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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 713284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722561

RESUMO

Purpose: To broaden the mutation and phenotype spectrum of the GJA8 and CHMP4B genes and to reveal genotype-phenotype correlations in a cohort of Chinese patients with congenital cataracts (CCs). Methods: Six Chinese Han families with CCs inherited in an autosomal dominant (AD) pattern were recruited for this study. All patients underwent full ocular examinations. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leukocytes of peripheral blood collected from all available patients and their unaffected family members. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on all probands and at least one of their parents. Candidate variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis with several computational predictive programs was performed to assess the impacts of the candidate variants on the structure and function of the proteins. Results: Four heterozygous candidate variants in three different genes (CRYBB2, GJA8, and CHMP4B) were identified in affected individuals from the six families, including two novel missense variants (GJA8: c.64G > C/p. G22R, and CHMP4B: c.587C > G/p. S196C), one missense mutation (CRYBB2: c.562C > T/p. R188C), and one small deletion (GJA8: c.426_440delGCTGGAGGGGACCCT/p.143_147delLEGTL). The three missense mutations were predicted as deleterious in all four computational prediction programs. In the homologous model, the GJA8: p.143_147delLEGTL mutation showed a sequence deletion of five amino acids at the cytoplasmic loop of the Cx50 protein, close to the third transmembrane domain. Patients carrying mutations in the same gene showed similar cataract phenotypes at a young age, including total cataracts, Y-sutural with fetal nuclear cataracts, and subcapsular cataracts. Conclusion: This study further expands the mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation of CRYBB2, GJA8, and CHMP4B underlying CCs. This study sheds light on the importance of comparing congenital cataract phenotypes in patients at the same age stage. It offers clues for the pathogenesis of CCs and allows for an early prenatal diagnosis for families carrying these genetic variants.

2.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare outcomes of in-the-bag versus ciliary sulcus secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for pediatric aphakia. DESIGN: Prospective interventional case series. METHODS: SETTING: institutional. PATIENT: Two hundred and two children (355 aphakic eyes) diagnosed as congenital cataracts and undergoing cataract extraction before 24 months of age. INTERVENTION: Pediatric aphakic eyes underwent either in-the-bag or ciliary sulcus secondary IOL implantation according to the amount of residual lens capsule and were followed for three years postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events (AEs), IOL tilt and decentration, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in operative eye. RESULTS: One hundred forty-four eyes (40.6%, 89 children) received in-the-bag IOL implantation (capsular group) and 211 (59.4%, 132 children) underwent ciliary sulcus IOL implantation (sulcus group). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the time-dependent incidence of glaucoma-related adverse events (GRAEs) (P=0.005) and any AEs (P=0.002) were higher in the sulcus group. In-the-bag IOL implantation was a strong protective factor against GRAE (HR, 0.08, 95CI:0.01∼0.53; P=0.009) and any AEs (HR, 0.21 95CI: 0.08∼0.57; P=0.002). Clinically significant IOL decentration (>0.4mm) was more common in the sulcus group compared to the capsular group (vertical decentration: 29.8% vs. 15.7%, P=0.005; horizontal decentration: 30.3% vs. 9.35%, P<0.001). BCVA in the capsular group was better than that in the sulcus group (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [LogMAR] 0.56 vs. 0.67, P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to ciliary sulcus secondary IOL implantation, in-the-bag IOL implantation reduced AEs, and yielded better IOL centration and BCVA for pediatric aphakia.

