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1.
Psychooncology ; 28(9): 1836-1844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The impact of participating in breast cancer screening programmes on health-related quality of life (HRQoL)is poorly understood. METHODS: Based on a national breast cancer screening programme in China, a multicentre cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 12 provinces from September 2013 to December 2014. HRQoL of participants in the screening population and general population was evaluated by the three-levelEuroQol-five-Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) instrument, and utility scores were generated through the Chinese value set. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to explore determinants of utility scores and anxiety/depression problems. RESULTS: For screening group and general population (n = 4756, mean age = 51.6 year old), the corresponding utility scores were 0.937 (95% CI, 0.933-0.941) and 0.953 (0.949-0.957) (P < .001). Pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were the most common reported in both groups (51.4% and 34.3%, P < .001). Utility scores at prescreening, in-screening, and postscreening interview timings were 0.928 (0.921-0.935), 0.958 (0.948-0.969), and 0.938 (0.933-0.943), respectively (P < .001); the corresponding proportions of anxiety/depression reporting were 25.9%, 16.3%, and 21.1%, respectively (P = .004). Interview timing, geographical region, and insurance status were associated with HRQoL and anxiety/depression in women at high-risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Utility scores of screening participants were significantly lower than that of general population in China, but the difference may be clinically insignificant. Further cohort studies using HRQoL measurements are needed.

2.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 4055-4069, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed after the onset of symptoms. However, whether the symptoms of lung cancer were independently associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer is unknown, especially in the Chinese population. METHODS: We conducted a 10 years (2005-2014) nationwide multicenter retrospective clinical epidemiology study of lung cancer patients diagnosed in China. As such, this study focused on nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for variables associated with the symptoms and physical signs using multivariate unconditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer patients were surveyed; finally, 6398 NSCLC patients with available information about their symptoms and physical signs were included in this analysis. The most common initial symptom and physical sign was chronic cough (4156, 65.0%), followed by sputum with blood (2110, 33.0%), chest pain (1146, 17.9%), shortness of breath (1090, 17.0%), neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (629, 9.8%), weight loss (529, 8.3%), metastases pain (378, 5.9%), fatigue (307, 4.8%), fever (272, 4.3%), and dyspnea (270, 4.2%). Patients with squamous carcinoma and stage III disease were more likely to present with chronic cough (P < 0.0001) and sputum with blood (P < 0.0001) than patients with other pathological types and clinical stages, respectively. Metastases pain (P < 0.0001) and neck and supraclavicular lymphadenectasis (P = 0.0006) were more likely to occur in patients with nonsquamous carcinoma than in patients with other carcinomas. Additionally, patients with stage IV disease had a higher percentage of chest pain, shortness of breath, dyspnea, weight loss, and fatigue than patients with other stages of disease. In multivariable logistic analyses, compared with patients with adenocarcinoma, patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to experience symptoms (OR = 2.885, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.477-3.359) but were less likely to present physical signs (OR = 0.844, 95% CI 0.721-0.989). The odds of having both symptoms and physical signs were higher in patients with late-stage disease than in those with early-stage disease (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms and physical signs of lung cancer were associated with the stage and pathological diagnosis of NSCLC. Patients with squamous carcinoma were more likely to develop symptoms, but not signs, than patients with adenocarcinoma. The more advanced the stage at diagnosis, the more likely that symptoms or physical signs are to develop. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to explore these results.

