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1.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113270, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525374

RESUMO

Metazoans have evolved a complexity of sexual system and gonad development, however, sexual reproduction of scleractinian corals is not well understood. This study aimed to address the sexual system and gametogenesis in Porites lichen, a common species in the Indo-West Pacific. This study represents the first description of sexual system, which were determined by histological analysis of the samples collected in northern Taiwan. In addition, female and hermaphroditic colonies were separately cultured in aquarium to further monitor the release of eggs/larvae and thereby confirm the breeding system. The results demonstrate that P. lichen is a polygamodioecious brooder and displays seasonal gametogenesis and embryogenesis that ends in late summer. In hermaphroditic colonies, male polyps are predominant and hermaphroditic polyps make up a very small percent (1%-19.3%). In addition, two new gametogenic features were observed from the histological analysis: 1) oocytes developed within the spermaries in hermaphroditic polyps during the early stage of gametogenesis and 2) melanin granular cells were clustered in spermaries in both male and hermaphroditic colonies. This study demonstrated the plasticity of gametogenesis and melanin related cells appeared in corals, which provides an important information to explore hormones and molecular mechanism involving in gonadal arrangement and production of melanin for further studies.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 590-600, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443001

RESUMO

Traditional radio monitoring and management largely depend on radio spectrum data analysis, which requires considerable domain experience and heavy cognition effort and frequently results in incorrect signal judgment and incomprehensive situation awareness. Faced with increasingly complicated electromagnetic environments, radio supervisors urgently need additional data sources and advanced analytical technologies to enhance their situation awareness ability. This paper introduces a visual analytics approach for electromagnetic situation awareness. Guided by a detailed scenario and requirement analysis, we first propose a signal clustering method to process radio signal data and a situation assessment model to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the electromagnetic situations. We then design a two-module interface with a set of visualization views and interactions to help radio supervisors perceive and understand the electromagnetic situations by a joint analysis of radio signal data and radio spectrum data. Evaluations on real-world data sets and an interview with actual users demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the proposed approach and provide future work directions.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 1256-1266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443013

RESUMO

Visual querying is essential for interactively exploring massive trajectory data. However, the data uncertainty imposes profound challenges to fulfill advanced analytics requirements. On the one hand, many underlying data does not contain accurate geographic coordinates, e.g., positions of a mobile phone only refer to the regions (i.e., mobile cell stations) in which it resides, instead of accurate GPS coordinates. On the other hand, domain experts and general users prefer a natural way, such as using a natural language sentence, to access and analyze massive movement data. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach that can extract spatial-temporal constraints from a textual sentence and support an effective query method over uncertain mobile trajectory data. It is built up on encoding massive, spatially uncertain trajectories by the semantic information of the POls and regions covered by them, and then storing the trajectory documents in text database with an effective indexing scheme. The visual interface facilitates query condition specification, situation-aware visualization, and semantic exploration of large trajectory data. Usage scenarios on real-world human mobility datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 1161-1171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443022

RESUMO

Analysts commonly investigate the data distributions derived from statistical aggregations of data that are represented by charts, such as histograms and binned scatterplots, to visualize and analyze a large-scale dataset. Aggregate queries are implicitly executed through such a process. Datasets are constantly extremely large; thus, the response time should be accelerated by calculating predefined data cubes. However, the queries are limited to the predefined binning schema of preprocessed data cubes. Such limitation hinders analysts' flexible adjustment of visual specifications to investigate the implicit patterns in the data effectively. Particularly, RSATree enables arbitrary queries and flexible binning strategies by leveraging three schemes, namely, an R-tree-based space partitioning scheme to catch the data distribution, a locality-sensitive hashing technique to achieve locality-preserving random access to data items, and a summed area table scheme to support interactive query of aggregated values with a linear computational complexity. This study presents and implements a web-based visual query system that supports visual specification, query, and exploration of large-scale tabular data with user-adjustable granularities. We demonstrate the efficiency and utility of our approach by performing various experiments on real-world datasets and analyzing time and space complexity.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 385-393, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222822

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to study the effect of miR-33b in regulating sensitivity to daunorubicin (DNR) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay to detect the level of miR-33b and cell viability. Cell apoptosis and the expression of eIF5A-2 and MCL-1 protein were detected by flow cytometry analysis and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MiR-33b mimic increased sensitivity of AML cells against DNR, while miR-33b inhibitor had the opposite effect. Furthermore, the results showed that the eIF5A-2 gene was a direct target of miR-33b, and miR-33b regulated eIF5A-2 mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of eIF5A-2 by RNA interference increased the sensitivity of AML cells against DNR. We also found that MCL-1 contributed to the regulation of DNR sensitivity, which was dependent on downregulation of eIF5A-2. Finally, knockdown of eIF5A-2 eliminated the effects of miRNA-33b mimic or inhibitor on DNR sensitivity. These findings indicate that miR-33b maybe as a new therapeutic target in AML cells.

