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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 7624-7629, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820925

RESUMO

The realization of high-performance optoelectronic devices requires excellent charge-transporting layers and efficient carrier recombination. Herein, we synthesized cesium tungsten bronze (Cs0.32WO3) nanocrystals and utilized them as the hole-transporting material to fabricate all-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Due to the excellent carrier balance characteristics via comparison between the hole-only device and electron-only device, the all-inorganic PeLEDs with CsPbBr3 as the light-emitting layer present the maximum current efficiency of 31.51 cd/A and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.48%, which are self-evidently enhanced compared with the PEDOT:PSS (14.78 cd/A, 4.03%) and WO3 (24.75 cd/A, 6.18%) based devices. Considering the remarkably improved device performance, the proposed HTL of Cs0.32WO3 is promising, acting as a favorable building block for high-efficiency light-emitting devices.

2.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233401

RESUMO

The body temperatures of teleost species fluctuate following changes in the aquatic environment. As such, decreased water temperature lowers the rates of biochemical reactions and affects many physiological processes, including active transport-dependent ion absorption. Previous studies have focused on the impacts of low temperature on the plasma ion concentrations or membrane transporters in fishes. However, very few in vivo or organism-level studies have been performed to more thoroughly elucidate the process of acclimation to low temperatures. In the present study, we compared the strategies for cold acclimation between stenothermic tilapia and eurythermic goldfish. Whole-body calcium content was more prominently diminished in tilapia than in goldfish after long-term cold exposure. This difference can be attributed to alterations in the transportation parameters for Ca2+ influx, i.e., maximum velocity (Vmax ) and binding affinity (1/Km ). There was also a significant difference in the regulation of Ca2+ efflux between the two fishes. Transcript levels for Ca2+ related transporters, including the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and epithelial Ca2+ channel, were similarly regulated in both fishes. However, upregulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase expression was more pronounced in goldfish than in tilapia. In addition, enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase abundance, which provides the major driving force for ion absorption, was only detected in tilapia, while upregulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity was only detected in goldfish. Based on the results of the present study, we have found that goldfish and tilapia differentially regulate gill epithelial plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) expression and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in response to cold environments. These regulatory differences are potentially linked to more effective regulation of Ca2+ influx kinetics and better maintenance of whole body calcium content in goldfish than in tilapia.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(42): 37031-37040, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959880

RESUMO

Bernal- and rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (B- and r-TLG) on nickel (Ni) and iridium (Ir) films acting as bottom electrodes (BEs) of silver electrochemical metallization cells (Ag-EMCs) have been investigated in this study. Prior to the fabrication of the EMC devices, Raman mapping and atomic force microscopy are applied to identify the B- and r-TLG sheets, with the latter revealing a significant D peak and a rough surface for the Ir film. The Ag-EMCs with the stacked BE of r-TLG on the Ir film show a conductive mechanism of Schottky emission at the positive top electrode bias for both high- and low-resistance states that can be examined by the resistance change with the device area and are modulated by pulse bias operation. Thus, an effective electron barrier height of 0.262 eV at the r-TLG and Ir interface is obtained because of the conspicuous energy gap of r-TLG on the Ir film and the van der Waals (vdW) gap between the r-TLG and Ir contact metal. With the use of Ni instead of Ir contact metal, the Ag-EMCs with TLG BE demonstrate +0.3 V/-0.75 V operation voltages, more than 104 s data retention at 115 °C and 250 times endurance testing, making the TLG sheets suitable for low-power nonvolatile memory applications on flexible substrates.

4.
Brain Lang ; 157-158: 51-62, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174851

RESUMO

Studies of alphabetic language have shown that orthographic knowledge influences phonological processing during spoken word recognition. This study utilized the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to differentiate two types of phonology-to-orthography (P-to-O) mapping consistencies in Chinese, namely homophone density and orthographic consistency. The ERP data revealed an orthographic consistency effect in the frontal-centrally distributed N400, and a homophone density effect in central-posteriorly distributed late positive component (LPC). Further source analyses using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) demonstrated that the orthographic effect was not only localized in the frontal and temporal-parietal regions for phonological processing, but also in the posterior visual cortex for orthographic processing, while the homophone density effect was found in middle temporal gyrus for lexical-semantic selection, and in the temporal-occipital junction for orthographic processing. These results suggest that orthographic information not only shapes the nature of phonological representations, but may also be activated during on-line spoken word recognition.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , China , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23533502

RESUMO

Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80 µ M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80 µ M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca(2+)] i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ 2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLCγ2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation.