3.
Tob Control ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is substantially attributable to smoking, but detailed related estimates on smoking-attributable expenditure (SAE) in China are not available yet, which could inform tobacco control and cancer prevention initiatives. METHODS: A prevalence-based approach was adopted to estimate the total SAE, including direct expenditure (medical and non-medical) and indirect cost (disability and premature death). Detailed per-patient data on direct expenditure and work-loss days were acquired from a unique multicentre survey in China. Other parameters were from literatures and official reports. RESULTS: The total estimated SAE of lung cancer was US$5249 million in China in 2015 (0.05 % of gross domestic product for China). The estimated direct SAE was US$1937 million (36.9 % of the total SAE), accounting for 0.29 % of total healthcare expenditure for China. The medical and non-medical direct expenditures were US$1749 million and US$188 million, respectively. The estimated indirect cost was US$3312 million (63.1 % of the total SAE), including US$377 million due to disability and US$2935 million due to premature death. The SAE increased with age, peaking at 60-64 years (US$1004 million), and was higher among men, in urban areas and in eastern China. If smoking prevalence was reduced to 20%, as is the goal of Healthy China 2030, the total SAE would be decreased by 4.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking-attributable economic burden caused by lung cancer was substantial in China in 2015, and will continue increasing given current trends in lung cancer. However, future economic burden can be prevented with implementation of effective tobacco control and other interventions.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8759568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143776

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the changes in the characteristics of titanium surface and the osteoblast-titanium interactions under cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure. In this study, CSE was used to simulate the oral liquid environment around the implant under cigarette smoke exposure. Titanium samples were immersed in CSE to explore the changes in the characteristics of titanium surface. The physical properties of titanium surface were measured, including surface micromorphology, surface elemental composition, roughness, and surface hydrophilicity. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the titanium surface in vitro under different concentrations of CSE exposure, and cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed. The surface micromorphology and elemental composition of titanium surface changed under CSE exposure. No obvious changes were found in the surface roughness and the hydrophilicity of titanium samples. Moreover, the results of in vitro study showed that CSE exposure downregulated the cell spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the titanium surface. It could be speculated that some carbon-containing compounds from CSE adsorbed on the titanium surface and the osteoblast-titanium interactions were influenced under CSE exposure. It is hoped that these results could provide valuable information for further studies on smoking-mediated inhibition of implants osseointegration.

5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 55, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992009

RESUMO

Titanium (Ti) and its alloys as bio-implants have excellent biocompatibilities and osteogenic properties after modification of chemical composition and topography via various methods. The corrosion resistance of these modified materials is of great importance for changing oral system, while few researches have reported this point. Recently, oxidative corrosion induced by cellular metabolites has been well concerned. In this study, we explored the corrosion behaviors of four common materials (commercially pure Ti, cp-Ti; Sandblasting and acid etching-modified Ti, Ti-SLA; nanowires-modified Ti, Ti-NW; and zinc-containing nanowires-modified Ti, Ti-NW-Zn) with excellent biocompatibilities and osteogenic capacities under the macrophages induced-oxidizing microenvironment. The results showed that the materials immersed into a high oxidizing environment were more vulnerable to corrode. Meanwhile, different surfaces also showed various corrosion susceptibilities under oxidizing condition. Samples embed with zinc element exhibited more excellent corrosion resistance compared with other three surfaces exposure to excessive H2O2. Besides, we found that zinc-decorated Ti surfaces inhibited the adhesion and proliferation of macrophages on its surface and induced the M2 states of macrophages to better healing and tissue reconstruction. Most importantly, zinc-decorated Ti surfaces markedly increased the expressions of antioxidant enzyme relative genes in macrophages. It improved the oxidation microenvironment around the materials and further protected their properties. In summary, our results demonstrated that Ti-NW-Zn surfaces not only provided excellent corrosion resistance properties, but also inhibited the adhesion of macrophages. These aspects were necessary for maintaining osseointegration capacity and enhancing the corrosion resistance of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Nanofios/química , Titânio/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Corrosão , Implantes Dentários , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(4): 708-714, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to examine changes in diagnostic and staging imaging methods for lung cancer in China over a 10-year period and to determine the relationships between such changes and socioeconomic development. METHODS: This was a hospital-based, nationwide, multicenter retrospective study of primary lung cancer cases. The data were extracted from the 10-year primary lung cancer databases at eight tertiary hospitals from various geographic areas in China. The chi-squared test was used to assess the differences and the Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to estimate the trends of changes. RESULTS: A total of 7184 lung cancer cases were analyzed. Over the 10-year period, the utilization ratio of diagnostic imaging methods, such as chest computed tomography (CT) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), increased from 65.79% to 81.42% and from 0.73% to 1.96%, respectively, while the utilization ratio of chest X-ray declined from 50.15% to 30.93%. Staging imaging methods, such as positron emission tomography-CT, neck ultrasound, brain MRI, bone scintigraphy, and bone MRI increased from 0.73% to 9.29%, 22.95% to 47.92%, 8.77% to 40.71%, 42.40% to 62.22%, and 0.88% to 4.65%, respectively; abdominal ultrasound declined from 83.33% to 59.9%. These trends were more notable in less developed areas than in areas with substantial economic development. CONCLUSION: Overall, chest CT was the most common radiological diagnostic method for lung cancer in China. Imaging methods for lung cancer tend to be used in a diverse, rational, and regionally balanced manner.