6.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 632-641, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452251

RESUMO

Large intergenic noncoding RNA regulator of reprogramming (Linc-RoR) was first identified as a regulator to increase the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells through reprogramming differentiated cells and is abnormal expression in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the function of Linc-RoR in pancreatic cancer progression needs further clarification. The data from this study demonstrated that Linc-RoR knockdown suppressed cell proliferative capacity and colony formation, while Linc-RoR overexpression promoted these behaviors. In particular, Linc-RoR overexpression promoted the level of mesenchymal markers, inhibited the expression of epithelial markers, as well as enhanced pancreatic cancer cells migration and invasion, whereas Linc-RoR knockdown inhibited the expression of mesenchymal markers, promoted the expression of epithelial markers, as well as weakened pancreatic cancer cells migration and invasion. Further study revealed that Linc-RoR knockdown brought about a significant fall in YAP phosphorylation and a rise in total YAP, while Linc-RoR overexpression produced the opposite results. Specifically, Linc-RoR promoted YAP in the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Taken together, we conjectured that Linc-RoR promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by activating the Hippo/YAP pathway. YAP might be an underlying target of Linc-RoR and mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer (PC); thus, Linc-RoR might be a very meaningful biomarker for PC.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134520, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669914

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have attracted worldwide attention as the emerging persistent pollutants. Since they have been detected in raw water and the treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), there was an urgent need to explore the properties and fates of microplastics in DWTPs. The characteristics of the effluent MPs from each treatment unit in an advanced drinking water treatment plant (ADWTP) were studied, and the relationship between the variations of MPs and the removal performances of treatment processes was also explored. Overall, both the coagulation combined with sedimentation and the granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration performed well in removing microplastics. The former had a removal efficiency of about 40.5-54.5%, mainly for fibres' removal, and the presence of GAC filtration reduced the microplastic abundance by about 56.8-60.9%, mainly for small-sized MPs. It was worthy of attention that a larger amount of polyacrylamide (PAM) was detected in the effluent of the sedimentation compared to raw water, which was caused by the usage of coagulant containing PAM. Specially, the number of 1-5 µm MPs in the effluent of ozonation tank was increased by 2.8-16.0%, resulting in a negative removal efficiency in ozonation. The removals of microplastics were depended primarily on their physical properties (size and shape).

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134979, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733400

RESUMO

Floods are one of the most devastating types of disasters that cause loss of lives and property worldwide each year. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction capability of the naïve Bayes tree (NBTree), alternating decision tree (ADTree), and random forest (RF) methods for the spatial prediction of flood occurrence in the Quannan area, China. A flood inventory map with 363 flood locations was produced and partitioned into training and validation datasets through random selection with a ratio of 70/30. The spatial flood database was constructed using thirteen flood explanatory factors. The probability certainty factor (PCF) method was used to analyze the correlation between the factors and flood occurrences. Consequently, three flood susceptibility maps were produced using the NBTree, ADTree, and RF methods. Finally, the area under the curve (AUC) and statistical measures were used to validate the flood susceptibility models. The results indicated that the RF method is an efficient and reliable model in flood susceptibility assessment, with the highest AUC values, positive predictive rate, negative predictive rate, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the training (0.951, 0.892, 0.941, 0.945, 0.886, and 0.915, respectively) and validation (0.925, 0.851, 0.938, 0.945, 0.835, and 0.890, respectively) datasets.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121064, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499370

RESUMO

The development of non-cobalt-based heterogeneous catalysts with efficient catalytic activity, good stability and nontoxicity is very important for the application of peroxymonosulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in water treatment. In this work, with two dimensional MXene as the catalyst substrate, a novel α-Fe2O3/MXene (FM) nanocomposite was fabricated through a facile solvothermal method. Systematic characterization demonstrated that the MXene substrate could facilitate the size reduction and good dispersion of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The FM nanocomposite achieved high efficiency and stability towards activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce free radicals for the degradation of salicylic acid (SA) in aqueous solution. The operating parameters, including catalyst dosage, PMS dosage, SA concentration and initial pH value, were evaluated and analysed. The co-existence of sulfate radicals (SO4-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and radical scavenger tests, while SO4-was identified as the main reactive species in the FM/PMS catalytic system. The possible mechanisms for the electron transfer and radical generation during the process of PMS activation by the FM nanocomposite are further investigated using XPS and in situ Raman analysis. The results provide an avenue for rationally constructing and developing alternative catalysts for the treatment of organics in wastewater.

