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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 854630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558112

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented public health crisis worldwide. Although several vaccines are available, the global supply of vaccines, particularly within developing countries, is inadequate, and this necessitates a need for the development of less expensive, accessible vaccine options. To this end, here, we used the Escherichia coli expression system to produce a recombinant fusion protein comprising the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; residues 319-541) and the fragment A domain of Cross-Reacting Material 197 (CRM197); hereafter, CRMA-RBD. We show that this CRMA-RBD fusion protein has excellent physicochemical properties and strong reactivity with COVID-19 convalescent sera and representative neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Furthermore, compared with the use of a traditional aluminum adjuvant, we find that combining the CRMA-RBD protein with a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH-002C-Ac) leads to stronger humoral immune responses in mice, with 4-log neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, our study highlights the value of this E. coli-expressed fusion protein as an alternative vaccine candidate strategy against COVID-19.

2.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 862029, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547544

RESUMO

School urinary screening programming can be useful for the early detection of renal and urinary disorders. However, urine screening is not included in the school health check-up in our region. Therefore, from February 2012 to March 2021, 12,497 school students were screened for urinalysis, and a long-term follow-up took place via an electronic medical record system. Among these screened students, 719 (5.75%) positive individuals received a repeat urinalysis 2 weeks later. During the 9-year medical record system follow-up period, 5 children had renal biopsies and 2 children had a diagnosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), while the remaining 3 children were diagnosed with thin basement membrane disease (TBM), primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS), and were suspected of C3 glomerulopathy, respectively. By this, calling for the school urine screening program as a physical examination item for primary and secondary school-aged students will contribute to enabling early detection of urine abnormalities and allow for early treatment.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of the ocular surface microbiome in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the associations between the microbial dysbiosis and chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Ocular surface samples from 48 healthy subjects and 76 patients after allo-HSCT, including 50 patients with chronic oGVHD and 26 patients without oGVHD were collected. Species-level composition of the ocular surface microbiome was surveyed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. OGVHD was diagnosed and graded according to the International Chronic Ocular GVHD (ICO) Consensus Group criteria. RESULTS: The α-diversity of the microbiota was significantly decreased in patients after allo-HSCT. Nevertheless, we detected more types of viral species in the allo-HSCT group than the healthy group, especially anelloviruses. The mismatch of donor-recipient sex was only negatively associated with the α-diversity in male but not female recipients. Moreover, the microbiome of oGVHD patients was distinct from non-oGVHD patients. Gordonia bronchialis and Pseudomonas parafulva were enriched in oGVHD patients and positively associated with ICO score. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the ocular surface microbiome after allo-HSCT is characterized by a loss of diversity. Furthermore, the microbial dysbiosis at the ocular surface is associated with the status and severity of chronic oGVHD. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations of the potential microbial mechanism for oGVHD.

4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 862-878, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594385

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global pandemic. Studies suggest that folic acid has antiviral effects. Molecular docking shown that folic acid can act on SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Phosphoprotein (SARS-CoV-2 N). OBJECTIVE: To identify novel molecular therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Traditional Chinese medicine targets and virus-related genes were identified with network pharmacology and big data analysis. Folic acid was singled out by molecular docking, and its potential target SARS-CoV-2 N was identified. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 N of folic acid was verified at the cellular level. RESULTS: In total, 8355 drug targets were potentially involved in the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. 113 hub genes were screened by further association analysis between targets and virus-related genes. The hub genes related compounds were analysed and folic acid was screened as a potential new drug. Moreover, molecular docking showed folic acid could target on SARS-CoV-2 N which inhibits host RNA interference (RNAi). Therefore, this study was based on RNAi to verify whether folic acid antagonises SARS-CoV-2 N. Cell-based experiments shown that RNAi decreased mCherry expression by 81.7% (p < 0.001). This effect was decreased by 8.0% in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 N, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 N inhibits RNAi. With increasing of folic acid concentration, mCherry expression decreased, indicating that folic acid antagonises the regulatory effect of SARS-CoV-2 N on host RNAi. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid may be an antagonist of SARS-CoV-2 N, but its effect on viruses unclear. In future, the mechanisms of action of folic acid against SARS-CoV-2 N should be studied.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfoproteínas
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 151: 427-438, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition (RI) deficit is an aspect of cognitive impairment in depressed individuals, but currently no effective treatment has been established. This study aimed to explore the effect of individualized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) network on RI in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Fourty-four patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized to receive 15 once-daily sessions of active (10 Hz, 100% of resting motor threshold) or sham rTMS within a double-blind, sham-controlled trial. We measured the efficacy of rTMS by the improvements in behavioral and neurological manifestations during the stop-signal task. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17) was used to assess depressive symptoms. We analyzed the differences in RI performance between MDD patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) at baseline and assessed whether MDD patients who completed rTMS treatment had comparable RI ability to HCs. RESULTS: At baseline, the depressed patients showed longer stop-signal response time (SSRT), smaller P3 amplitudes, and weaker theta-band power in successful stop trials (SSTs) than HCs. The active group exhibited RI ability comparable to that of HCs after rTMS treatment, but the improvements were not significant in the sham group. The active group showed significant remission in depression symptoms post-treatment compared to the sham group, and the changes in P3 amplitudes and theta-band power during SSTs were negatively correlated with the decrease of HAMD-17 scores. CONCLUSION: The depressed patients have impaired RI and treatment with the individualized rTMS protocol may be an effective approach.