6.
Haematologica ; 98(5): 793-801, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23065519

RESUMO

Thrombin activates platelets mainly through protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4. However, downstream platelet signaling between PAR1 and PAR4 is not yet well understood. This study investigated the relationship between nSMase/ceramide and the NF-κB signaling pathway in PARs-mediated human platelet activation. The LC-MS/MS, aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and mesenteric microvessels of mice were used in this study. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin, 3-OMS (a neutral sphingomyelinase [nSMase] inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (an NF-κB inhibitor) significantly inhibited platelet activation such as P-selectin expression. Thrombin also activated IκB kinase (IKK)ß and IκBα phosphorylation; such phosphorylation was inhibited by 3-OMS and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Moreover, 3-OMS abolished platelet aggregation, IKKß, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by PAR4-AP (a PAR4 agonist) but not by PAR1-AP (a PAR1 agonist). Immunoprecipitation revealed that nSMase was directly associated with PAR4 but not PAR1 in resting platelets. In human platelets, C24:0-ceramide is the predominant form of ceramides in the LC/MS-MS assay; C24:0-ceramide increases after stimulation by thrombin or PAR4-AP, but not after stimulation by PAR1-AP. We also found that C2-ceramide (a cell-permeable ceramide analog) activated p38 MAPK and IKKß phosphorylation in platelets and markedly shortened the occlusion time of platelet plug formation in vivo. This study demonstrated that thrombin activated nSMase by binding to PAR4, but not to PAR1, to increase the C24:0-ceramide level, followed by the activation of p38 MAPK-NF-κB signaling. Our results showed a novel physiological significance of PAR4-nSMase/ceramide-p38 MAPK-NF-κB cascade in platelet activation.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores de Trombina/metabolismo , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/metabolismo , Trombina/farmacologia , Humanos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
7.
J Nutr Biochem ; 24(6): 1086-95, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23246160

RESUMO

Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, which can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Sulforaphane was found to have very potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of sulforaphane on platelet activation and its relative issues. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the in vivo antithrombotic effects of sulforaphane and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. Sulforaphane (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) was effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Other in vivo studies also revealed that sulforaphane (0.25 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. In addition, sulforaphane (15-75 µM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Sulforaphane inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting relative Ca(2+) mobilization; phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt; and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. Sulforaphane markedly increased cyclic (c)AMP, but not cyclic (c)GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxal in-1-one), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the sulforaphane-mediated effects on platelet aggregation; PKC activation, p38 MAPK, Akt and VASP phosphorylation; and OH(●) formation. Furthermore, a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) both significantly diminished PKC activation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; in contrast, a PKC inhibitor (RO318220) did not diminish p38 MAPK or Akt phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. This study demonstrates for the first time that in addition to it originally being considered as an agent for prevention of tumor growth, sulforaphane possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially activate adenylate cyclase/cAMP, followed by inhibiting intracellular signals (such as the PI3-kinase/Akt and PLCγ2-PKC-p47 cascades) and ultimately inhibiting platelet activation. Therefore, this novel role of sulforaphane may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Plaquetas/enzimologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Opt Express ; 21(24): 30065-73, 2013 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24514556

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates that quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) within the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) can be suppressed by the growths of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the nano-sized patterned c-plane sapphire substrates (PCSSs) with reducing the space. The efficiency droop is also determined by QCSE. As verified by the experimentally measured data and the ray-tracing simulation results, the suppressed efficiency droop for the InGaN-based LED having the nano-sized PCSS with a smaller space of 200 nm can be acquired due to the weaker function of the QCSE within the MQWs as a result of the smaller polarization fields coming from the lower compressive strain in the corresponding epitaxial layers.

9.
Head Neck ; 35(2): E49-51, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22422483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free tissue reconstruction after ablation of head and neck malignancy often requires extensive cervical manipulation, which may exacerbate preexisting cervical spondylosis and result in progression to cervical myelopathy. We present a rare case of postoperative quadriplegia caused by cervical spondylotic myelopathy after head and neck reconstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 63-year-old man without a history of cervical spondylosis underwent resection of a gingivo-buccal squamous cell carcinoma with immediate reconstruction with free fibula osteocutaneous flap. On postoperative day 4, the patient was found to have quadriplegia. MRI demonstrated severe cervical myelopathy. Decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient underwent an extensive rehabilitation program but only realized moderate improvement. CONCLUSION: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare but disastrous complication of head and neck surgery. We hypothesize that it is potentially avoidable with heightened awareness of this disease entity, preoperative identification of patients at risk, and prophylactic interventions