7.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 6, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808410

RESUMO

In the original publication of this article [1], the number of death cases in 'Materials and methods' section is incorrect.

8.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 38(1): 75, 2018 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thus far, the incidence, mortality, and temporal trend data of oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) in China were few. We estimated the incidence, mortality, and temporal patterns of OPC in China during 2008-2012 according to the data from 135 population-based cancer registries to better understand the epidemiological pattern of OPC and to provide more precise information for OPC control in China. METHODS: According to the data of diagnosed OPC reported to 135 cancer registries during 2008-2012, we calculated age-standardized rate of incidence and mortality by 2000 Chinese standard population (ASRIC and ASRMC) and by 1985 Segi's world standard population (ASRIW and ASRMW) by age, sex, and geographic regions; annual percentage changes of OPC incidence and mortality were calculated using Joinpoint trend analysis. RESULTS: ASRIW and ASRMW were 2.22/100,000 person-years and 0.94/100,000 person-years, respectively. The incidence and mortality in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ASRIC and ASRIW of males were higher than those of females. The overall ASRIC of OPC was significantly increased by 6.2% annually between 2003 and 2006 (P = 0.038), but remained stable between 2007 and 2012 (P = 0.392). ASRIC and ASRMC of males and in rural areas were significantly increased in the last decade (P < 0.05), but the rates of females remained stable during the same period (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Across multiple cancer registries in China, there was an obvious increase in OPC in the recent decade, especially for incidence and mortality of males and in rural areas, whereas the rates of females remained stable. A healthy lifestyle should be advocated and early diagnosis and early treatment of OPC should be enhanced.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade
9.
J Nat Med ; 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054785

RESUMO

Gelsemium elegans Benth. is a toxic plant that has been used as an ancient Chinese herbal remedy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and nervous pain, spasticity, skin ulcers, and cancers. Koumine, one of its representative alkaloids, shows numerous promising pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Here, we investigated the analgesic effect of koumine on the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model of RA and explored the potential pharmacological mechanisms underlying the analgesia. In the CIA rats, repeated koumine treatments significantly reduced pain compared to controls and attenuated the collagen-induced increase in levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß). Cultured astrocytes showed reduced astrocyte reactivation and decreased production of both tested cytokines. Based on our results, koumine exerted both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on the CIA rat model that were apparently mediated by inhibiting astrocyte reactivation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