6.
J Mater Chem B ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506736

RESUMO

The high failure risk of endosseous titanium implants under diabetes conditions appeals to strengthen the osteointegration on the titanium-bone (Ti-B) interface. Melatonin (MT) is a neurohormone involved in bone homeostasis, which can promote osteogenesis and inhibit ROS overproduction through multiple pathways, but its effects on the Ti-B interface in diabetes remain elusive. The biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has excellent controlled and sustained release properties, low cytotoxicity, and biocompatibility. Our study fabricated a nanofiber in which MT was encapsulated in PLGA to generate a nanofiber coating on a polydopamine (PDA)-modified titanium surface using electrospinning technology. The surface characteristic showed that MT was fully encapsulated in the PLGA carrier, and PLGA@MT was strongly coupled to the titanium matrix. Furthermore, the PLGA@MT-Ti nanofiber could release MT for at least 30 days. In vitro cellular tests demonstrated that PLGA@MT-Ti directly stimulates osteogenesis on the Ti-B interface by activating the BMP-4/WNT pathway in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of suppressing diabetes-induced ROS overproduction and promoting cell proliferation was not proportional to the content of MT. In vivo experiments revealed that PLGA@MT-Ti screws promoted the bone formation and osteointegration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mice with tibial bone defects. Our findings demonstrate that PLGA@MT-Ti exerted dual effects through activating the BMP-4/WNT pathway and attenuating ROS overproduction to promote osteogenesis and osteointegration at the Ti-B interface, providing a novel strategy to fabricate biomaterial modification and biofunctionalization under diabetic conditions.

7.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058323, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychological, social and financial outcomes of COVID-19-and the sociodemographic predictors of those outcomes-among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Sydney, Australia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey informed by the Framework for Culturally Competent Health Research conducted between March and July 2021. SETTING: Participants who primarily speak a language other than English at home were recruited from Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 708 community members (mean age: 45.4 years (range 18-91)). 88% (n=622) were born outside of Australia, 31% (n=220) did not speak English well or at all, and 41% (n=290) had inadequate health literacy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Thirteen items regarding COVID-19-related psychological, social and financial outcomes were adapted from validated scales, previous surveys or co-designed in partnership with Multicultural Health and interpreter service staff. Logistic regression models (using poststratification weighted frequencies) were used to identify sociodemographic predictors of outcomes. Surveys were available in English or translated (11 languages). RESULTS: In this analysis, conducted prior to the 2021 COVID-19 outbreak in Sydney, 25% of the sample reported feeling nervous or stressed most/all of the time and 22% felt lonely or alone most/all of the time. A quarter of participants reported negative impacts on their spousal relationships as a result of COVID-19 and most parents reported that their children were less active (64%), had more screen time (63%) and were finding school harder (45%). Mean financial burden was 2.9/5 (95% CI 2.8 to 2.9). Regression analyses consistently showed more negative outcomes for those with comorbidities and differences across language groups. CONCLUSION: Culturally and linguistically diverse communities experience significant psychological, social and financial impacts of COVID-19. A whole-of-government approach is needed to support rapid co-design of culturally safe support packages in response to COVID-19 and other national health emergencies, tailored appropriately to specific language groups and accounting for pre-existing health disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(5): 268, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499593