10.
Biomaterials ; 227: 119570, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670032

RESUMO

Excessive release of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) is well-known to provoke cascades of inflammatory responses thus contributing to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced steatohepatitis (ASH), but the cellular mechanism that regulates IL-1ß release during ASH remains unclear. Herein, we identified that gasdermin D (GSDMD) membrane pore is critical in mediating IL-1ß hypersecretion from chronic ethanol or acetaldehyde-stimulated macrophages. Deletion of GSDMD reduced IL-1ß release and ameliorated alcoholic steatohepatitis in vivo. These findings uncovered a novel mechanism regarding the IL-1ß release in ASH, and also indicated the therapeutic potential of IL-1ß blockade. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is protective to ASH by blocking IL-1ß, but it has a short biological half-life (4-6 h) and lower liver concentrations. Thus, we constructed a therapeutic plasmid pVAX1-IL-1Ra-ApoAI (pVAX1-IA) encoding IL-1Ra anchored to the liver-targeting protein apolipoprotein A-I (ApoAI), and developed hepatocyte-specific nanobiologics (Glipo-pVAX1-IA) by galactose functionalization for local and prolonged expression of IL-1Ra in liver. Data presented here showed that Glipo-pVAX1-IA facilitated efficient uptake of gene cargos by hepatocytes. The biodistribution studies confirmed a predominant hepatocytes internalization, but a minimal kupffer cells uptake of Glipo-pVAX1-IA following intravenous injection. The locally secreted IL-1Ra attenuated alcohol-induced steatohepatisis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Together, our results unraveled the critical role of GSDMD membrane pore in IL-1ß hypersecretion and highlighted the hepatocyte-specific Glipo-pVAX1-IA nanobiologics as a promising therapeutic strategy for ASH.

11.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124917, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726617

RESUMO

With the pressure to ban or limit the use of Bisphenol A (BPA), substitutes such as bisphenol F (BPF) are applied to various commodities and generally detected in aquatic systems worldwide. To understand the potential ecological risk of BPF, the acute toxicity as well as behavioural, physiological and biochemical parameters of the water flea Daphnia magna were assessed. Following BPF exposure at concentrations ranging from 0.1 µg L-1 to 100 µg L-1, phenotypic traits including growth development, fecundity and swimming activity were significantly inhibited in response to exposure to sublethal concentrations (1-100 µg L-1) of BPF, which had a positive relationship with the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which was strictly associated with the behavioural changes, was clearly inhibited, which was also obviously related to the heart rate and thoracic limb activity. Compared to the toxicity of BPA, BPF induces similar toxic effects, and the health concerns regarding the use of these alternatives should be highlighted.

12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124675, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524615

RESUMO

A synergistic combination of chloride and copper powder was proposed as a new method to reductively remove arsenic from highly-acidic wastewater with high arsenic content (HAWA). As(III) was reduced to As(0) by copper powder in the presence of chloride and were effectively removed from HAWA. The procedure to remove arsenic was optimized as follows: initial H+ concentration of 5 mol L-1, Cu-to-As molar ratio of 8, Cl-to-As molar ratio of 10, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, copper powder particle size of 68-24 µm, and a stirring speed of 300 r min-1. Under these optimal conditions, the removal rate of arsenic was close to 100%. Kinetics results suggested that the arsenic removal process was controlled by both diffusion and chemical reactions with an apparent activation energy of 29.78 kJ mol-1. The XRD results showed that the removed arsenic in the residue existed primarily in the form of AsCu3 alloy.

