagged effects are notable. The external ART and patients with long ART are vulnerable. More attention should be paid to weather and ART, and these findings may have implications for effective policies to reduce ART to protect public health.

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