RESUMO

FBXW2 is a poorly characterized F-box protein, as a tumor suppressor that inhibits growth and metastasis of lung cancer by promoting ubiquitylation and degradation of oncogenic proteins, including SKP2 and ß-catenin. However, what the biological functions of FBXW2 in prostate cancer cells and whether FBXW2 targets other substrates to involve in progression of prostate cancer is still unclear. Here, we reported that overexpression of FBXW2 attenuated proliferation and metastasis of PCa models both in vitro and in vivo, while FBXW2 depletion exhibited the opposite effects. Intriguingly, FBXW2 was an E3 ligase for EGFR in prostate cancer. EGFR protein level and its half-life were extended by FBXW2 depletion, while EGFR protein level was decreased, and its half-life was shortened upon overexpression of FBXW2, but not its dominant-negative mutant. Importantly, FBXW2 bond to EGFR via its consensus degron motif (TSNNST), and ubiquitylated and degraded EGFR, resulting in repression of EGF function. Thus, our data uncover a novel that FBXW2 as a tumor suppressor of prostate cancer, inhibits EGFR downstream by promoting EGFR ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in repression of cell proliferation and metastasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas F-Box , Neoplasias da Próstata , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ubiquitinação
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579063

RESUMO

The interactions between azole-anion-based ionic liquids (AILs) and 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBY) play an important role in AIL-promoted carboxylative cyclization of MBY with CO2. To better understand the interactions between AILs ([P66614][Im], [P66614][4-MeIm], and [P66614][4-BrIm]) and MBY, a detailed investigation from the experimental perspective has been carried out in this study. The results show that the derivative of viscosity (η) with the mole fraction of AIL (xAIL) of AIL + MBY mixtures appears to have the maximum value when xAIL ≈ 0.3, while 1H NMR chemical shifts of P-CH2 of [P66614]+ reach the minimum value at xAIL ≈ 0.3, indicating that [P66614]+ of AILs tend to self-aggregate. The interaction parameters (gji-gii) of the systems obtained from η by the Eyring-UNIQUAC equation are positive, and the difference between the bulk and local composition (xi-xii) is always negative, indicating that AILs can interact with MBY. Moreover, excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility deviations are all negative deviations and become more negative as the temperature increases, reaching a minimum value at xAIL ≈ 0.30, indicating that azole-based anions can form H-bonds with MBY, and MBY molecules tend to enter the aggregates formed by AILs. Consequently, the cage effect is proposed to describe the interactions between AILs and MBY: MBY first enters the cage formed by the aggregation of [P66614]+, and then forms H-bonds with azole-based anions. Finally, the sizes of the particles of the [P66614][Im] + MBY mixture from dynamic light scattering increase first and then decrease with xAIL, with the maximum of 122 nm at xAIL ≈ 0.25, which confirms the rationality of the cage effect.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8336070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509841

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease commonly found in premature infants. Excessive inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to BPD occurrence and development. Simvastatin, as an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, has been reported to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effect and possible mechanisms in hyperoxia-induced lung injury are rarely reported. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate whether simvastatin could ameliorate hyperoxia-induced lung injury and explore its potential mechanism. For the in vivo study, simvastatin could improve alveolar development after hyperoxic lung injury and reduce hyperoxic stress and inflammation. The in vitro study revealed that simvastatin can reduce inflammation in A549 cells after high-oxygen exposure. Simvastatin suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and played anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles by increasing KLF2 (Krüppel-like factor 2) expression. In vitro experiments also revealed that these effects of simvastatin were partially reversed by KLF2 shRNA, indicating that KLF2 was involved in simvastatin effects. In summary, our findings indicate that simvastatin could downregulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuate lung injury in hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia via KLF2-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Hiperóxia , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/genética , Humanos , Hiperóxia/complicações , Hiperóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperóxia/genética , Recém-Nascido , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
J Endourol ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369740

RESUMO

Purpose: The decision-making of how to treat urinary infection stones was complicated by the difficulty in preoperative diagnosis of these stones. Hence, we developed machine learning (ML) models that can be leveraged to discriminate between infection and noninfection stones in urolithiasis patients before treatment. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 462 patients with urinary stones and randomly stratified them into training (80%) and testing sets (20%). ML models were constructed using five algorithms (decision tree, random forest classifier [RFC], extreme gradient boosting, categorical boosting, and adaptive boosting) and 15 preoperative variables and were compared with conventional logistic regression (LR) analysis. Performance measurement was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the testing set. We also analyzed the importance of 15 features on the prediction of infection stones in each ML model. Results: Sixty-two (13.4%) patients with infection stones were included in the study. On the testing set, all the five ML models demonstrated strong discrimination (AUC: 0.892-0.951). The RFC model was chosen as the final model [AUC: 0.951 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.934-0.968); sensitivity: 0.906; specificity: 0.924], significantly outperforming the traditional LR model [AUC: 0.873 (95% CI 0.843-0.904)]. Gender, urine white blood cell counts, and urine pH level were the top 3 important features. Conclusion: Our RFC model was the first model for the preoperative identification of infection stones with superior predictive performance. This novel model could be useful for risk assessment and decision support for infection stones.