13.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124734, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494317

RESUMO

Dam construction and fish culture can change the biogeochemical processes in river, yet their impact on the spectral properties of particulate organic matter (POM) remains to be studied. This was investigated in a reservoir-type river (Minjiang river, SE China) using absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEMs-PARAFAC). Five fluorescent components were identified from POM with PARAFAC. Four components C1-C4 were affected by the seasonal variations of rainfall and runoff, indicating the influences of hydrological condition and terrestrial inputs. The Chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) correlated significantly with the humic-like C3 (p < 0.05) and the protein-like C4 (p < 0.01), indicating phytoplankton was an important source of C3 and C4. The Chl a and fluorescence intensities of C3-C4 were higher in the fish culture zones than in other areas, and the absorption coefficient a300 and C1-C4 were lower downstream the dam. These results indicated that fish farming in the reservoir probably promoted the production of POM. The a300 and C1 per unit mass of suspended particulate matter (a300/TSM and C1/TSM) correlated significantly with the median particle size (p < 0.01), which might be related to the contribution of micro-phytoplankton. The absorption spectra of POM showed a shoulder peak at ∼280 nm, and its intensity correlated significantly and positively with Chl a (p < 0.01). These results indicated that the peak was probably derived from phytoplankton production. Our results have implications for better understanding the influences of human activities on the dynamics of river POM.

14.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124736, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494326

RESUMO

In this work, a novel process involving the preparation of nanochitosan-grafted flocculants (CPAM-g-NCS) to treat low turbid and salmonella suspensions simultaneously was introduced. Nanotechnology was employed to enhance the adsorption-adhesion and sterilization abilities of dual-functional flocculants. The monomers of chitosan, acrylamide, methacryloyl ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and sodium tripolyphosphate were utilized for flocculants copolymerization. Then, using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum, and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, the successful synthesis of CPAM-g-NCS was verified. Scanning electron microscopy and size analysis suggested that nanostructured flocculants with irregular morphology and nanocolloids of 60.44 nm were formed. CPAM-g-NCS was applied to treat a series of simulated low turbid and salmonella suspensions. The simulation results showed that the minimum residual turbidity of 1.97 NTU and optical density of 0.16 (initial 0.89) can be achieved at dosages of 2.5 and 8.75 mg L-1, respectively, which were superior to conventional organics flocculants. Mechanistic studies suggested that the excellent adsorption property, and large numbers of quaternary ammonium and amino groups of nanoflocculants contributed to the superior flocculation and antibacterial performance of CPAM-g-NCS.

15.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124712, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499310

RESUMO

Selenium can regulate arsenic toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential, but the antagonism between selenite or selenate nutrient and the translocation of arsenic species from paddy soil to different rice organs are poorly understood. In this study, a pot experiment was designed to investigate the effect of selenite or selenate on arsenite or arsenate toxicity to two indica rice cultivars (namely Ming Hui 63 and Lu You Ming Zhan), and the uptake and transportation of arsenic species from paddy soil to different rice organs. The results showed that selenite or selenate could significantly decrease the arsenate concentration in pore water of soils, and thus inhibited arsenate uptake by rice roots. However, the existence of selenite or selenate didn't decrease arsenate concentration in rhizosphere pore water of two indica rice cultivars. There existed good antagonistic effect between selenite or selenate and the uptake of arsenite and arsenate in rice plant in the case of low arsenic paddy soil. However, this antagonism depended on rice cultivars, arsenic species and arsenic level in soil. There existed both synergistic and inhibiting effects between the addition of selenite or selenate and the uptake of trimethylarsinoxide and dimethylarsinic acid by two indica rice cultivars, but the mechanism was unclear. Both selenite and selenate are all effective to decrease the translocation of inorganic arsenic from the roots to their above-ground rice organs in arsenite/arsenate-spiked paddy soil, but selenate had stronger inhibiting effect on their transfer factors than selenite.

16.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 480-493, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385301

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and age-related neurological dysfunction. Abundant data have profiled microRNA (miR) patterns in healthy, aging brain, and in the moderate and late-stages of AD. Herein, this study aimed to explore whether miR-326 could influence neuron apoptosis in AD mice and how miR-326 functions in this process. The candidate differentially expressed gene VAV1 was obtained by microarray analysis, and miRNAs that could regulate VAV1 candidate gene were predicted. Luciferase activity determination confirmed VAV1 as a target gene of miR-326. AD mice models were established for investigating the effect of miR-326 on AD mice. The overexpression of miR-326 contributed to decreased time of the mice to find the platform and the escape latency and increased residence time on the target area. Besides, elevation of miR-326 decreased Aß deposition and contents of Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 . Moreover, miR-326 overexpression increased neuron cell ability, mediated cell entry, and inhibited neuron apoptosis via JNK signaling pathway. Of crucial importance, miR-326 negatively regulated the expression of VAV1, inhibited tau phosphorylation, and blocked the activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Taken together these observations, we demonstrate that miR-326 improves cognitive function of AD mice and inhibits neuron apoptosis in AD mice through inactivation of the JNK signaling pathway by targeting VAV1. Based on those findings, miR-326 might exert promise as target for the treatment of AD.