3.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 657866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513804

RESUMO

Reliable validated methods are necessary to verify the performance of diagnosis and therapy-assisted models in clinical practice. However, some validated results have research bias and may not reflect the results of real-world application. In addition, the conduct of clinical trials has executive risks for the indeterminate effectiveness of models and it is challenging to finish validated clinical trials of rare diseases. Real world data (RWD) can probably solve this problem. In our study, we collected RWD from 251 patients with a rare disease, childhood cataract (CC) and conducted a retrospective study to validate the CC surgical decision model. The consistency of the real surgical type and recommended surgical type was 94.16%. In the cataract extraction (CE) group, the model recommended the same surgical type for 84.48% of eyes, but the model advised conducting cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation (CE + IOL) surgery in 15.52% of eyes, which was different from the real-world choices. In the CE + IOL group, the model recommended the same surgical type for 100% of eyes. The real-recommended matched rates were 94.22% in the eyes of bilateral patients and 90.38% in the eyes of unilateral patients. Our study is the first to apply RWD to complete a retrospective study evaluating a clinical model, and the results indicate the availability and feasibility of applying RWD in model validation and serve guidance for intelligent model evaluation for rare diseases.

4.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data concerning the effect of clear speech (CS) on Cantonese alaryngeal speakers' intelligibility. METHODS: Voice recordings of 11 sentences randomly selected from the Cantonese Sentence Intelligibility Test (CSIT) were obtained from 31 alaryngeal speakers (9 electrolarynx [EL] users, 10 esophageal speakers and 12 tracheoesophageal [TE] speakers) in habitual speech (HS) and CS. Two naïve listeners orthographically transcribed a total of 1,364 sentences. RESULTS: Significant effects of speaking condition on speaking rate and CSIT scores were observed, but no significant effect of alaryngeal communication methods was noted. CS was significantly slower than HS by 0.78 syllables/s. Esophageal speakers demonstrated the slowest speech rate when using CS, while EL users demonstrated the largest decrease in speaking rate when using CS compared to HS. TE speakers had the highest CSIT scores in HS (listener 1 = 81.4%; listener 2 = 81.3%), and esophageal speakers had the highest CSIT scores in CS (listener 1 = 87.5%; listener 2 = 89.7%). EL users experienced the largest increase in intelligibility while using CS compared to HS (9.1%) followed by esophageal speakers (8.9%) and TE speakers (1.4%). CONCLUSION: Preliminary data indicate that CS may significantly affect Cantonese alaryngeal speakers' speaking rate and intelligibility. However, intelligibility appeared to vary considerably across speakers. Further research involving larger, heterogeneous groups of speakers and listeners alongside longer and more refined CS training protocols should be conducted to confirm that CS can improve Cantonese alaryngeal speakers' intelligibility.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the morphology of the posterior lens cortex and posterior capsules (PCs) in pediatric patients with posterior lens opacities using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). SETTING: Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. METHODS: Pediatric patients with posterior lens opacities were imaged using iOCT during cataract surgery. The morphology of the posterior lens cortex and PC, along with the common patterns to indicate PC integrity, were assessed. Moreover, posterior capsule rent during surgery was observed. RESULTS: A total of 62 eyes from 53 patients were included. The mean age of patients was 3.8 years. Four morphological variants of posterior lens opacity were observed: Type I (54.8%, 34/62) with intact PC; Type II (32.3%, 20/62) with intact PC, which protruded into the anterior vitreous; Type III (4.8%, 3/62) with deficient PC and an inability to delineate PC and type IV (8.1%, 5/62) with dense opacity and an inability to characterize the posterior cortex and PC. Phacoemulsification could be performed in types I and II. In types III and IV, manual nucleus removal was performed instead of phacoemulsification. Three cases (100%) of type III PC dehiscence developed during surgery, while no cases developed PC dehiscence of other types. CONCLUSION: The morphology of the PC and posterior lens cortex in pediatric posterior lens opacities could be categorized and PC integrity could be assessed using iOCT, which was useful to guide surgical strategies and increase safety in preexisting posterior capsular dehiscence in pediatric cataract surgery.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e042326, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cataract surgery is very important to prevent blindness, but its productivity and efficiency in China are unknown. Our study aimed to evaluate the geographical distribution of cataract surgeons and prospectively identify the factors associated with the increased productivity in cataract surgery and efficiency in outpatient ophthalmic services in rural Chinese hospitals. METHODS: Data were prospectively collated from various hospital datasets and the census registered by the geographical unit county. Prior to mapping, the geographical location data of counties were cross-linked with the equivalent ophthalmologist and service output data to create categories and map multiple data attributes. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to characterise the data stratified by county. Linear regression analyses were used to explore the factors associated with the increased productivity/efficiency. RESULTS: The ophthalmologists, surgical productivity of ophthalmologists and outpatient efficacy of ophthalmologists significantly varied across counties. During the period between 2016 and 2018, the median (IQR) change in surgical productivity of and outpatient efficacy of ophthalmologists were 31.627 (-3.33 to 29.94) and 118.08 (-132.30 to 740.89). In the simple regression analysis for predictors of a high productivity change, only the increased number of phaco machine had statistical significance (p=0.003). In addition, only the gross domestic product per capita in 2016 was associated with an increased improvement in efficiency of outpatient services (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the ophthalmologist productivity and the efficiency of outpatient services were unequally geographically distributed, and their predictors were identified. Further studies to elucidate the extent of the problem and improve the health service delivery models are required.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Oftalmologistas , Oftalmologia , China , Hospitais de Condado , Humanos
7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 631413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222224