10.
Neural Plast ; 2018: 9347696, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770147

RESUMO

Despite decades of studies, the currently available drugs largely fail to control neuropathic pain. Koumine-an alkaloidal constituent derived from the medicinal plant Gelsemium elegans Benth.-has been shown to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of koumine. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine were explored by using chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) neuropathic pain model in vivo and LPS-induced injury in microglia BV2 cells in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis were used to assess the modulator effect of koumine on microglia and astrocyte activation after CCI surgery. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to examine the modulator effect of koumine on microglial M1 polarization. We found that single or repeated treatment of koumine can significantly reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Moreover, koumine showed inhibitory effects on CCI-evoked microglia and astrocyte activation and reduced proinflammatory cytokine production in the spinal cord in rat CCI models. In BV2 cells, koumine significantly inhibited microglia M1 polarization. Furthermore, the analgesic effect of koumine was inhibited by a TSPO antagonist PK11195. These findings suggest that the analgesic effects of koumine on CCI-induced neuropathic pain may result from the inhibition of microglia activation and M1 polarization as well as the activation of astrocytes while sparing the anti-inflammatory responses to neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides Indólicos/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuralgia/complicações , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Sci ; 109(6): 1995-2002, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635717

RESUMO

Efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer is not sufficiently definitive and lacks randomized controlled trial evidence. The present study proved short-term screening efficacy through describing and comparing disease stage distributions of intervention and control populations. Villages from Linzhou and Cixian were cluster randomly allocated to the intervention or to the control group and the target population of 52 729 and 43 068 individuals was 40-69 years old, respectively, and the actual enrolled numbers were 18 316 and 21 178, respectively. TNM stage information and study-defined stage information of esophageal cases from 2012 to 2016 were collected. Stage distributions were compared between the intervention and control groups in the total target population, as well as in the subgroup populations in terms of enrolment and before or after intervention. There were a total of 199 and 141 esophageal cancer cases in the intervention and control groups, respectively. For the target population, distributions of TNM stage were borderline significant between the two groups after intervention (P = .093). However, subgroup analysis of the enrolled population during the after-intervention period had statistical significance for both TNM and study-defined stage. Natural TNM stage distributions were approximately 32%, 41%, 24% and 3% for stages I to IV vs 71%, 19%, 7% and 3% in the intervention population. The natural study-defined stage distributions from early, middle to advanced stages were approximately 18%, 49% and 33% vs 59%, 33% and 8%. Early-stage esophageal cancer cases accounted for a higher proportion after endoscopy screening, and the efficacy in the target population depends on the intervention compliance.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Lancet ; 391(10125): 1023-1075, 2018 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014. METHODS: CONCORD-3 includes individual records for 37·5 million patients diagnosed with cancer during the 15-year period 2000-14. Data were provided by 322 population-based cancer registries in 71 countries and territories, 47 of which provided data with 100% population coverage. The study includes 18 cancers or groups of cancers: oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, prostate, and melanoma of the skin in adults, and brain tumours, leukaemias, and lymphomas in both adults and children. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were rectified by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. FINDINGS: For most cancers, 5-year net survival remains among the highest in the world in the USA and Canada, in Australia and New Zealand, and in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. For many cancers, Denmark is closing the survival gap with the other Nordic countries. Survival trends are generally increasing, even for some of the more lethal cancers: in some countries, survival has increased by up to 5% for cancers of the liver, pancreas, and lung. For women diagnosed during 2010-14, 5-year survival for breast cancer is now 89·5% in Australia and 90·2% in the USA, but international differences remain very wide, with levels as low as 66·1% in India. For gastrointestinal cancers, the highest levels of 5-year survival are seen in southeast Asia: in South Korea for cancers of the stomach (68·9%), colon (71·8%), and rectum (71·1%); in Japan for oesophageal cancer (36·0%); and in Taiwan for liver cancer (27·9%). By contrast, in the same world region, survival is generally lower than elsewhere for melanoma of the skin (59·9% in South Korea, 52·1% in Taiwan, and 49·6% in China), and for both lymphoid malignancies (52·5%, 50·5%, and 38·3%) and myeloid malignancies (45·9%, 33·4%, and 24·8%). For children diagnosed during 2010-14, 5-year survival for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ranged from 49·8% in Ecuador to 95·2% in Finland. 