17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(3): 035809, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546243

RESUMO

The Edelstein effect caused by the pristine surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators is investigated by means of a semiclassical approach. The combined effect of random impurity scattering and the spin-momentum locking of the gapless Dirac cone yields a current-induced surface spin accumulation that depends on the surface cleanliness, but is independent from chemical potential and temperature. Through combing the semiclassical approach with the Bloch equation, the inverse Edelstein effect that converts the spin pumping spin current into a charge current is well explained, and the conversion efficiency [Formula: see text] is revealed to be independent from the disorder. Consistency of these results with various experiments is elaborated in detail.

18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 321-331, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403425

RESUMO

Scatterplots are frequently scaled to fit display areas in multi-view and multi-device data analysis environments. A common method used for scaling is to enlarge or shrink the entire scatterplot together with the inside points synchronously and proportionally. This process is called geometric scaling. However, geometric scaling of scatterplots may cause a perceptual bias, that is, the perceived and physical values of visual features may be dissociated with respect to geometric scaling. For example, if a scatterplot is projected from a laptop to a large projector screen, then observers may feel that the scatterplot shown on the projector has fewer points than that viewed on the laptop. This paper presents an evaluation study on the perceptual bias of visual features in scatterplots caused by geometric scaling. The study focuses on three fundamental visual features (i.e., numerosity, correlation, and cluster separation) and three hypotheses that are formulated on the basis of our experience. We carefully design three controlled experiments by using well-prepared synthetic data and recruit participants to complete the experiments on the basis of their subjective experience. With a detailed analysis of the experimental results, we obtain a set of instructive findings. First, geometric scaling causes a bias that has a linear relationship with the scale ratio. Second, no significant difference exists between the biases measured from normally and uniformly distributed scatterplots. Third, changing the point radius can correct the bias to a certain extent. These findings can be used to inspire the design decisions of scatterplots in various scenarios.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(23)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795428

RESUMO

This paper features the synthesis of thrombin-responsive, nucleic acid-gated, UiO-68 metal-organic framework nanoparticles (NMOFs) loaded with the drug Apixaban or rhodamine 6G as a drug model. Apixaban acts as an inhibitor of blood clots formation. The loads in the NMOFs are locked by duplex nucleic acids that are composed of anchor nucleic acids linked to the NMOFs that are hybridized with the anti-thrombin aptamer. In the presence of thrombin, the duplex gating units are separated through the formation of thrombin-aptamer complexes. The unlocking of the NMOFs releases the drug (or the drug model). The release of the drug is controlled by the concentration of thrombin. The Apixaban-loaded NMOFs revealed improved inhibition, as compared to free Apixaban, toward blood clot formation. This is reflected by their longer time intervals for inducing clot formation and the decreased doses of the drug required to affect clots formation. The beneficial effects of the Apixaban-loaded NMOFs are attributed to the slow-release mechanism induced by the NMOFs carriers, where the inhibition of factor Xa in the blood clotting cycle retards the formation of thrombin, which slows down the release of the drug.

20.
Environ Res ; : 108964, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796257

RESUMO

Aluminium is a widely used metal and one of the most energy intensive industries, and therefore it has been included in most energy models and scenarios. Material demand and supply are broadly linked to energy, water, and climate change. In this study, we develop four global and regional process based scenarios for the material-energy-water nexus combined with CO2 emissions and applied to aluminium. The scenarios used in this study are; Market World (MW), Toward Resilience (TR), Security Foremost (SF), and Equitability World (EW). The results indicate that global CO2 emissions are expected to increase as a result of increasing aluminium demand, although aluminium secondary supply, energy efficiency, and cleaner energy supply technologies are expected to increase in the next 30 years. Policy and sustainability (TR and EW) scenarios are ultimately the best in terms of global climate change since the two scenarios have the lowest CO2 emissions, although they also have the highest aluminium demand and energy. It is therefore necessary to implement cleaner energy supply and energy efficiency technologies at high rates in aluminium industry to mitigate possible increase in CO2 emissions.

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