12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114259, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421672

RESUMO

The analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes offers significant information for a rapid and non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. However, the clinical utility of miRNAs as biomarkers is often hampered by their low abundance in exosomes. Herein, we develop a dual-signal amplification biosensor for the sensitive detection of exosomal miRNA-21 (miR-21). In the presence of a cognate target, it hybridizes with a biotin-modified capture probe (Cp) to form a DNA-RNA heteroduplex that serves as a substrate for duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). With the assistance of DSN, the Cps are enzymatically hydrolyzed and numerous DNA catalysts are released, leading to the first signal amplification. After magnetic isolation, the DNA catalyst remaining in the supernatant triggers a strand displacement reaction based on the nicking-assisted reactant recycling strategy, without depleting the reactants, to implement the second signal amplification. Using this dual-signal amplification concept, our biosensor achieves a limit of detection of miR-21 of 0.34 fM, with a linear range of 0.5-100 fM. The receiver operating characteristic curve generated during clinical sample analysis indicates that the exosomal miR-21 outperforms serum carcinoembryonic antigen in discriminating between patients with gastric cancer (GC) and patients with precancerous (PC) lesions (area under the curve: 0.89 versus 0.74, n = 40). Moreover, the proposed biosensor exhibits an 83.9% accuracy in classifying patients with GC or PC lesions and healthy donors using a confusion matrix. Furthermore, patients with GC with or without metastases are discriminated using the proposed biosensor. Our technology may expand the applications of DNA-based biosensor-enabled cancer diagnostic tools.

13.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; : 1-15, 2022 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430936

RESUMO

Theanine, a tea plant-specific non-proteinogenic amino acid, is the most abundant free amino acid in tea leaves. It is also one of the most important quality components of tea because it endows the "umami" taste, relaxation-promoting, and many other health benefits of tea infusion. Its content in tea leaves is directly correlated with the quality and price of green tea. Theanine biosynthesis primarily occurs in roots and is transported to new shoots in tea plants. Recently, great advances have been made in theanine metabolism and transport in tea plants. Along with the deciphering of the genomic sequences of tea plants, new genes in theanine metabolic pathway were discovered and functionally characterized. Theanine transporters were identified and were characterized on the affinity for: theanine, substrate specificity, spatiotemporal expression, and the role in theanine root-to-shoot transport. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of theanine accumulation by: cultivars, seasons, nutrients, and environmental factors are also being rapidly uncovered. Transcription factors were identified to be critical regulators of theanine biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the progresses in theanine: biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport processes. We also discuss the future studies on theanine in tea plants, and application of the knowledge to crops to synthesize theanine to improve the health-promoting quality of non-tea crops.

14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 156, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play an important role in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially under tumor hypoxia. However, the precise functions and underlying mechanisms of dysregulated circRNAs in NSCLC are largely unknown. METHODS: High-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to identify significantly expressed circRNAs in NSCLC tissues. The functions of circ-0001875 in NSCLC cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The regulatory relationships of circ-0001875, miR-31-5p and SP1 were examined by dual luciferase reporter assays and rescue experiments. The signal pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the formation of filopodia were analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The binding of SP1 to Alu elements was evaluated by RNA immunoprecipitation, and the HIF1α and SP1 interaction was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: We identified the novel Has_circ_0001875 as a significantly upregulated circRNA in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. circ-0001875 promoted the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo, and induced NSCLC cells to extend filopodia. Mechanistically, circ-0001875 sponged miR-31-5p to regulate SP1, influencing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the TGFß/Smad2 signal pathway. SP1 negatively regulated circ-0001875 formation through an AluSq-dependent feedback loop, which was disrupted by competitive binding of HIF1α to SP1 under hypoxia condition. The circ-0001875/miR-31-5p/SP1 axis was associated with the clinical features and prognosis of NSCLC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that the circ-0001875/miR-31-5p/SP1 axis and the complex regulatory loops influence NSCLC progression. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of circRNA formation under tumor hypoxia.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Hipóxia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
15.
J Biol Chem ; 298(6): 101968, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460695

RESUMO

Iron accumulates with age in mammals, and its possible implications in altering metabolic responses are not fully understood. Here, we report that both high-iron diet and advanced age in mice consistently altered gene expression of many pathways, including those governing the oxidative stress response and the circadian clock. We used a metabolomic approach to reveal similarities between metabolic profiles and the daily oscillation of clock genes in old and iron-overloaded mouse livers. In addition, we show that phlebotomy decreased iron accumulation in old mice, partially restoring the metabolic patterns and amplitudes of the oscillatory expression of clock genes Per1 and Per2. We further identified that the transcriptional regulation of iron occurred through a reduction in AMP-modulated methylation of histone H3K9 in the Per1 and H3K4 in the Per2 promoters, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that iron accumulation with age can affect metabolic patterns and the circadian clock.