5-year survival from brain tumours in children is higher than for adults but the global range is very wide (from 28·9% in Brazil to nearly 80% in Sweden and Denmark). INTERPRETATION: The CONCORD programme enables timely comparisons of the overall effectiveness of health systems in providing care for 18 cancers that collectively represent 75% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide every year. It contributes to the evidence base for global policy on cancer control. Since 2017, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has used findings from the CONCORD programme as the official benchmark of cancer survival, among their indicators of the quality of health care in 48 countries worldwide. Governments must recognise population-based cancer registries as key policy tools that can be used to evaluate both the impact of cancer prevention strategies and the effectiveness of health systems for all patients diagnosed with cancer. FUNDING: American Cancer Society; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Swiss Re; Swiss Cancer Research foundation; Swiss Cancer League; Institut National du Cancer; La Ligue Contre le Cancer; Rossy Family Foundation; US National Cancer Institute; and the Susan G Komen Foundation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Chin J Cancer ; 36(1): 90, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the incidence and mortality of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in China in 2010 according to the data of 145 domestic population-based cancer registries in 2014, and no such reports since then. Hence, to further and better understand its epidemiology in China and to provide more precise scientific information for its control and prevention in China, we analyzed the NPC incidence and mortality of 255 domestic population-based cancer registries, and estimated the national rates in 2013 again. METHODS: NPC incidence and mortality data of 255 domestic cancer registries in 2013, accepted by the 2016 National Cancer Registry Annual Report, were collected and collated, and the indices of NPC such as the numbers of new cases and deaths, crude rates, age-standardized rates, and truncated rates of incidence and mortality were calculated and analyzed. The incidence and mortality in China and its constituent areas were estimated according to the national population in 2013. RESULTS: An estimated 42,100 new cases and 21,320 deaths were attributed to NPC in China in 2013, accounting for 1.14% of all new cancer cases and 0.96% of all cancer-related deaths that year in China. Crude incidence and mortality of NPC were 3.09/100,000 and 1.57/100,000, respectively. World age-standardized incidence and mortality were 2.17/100,000 and 1.08/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality of males were obviously higher than those of females and slightly higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Among seven Chinese administrative regions, NPC incidence and mortality were obviously higher in South China than in other regions and lowest in North China. Top 3 incidence and mortality provinces and registering areas all located in South China. The age-specific incidence and mortality rose quickly from age 25-29 and 35 to 39 years, respectively, peaked at different ages and varied by location. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that NPC incidence and mortality in China in 2013 were also at high levels worldwide, which suggested that its control and prevention should be enhanced.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 8(3): 214-218, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Population-based cancer registration data from the National Central Cancer Registry were used to analyze and evaluate the incidence and mortality rates in China in 2013, providing scientific information for cancer prevention and control. METHODS: Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. National new cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and the corresponding population in 2013. The Chinese population in 2000 and Segi's world population were used to calculate age-standardized rates. RESULTS: The estimated number of new breast cancer cases was about 278 800 in China in 2013. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population, and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population were 42.02/100 000, 30.41/100 000, and 28.42/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of breast cancer deaths was about 64 600 in China in 2013. The crude mortality, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population, and age-standardized rate of mortality by world standard population were 9.74/100 000, 6.54/100 000, and 6.34/100 000, respectively. Both incidence and mortality were higher in urban than in rural areas. Age-specific breast cancer incidence significantly increased with age, particularly after age 20, and peaked at 50-55 years, while age-specific mortality increased rapidly after 25 years, peaking at 85+ years. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Chinese women, especially women in urban areas. Comprehensive measures are needed to reduce the heavy burden of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Carga Tumoral , População Urbana
15.
Int J Cancer ; 139(3): 527-34, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992019