RESUMO

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a postmitotic monolayer located between the neuroretina and choroid, supports the retina and is closely associated with vision loss diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) upon dysfunction. Although environmental stresses are known to play critical roles in AMD pathogenesis and the roles of other stresses have been well investigated, glucose deprivation, which can arise from choriocapillary flow voids, has yet to be fully explored. In this study, we examined the involvement of VEGFR2 in glucose deprivation-mediated cell death and the underlying mechanisms. We found that VEGFR2 levels are a determinant for RPE cell death, a critical factor for dry AMD, under glucose deprivation. RNA sequencing analysis showed that upon VEGFR2 knockdown under glucose starvation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are reduced. Consistently, VEGFR2 overexpression increased ER stress under the same condition. Although VEGFR2 was less expressed compared to EGFR1 and c-Met in RPE cells, it could elicit a higher level of ER stress induced by glucose starvation. Finally, downregulated VEGFR2 attenuated the oxidative stress and inflammatory factor expression, two downstream targets of ER stress. Our study, for the first time, has demonstrated a novel role of VEGFR2 in RPE cells under glucose deprivation, thus providing valuable insights into the mechanisms of AMD pathogenesis and suggesting that VEGFR2 might be a potential therapeutic target for AMD prevention, which may impede its progression.

8.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 648863, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194292

RESUMO

Visual neuroadaptation is believed to play an important role in determining the final visual outcomes following intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. To investigate visual neuroadaptation in patients with age-related cataracts (ARCs) after phacoemulsification with multifocal and monofocal IOL implantation, we conducted a prospective, controlled clinical trial in Zhongshan Ophthalmology Center. This study included 22 patients with bilateral ARCs: 11 patients underwent phacoemulsification and multifocal IOL (Mu-IOL) implantation, and 11 patients underwent phacoemulsification and monofocal IOL (Mo-IOL) implantation. Visual disturbances (glare and halos), visual function (including visual acuity, retinal straylight, contrast sensitivity, and visual evoked potentials) and visual cortical function (fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, fALFF) in Bowman's areas 17-19 as the region of interest were assessed before and after surgeries. The results showed that the fALFF values of the visual cortex in the Mu-IOL group decreased at 1 week postoperatively and recovered to baseline at 3 months and then improved at 6 months, compared with preoperative levels (at a whole-brain threshold of P < 0.05, AlphaSim-corrected, voxels > 228, repeated measures analysis of variance). Significantly increased fALFF values in the visual cortex were detected 1 week after surgery in the Mo-IOL group and decreased to baseline at 3 and 6 months. The fALFF of the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with visual disturbances (P < 0.05). To conclude, early postoperative visual neuroadaptation was detected in the Mu-IOL group by resting-state fMRI analysis. The different changing trends of postoperative fALFF values in the two groups indicated distinct neuroadaptations patterns after Mu-IOL and Mo-IOL implantation.