Assuntos
Esvaziamento Cervical/efeitos adversos , Quadriplegia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Espondilose/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/reabilitação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Esvaziamento Cervical/métodos , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Doenças Raras , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Medição de Risco , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Espondilose/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 130(1): 64-72, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22743874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composite tissue allotransplantation holds promise in reconstructive surgery, but its application is limited by the need for long-term immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of low-dose cyclosporine and vascularized bone allotransplantation in prolonging the survival of vascularized adipose tissue allograft. METHODS: In the adipose tissue allograft model, adipose tissue allografts based on superficial epigastric vessels from Lewis-Brown-Norway rats were allotransplanted into Lewis rats. In the adipose tissue and bone marrow allograft model, combined vascularized bone marrow and adipose tissues were allografted from Brown Norway rats into Lewis rats. The graft survival, the onset and progression of rejection, and the effects of cyclosporine at different dosages and treatment durations were recorded. A rejection grading system was created based on gross observation and was correlated with histologic examinations. RESULTS: Even at a low dose of 2 mg/kg/day, cyclosporine continued to provide effective allograft protection. Tolerance was not observed in either model. Adipose tissue survival after discontinuation of cyclosporine was independent of treatment duration. The inclusion of vascularized bone to the adipose tissue allograft provided an additional protective effect. This effect was synergistic with concomitant use of immunosuppressant. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue allotransplantation is a potential reconstructive option that requires only minimal use of immunosuppressants. Its survival can be further prolonged with simultaneous bone marrow allotransplantation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Medula Óssea/irrigação sanguínea , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Transplante Homólogo
11.
Microsurgery ; 32(4): 314-7, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22451230

RESUMO

A pedicle flap with distal segment compromise is classically managed by allowing tissue demarcation, debridement of non-viable tissue, and local tissue manipulation to achieve wound closure. When aggressive debridement leaves insufficient tissue for defect coverage, the original flap is often discarded. We present a case of distal necrosis of a pedicle internal mammary artery perforator flap for cheek reconstruction. The flap, which was rendered too small after debridement for defect coverage in its pedicle form, was converted to a free flap. The technical details of such conversion and potential feasibility of applying this conversion to other compromised pedicle flaps are discussed. We hypothesized that the principle of "free-ization" can be applied effectively for salvage of other failing pedicle flaps with axial blood supply.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Torácica Interna/cirurgia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Tratamento
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 649(1-3): 140-9, 2010 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20883689

RESUMO

Arterial thromboses are mostly composed of platelets adherent to ruptured endothelial surfaces. Platelets are anucleated cells; therefore, they represent an excellent and unique model to selectively investigate the signaling pathways mediating the nongenomic effects of estrogen. The aim of this study was to examine the signal transduction pathways of 17ß-estradiol in preventing platelet activation. In this study, 17ß-estradiol (5~10 µM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin). 17ß-Estradiol-inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. 17ß-Estradiol markedly increased cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels, nitric oxide (NO) release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. SQ 22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the 17ß-estradiol-mediated effects (i.e., platelet aggregation, and PLCγ2, VASP, and eNOS phosphorylation). Furthermore, ICI 182,780, a pure estrogen receptor antagonist, also reversed the 17ß-estradiol-mediated effects on platelet aggregation and eNOS activation. In conclusion, the most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that the inhibitory effect of 17ß-estradiol in platelet activation involves activation of the cyclic AMP-eNOS/NO-cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK activation, which may lower the incidence of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Adenilil Ciclases , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colágeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Colágeno/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Biomed Sci ; 17: 45, 2010 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20525309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin) may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. METHODS: The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. RESULTS: Simvastatin (20-50 microM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin). Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)gamma2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs) phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCgamma2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP-eNOS/NO-cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of the PLCgamma2-PKC-p38 MAPK-TxA2 cascade, and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/sangue , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/sangue , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Colágeno/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/sangue , GMP Cíclico/sangue , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/sangue , Técnicas In Vitro , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/sangue , Fosfolipase C gama/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboxano A2/sangue
15.
J Org Chem ; 73(12): 4759-61, 2008 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18484769

RESUMO

This TiCl 4-Mg promoted multicomponent coupling of various amides with CH(2)Cl(2) and methyl acrylate represents an extremely simple and practical synthesis of 1,5-keto esters. The efficiency of this chemistry is illustrated by the very simple preparation of unusual 4,4-dideuterio-1,5-keto esters.

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