RESUMO

Historically low breast cancer incidence rates among Asian women have risen worldwide; purportedly due to the adoption of a "Western" life style among younger generations (i.e., the more recent birth cohorts). However, no study has simultaneously compared birth cohort effects between both younger and older women in different Asian and Western populations. Using cancer registry data from rural and urban China, Singapore and the United States (1990-2008), we estimated age-standardized incidence rates (ASR), annual percentage change (EAPC) in the ASR, net drifts, birth cohort specific incidence rates and cohort rate ratios (CRR). Younger (30-49 years, 1943-1977 birth cohorts) and older women (50-79 years; 1913-1957 birth cohorts) were assessed separately. CRRs among Chinese populations were estimated using birth cohort specific rates with US non-Hispanic white women (NHW) serving as the reference population with an assigned CRR of 1.0. We observed higher EAPCs and net drifts among those Chinese populations with lower ASRs. Similarly, we observed the most rapidly increasing cohort-specific incidence rates among those Chinese populations with the lowest baseline CRRs. Both trends were more significant among older than younger women. Average CRRs were 0.06-0.44 among older and 0.18-0.81 among younger women. Rapidly rising cohort specific rates have narrowed the historic disparity between Chinese and US NHW breast cancer populations particularly in regions with the lowest baseline rates and among older women. Future analytic studies are needed to investigate risk factors accounting for the rapid increase of breast cancer among older and younger women separately in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/história , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Lett ; 374(1): 22-30, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26828135

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy with an extraordinarily skewed geographic distribution worldwide. Although decreasing trends in incidence and mortality of NPC have been sporadically reported in some high-risk areas, no comprehensive description of the global trends has ever been made. We accessed incidence (1970-2007) and mortality (1970-2013) data from multiple sources, with the main ones being the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) series and the World Health Organization (WHO) cancer mortality database. During the entire period studied, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) of NPC decreased significantly in southern and eastern Asia, north America and Nordic countries with average annual percent changes (AAPCs) of -0.9% to -5.4% in males and -1.1% to -4.1% in females. Declines in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) are even more remarkable and extensive, with AAPCs varying from -0.9% and -0.8% to -3.7% and -6.5% in males and females, respectively. Decreasing trends in NPC incidence are probably due to tobacco control, changes in diets and economic development. Declines in mortality rates are the results of advancements in diagnostic and radiotherapy techniques, as well as decreased incidence rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade
17.
Chin J Cancer ; 34(11): 508-13, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26472328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis in China. In this study, the national population-based cancer registration data were used to evaluate and analyze liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2011 and provide a reference for liver cancer prevention and control. METHODS: We collected and evaluated the incidence and mortality data of liver cancer in 2011 from 177 cancer registries with qualified data. These data were used in the final analysis including calculating crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities, and estimated new liver cancer cases and deaths using age-specific rates and the corresponding populations. The national census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized rates. RESULTS: The estimates of new liver cancer cases and deaths were 355,595 and 322,416, respectively, in China in 2011. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of liver cancer were 26.39/100,000, 19.48/100,000, and 19.10/100,000, respectively; the crude mortality, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population (ASRMC), and age-standardized rate of mortality by world standard population (ASRMW) of liver cancer were 23.93/100,000,17.48/100,000, and 17.17/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality were higher in rural areas than in urban areas and higher in males than in females. The age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer increased greatly with age, particularly after 30 years and peaked at 80-84 or 85+ years. CONCLUSIONS: Liver cancer is a common cancer in China, particularly for males and residents in rural areas. Targeted prevention, early detection, and treatment programs should be carried out.