9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(8): e486-e495, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical artificial intelligence (AI) has entered the clinical implementation phase, although real-world performance of deep-learning systems (DLSs) for screening fundus disease remains unsatisfactory. Our study aimed to train a clinically applicable DLS for fundus diseases using data derived from the real world, and externally test the model using fundus photographs collected prospectively from the settings in which the model would most likely be adopted. METHODS: In this national real-world evidence study, we trained a DLS, the Comprehensive AI Retinal Expert (CARE) system, to identify the 14 most common retinal abnormalities using 207 228 colour fundus photographs derived from 16 clinical settings with different disease distributions. CARE was internally validated using 21 867 photographs and externally tested using 18 136 photographs prospectively collected from 35 real-world settings across China where CARE might be adopted, including eight tertiary hospitals, six community hospitals, and 21 physical examination centres. The performance of CARE was further compared with that of 16 ophthalmologists and tested using datasets with non-Chinese ethnicities and previously unused camera types. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04213430, and is currently closed. FINDINGS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the internal validation set was 0·955 (SD 0·046). AUC values in the external test set were 0·965 (0·035) in tertiary hospitals, 0·983 (0·031) in community hospitals, and 0·953 (0·042) in physical examination centres. The performance of CARE was similar to that of ophthalmologists. Large variations in sensitivity were observed among the ophthalmologists in different regions and with varying experience. The system retained strong identification performance when tested using the non-Chinese dataset (AUC 0·960, 95% CI 0·957-0·964 in referable diabetic retinopathy). INTERPRETATION: Our DLS (CARE) showed satisfactory performance for screening multiple retinal abnormalities in real-world settings using prospectively collected fundus photographs, and so could allow the system to be implemented and adopted for clinical care. FUNDING: This study was funded by the National Key R&D Programme of China, the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Sistemas Especialistas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Retina , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Área Sob a Curva , Inteligência Artificial , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Oftalmologistas , Fotografação , Curva ROC
10.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 657865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935639

RESUMO

Objectives: Numerous task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies indicate the presence of compensatory functional improvement in patients with congenital cataracts. However, there is neuroimaging evidence that shows decreased sensory perception or cognition information processing related to visual dysfunction, which favors a general loss hypothesis. This study explored the functional connectivity between visual and other networks in children with congenital cataracts using resting state electroencephalography. Methods: Twenty-one children with congenital cataracts (age: 8.02 ± 2.03 years) and thirty-five sex- and age-matched normal sighted controls were enrolled to investigate functional connectivity between the visual cortex and the default mode network, the salience network, and the cerebellum network during resting state electroencephalography (eyes closed) recordings. Result: The congenital cataract group was less active, than the control group, in the occipital, temporal, frontal and limbic lobes in the theta, alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency bands. Additionally, there was reduced alpha-band connectivity between the visual and somatosensory cortices and between regions of the frontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive and attentive control. Conclusion: The results indicate abnormalities in sensory, cognition, motion and execution functional connectivity across the developing brains of children with congenital cataracts when compared with normal controls. Reduced frontal alpha activity and alpha-band connectivity between the visual cortex and salience network might reflect attenuated inhibitory information flow, leading to higher attentional states, which could contribute to adaptation of environmental change in this group of patients.

11.
J Phon ; 872021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012182

RESUMO

Vowel-intrinsic fundamental frequency (IF0), the phenomenon that high vowels tend to have a higher fundamental frequency (f0) than low vowels, has been studied for over a century, but its causal mechanism is still controversial. The most commonly accepted "tongue-pull" hypothesis successfully explains the IF0 difference between high and low vowels but fails to account for gradient IF0 differences among low vowels. Moreover, previous studies that investigated the articulatory correlates of IF0 showed inconsistent results and did not appropriately distinguish between the tongue and the jaw. The current study used articulatory and acoustic data from two large corpora of American English (44 speakers in total) to examine the separate contributions of tongue and jaw height on IF0. Using data subsetting and stepwise linear regression, the results showed that both the jaw and tongue heights were positively correlated with vowel f0, but the contribution of the jaw to IF0 was greater than that of the tongue. These results support a dual mechanism hypothesis in which the tongue-pull mechanism contributes to raising f0 in non-low vowels while a secondary "jaw-push" mechanism plays a more important role in lowering f0 for non-high vowels.