16.
Food Chem ; 389: 133083, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487082

RESUMO

Barley grass polysaccharides (BGPs) are some of the major bioactive constituents of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grass (BG). They exhibit favorable biological activities and health benefits. In this study, seven BGPs were extracted from BG, which was harvested at three different growth stages (e.g., seedling, tillering, and stem elongation), by alkaline-extraction method. Their physicochemical properties, structural characteristics, and biological activities were investigated and compared. Results demonstrated that the extraction yields, chemical compositions, monosaccharide constituents, and molecular weights of the seven BGPs obtained at different growth stages varied obviously. These BGPs had similar preliminary structural characteristics but different microstructures and thermal properties. Furthermore, the BGPs (BGP-Z12 and BGP-Z21) obtained at the seedling stage possessed stronger in vitro antioxidant potentials, cholic acid binding activity, and immunological activity than other BGPs. Therefore, these results indicated that that the seedling stage of BG was the preferable harvest time for preparing highly bioactive BGPs.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hordeum/química , Monossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Plântula
17.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458701

RESUMO

Keratin liposomes have emerged as a useful topical drug delivery system given theirenhanced ability to penetrate the skin, making them ideal as topical drug vehicles. However, the mechanisms of the drug penetration enhancement of keratin liposomes have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, licochalcone A(LA)-loaded skin keratin liposomes (LALs) were prepared to investigate their mechanisms of penetration enhancement on the skin and inB16F10 cells. Skin deposition studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and skin distribution and intracellular distribution studies were carried out to demonstrate the drug enhancement mechanisms of LALs. We found that the optimal application of LALs enhanced drug permeation via alterations in the components, structure, and thermodynamic properties of the stratum corneum (SC), that is, by enhancing the lipid fluidization, altering the skin keratin, and changing the thermodynamic properties of the SC. Moreover, hair follicles were the main penetration pathways for the LA delivery, which occurred in a time-dependent manner. In the B16F10 cells, the skin keratin liposomes effectively delivered LA into the cytoplasm without cytotoxicity. Thus, LAL nanoparticles are promising topical drug delivery systems for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Absorção Cutânea , Administração Cutânea , Chalconas , Queratinas/metabolismo , Lipossomos/química , Pele
18.
J Oncol ; 2022: 8901326, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401745

RESUMO

Tumor immune escape has emerged as the most significant barrier to cancer therapy. A thorough understanding of tumor immune escape therapy mechanisms is critical for further improving clinical treatment strategies. Currently, research indicates that combining several immunotherapies can boost antitumor efficacy and encourage T cells to play a more active part in the immune assault. To generate a more substantial therapeutic impact, it can establish an ideal tumor microenvironment (TME), encourage T cells to play a role, prevent T cell immune function reversal, and minimize tumor immune tolerance. In this review, we will examine the mechanisms of tumor immune escape and the limits of tumor immune escape therapy, focusing on the current development of immunotherapy based on tumor immune escape mechanisms. Individualized tumor treatment is becoming increasingly apparent as future treatment strategies. In addition, we forecast the future research direction of cancer and the clinical approach for cancer immunotherapy. It will serve as a better reference for researchers working in cancer therapy research.

20.
Food Chem ; 386: 132757, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367802

RESUMO

Extruded instant rice (EIR) could not maintain an intact grain morphology during cooking, which seriously affected its cooking quality. The problem was solved by pre-fermentation of rice flour for 5-10 days. Consequently, the cooking loss was significantly reduced, while the hardness, stickiness and water absorption of EIR were significantly increased. The mechanism was that the gel network of EIR was strengthened by the following ways: (1) pre-fermentation significantly increased the total starch and amylose contents of rice flour due to the dissolution or leaching of lipids, ash and soluble proteins into the fermentation broth; (2) pre-fermentation degraded the amorphous region of starch granules by enzymes and organic acids, resulting in a molecular structure with lower polydispersity index and molecular weight, and higher proportion of long- and ultra-long branched chains of amylopectin. This kind of molecular structure was conducive to the formation of ordered double helix structures and strong gel network.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amilose/química , Culinária/métodos , Fermentação , Farinha , Oryza/química , Amido/química
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