Assuntos
Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mortalidade , Fatores Etários , China , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana
18.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 11 Suppl 2: C143-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26506866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in cancer registration areas of China in 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Until June 1, 2013, 219 population-based cancer registries submitted data of 2010 to the National Central Cancer Registry of China covering about 207,229,403 population, and 120 cancer registries were selected after quality evaluation for this analysis. Laryngeal cancer cases were selected from the database according to International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision coded as "C32." We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer by sex, age, and location (urban/rural). The China population in 2000 and Segi's population were used as standardized populations for the calculation of age-standardized rates. RESULTS: In 2010, it was estimated that there were 20,272 new cases diagnosed as laryngeal cancer in China, including 17,703 males and 2569 females. The crude incidence rate of laryngeal cancer was 1.54/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 0.66% of overall new cancer cases. The age-standardized by China population (ASRcn) and by world population (ASRwld) were 1.18/100,000 and 1.20/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate (0-74 years old) and truncated age-standardized rate (35-64 years old) were 0.15% and 1.98/100,000, respectively. Moreover, it was estimated that there were 11 914 cases died in laryngeal cancer in China, including 10,038 males and 1876 females. The crude mortality rate was 0.91/100,000, accounting for 0.61% of overall cancer deaths. The ASRcn and ASRwld were 0.68/100,000 and 0.69/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate and truncated age-standardized rates were 0.08% and 0.88/100,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in China were still low in 2010.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Laríngeas/história , Neoplasias Laríngeas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 11 Suppl 2: C149-54, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26506867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in the cancer registration areas of China in 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Until June 1, 2013, 219 population-based cancer registries submitted the data of 2010 to the National Central Cancer Registry of China covering about 207,229,403 population, and 120 cancer registries were selected after the quality evaluation for this analysis. Oral cavity cancer cases were selected from the database according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 coded as "C00-C10, C11-C12." We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates of oral cavity cancer by sex, age, and location (urban/rural). The China population in 2000 and Segi's population were used as standardized populations for the calculation of age standardized rates. RESULTS: In 2010, it was estimated that there were 34,319 new cases diagnosed as oral cavity cancer in China, including 23,096 males and 11,223 females. The crude incidence rate of oral cavity cancer was 2.61/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 1.11% of overall new cancer cases, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The age standardized by China population (ASRcn) and by world population (ASRwld) were 2.06/100,000 and 2.02/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate (0-74 years old) and truncated age standardized rate (35-64 years old) were 0.23% and 3.82/100 000, respectively. In 2010, it was estimated that there were 14,652 cases died in oral cavity cancer in China, including 10,363 males and 4289 females. The crude mortality rate of oral cavity cancer was 1.11/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 0.75% of overall cancer deaths, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The ASRcn and ASRwld were 0.86/100,000 and 0.85/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate and truncated age standardized rates were 0.10% and 1.30/100,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in China were still low in 2010. Primary prevention such as smoking control, reducing alcohol consumption, changing the habit of chewing betel nut, and chemical prevention should be enhanced in the general population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/história , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(7)2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggested that female breast cancer is associated with earlier ages at onset among Asian than Western populations. However, most studies utilized cross-sectional analyses that may be confounded by calendar-period and/or birth cohort effects. We, therefore, considered a longitudinal (forward-looking) approach adjusted for calendar-period changes and conditioned upon birth cohort. METHODS: Invasive female breast cancer data (1988-2009) were obtained from cancer registries in China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States. Age-period-cohort models were used to extrapolate longitudinal age-specific incidence rates for the 1920, 1944, and 1970 birth cohorts. RESULTS: Cross-sectional age-specific incidence rates rose continuously until age 80 years among US white women, but plateaued or decreased after age 50 years among Asian women. In contrast, longitudinal age-specific rates were proportional (similar) among all Asian countries and the United States with incidence rates rising continuously until age 80 years. The extrapolated estimates for the most recent cohorts in some Asian countries actually showed later ages at onset than in the United States. Additionally, over successive birth cohorts, the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the longitudinal curves converged (narrowed) between Asian and US white women. CONCLUSIONS: Similar longitudinal age-specific incidence rates along with converging IRRs indicate that the age effects for invasive breast cancer are more similar among Asian and Western populations than might be expected from a solely cross-sectional analysis. Indeed, the Asian breast cancer rates in recent generations are even surpassing the historically high rates in the United States, highlighting an urgent need for efficient prevention and treatment strategies among Asian populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Singapura/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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