12.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 6634871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680507

RESUMO

Purpose: To introduce an effective method for separating extensive posterior synechiae and those located under or adjacent to surgical incisions. Methods: Pediatric patients who had been subjected to cataract surgery and developed troublesome posterior synechiae requiring secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were recruited. All patients underwent microperipheral iridectomy at the 12 o'clock position. Then, an ophthalmic viscosurgical device was injected into the posterior chamber through the iris fistula to mechanically separate the posterior synechiae, using scissors to cut robust posterior synechiae if necessary. The results of posterior synechiolysis and the position of the implanted IOL were analyzed. Results: Sixteen patients (median age, 51.56 months; range, 28-80 months) were included. The scope of posterior synechia in clock was 4.42 (range, 1-10). All troublesome posterior synechiae were successfully separated using the microperipheral iridectomy method, and all patients underwent IOL implantation in the ciliary sulcus. There was one case of peripheral iridectomy-related early intraoperative bleeding; no bleeding was observed at the end of surgery. Conclusions: Microperipheral iridectomy is a useful method for the management of troublesome posterior synechiae during secondary IOL implantation in pediatric patients, which makes secondary IOL implantation an easier and safer method in some challenging cases.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(6): 2002971, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747725

RESUMO

Biosensors worn on or implanted in eyes have been garnering substantial attention since being proven to be an effective means to acquire critical biomarkers for monitoring the states of ophthalmic disease, diabetes. Among these disorders, glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness globally, usually results in irreversible blindness. Continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring is considered as an effective measure, which provides a comprehensive view of IOP changes that is beyond reach for the "snapshots" measurements by clinical tonometry. However, to satisfy the applications in ophthalmology, the development of IOP sensors are required to be prepared with biocompatible, miniature, transparent, wireless and battery-free features, which are still challenging with many current fabrication processes. In this work, the recent advances in this field are reviewed by categorizing these devices into wearable and implantable IOP sensors. The materials and structures exploited for engineering these IOP devices are presented. Additionally, their working principle, performance, and the potential risk that materials and device architectures may pose to ocular tissue are discussed. This review should be valuable for preferable structure design, device fabrication, performance optimization, and reducing potential risk of these devices. It is significant for the development of future practical IOP sensors.

14.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 13, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750767

RESUMO

The current dogma in ophthalmology and vision research presumes the intraocular environment to be sterile. However, recent evidence of intestinal bacterial translocation into the bloodstream and many other internal organs including the eyes, found in healthy and diseased animal models, suggests that the intraocular cavity may also be inhabited by a microbial community. Here, we tested intraocular samples from over 1000 human eyes. Using quantitative PCR, negative staining transmission electron microscopy, direct culture, and high-throughput sequencing technologies, we demonstrated the presence of intraocular bacteria. The possibility that the microbiome from these low-biomass communities could be a contamination from other tissues and reagents was carefully evaluated and excluded. We also provide preliminary evidence that a disease-specific microbial signature characterized the intraocular environment of patients with age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, suggesting that either spontaneous or pathogenic bacterial translocation may be associated with these common sight-threatening conditions. Furthermore, we revealed the presence of an intraocular microbiome in normal eyes from non-human mammals and demonstrated that this varied across species (rat, rabbit, pig, and macaque) and was established after birth. These findings represent the first-ever evidence of intraocular microbiota in humans.

16.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(1): 64-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469485

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the visual outcomes of children with small (≤3 mm) posterior polar cataracts (PPC) and posterior lenticonus who had cataract extraction surgery with the visual outcomes of those who were managed conservatively. METHODS: Children who initially had small PPC and posterior lenticonus who were followed up over 1-year period were retrospective reviewed in the study. Patients receiving surgery were compared with those receiving conservative therapy. The axial length, keratometry, refraction, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and strabismus measurements were recorded. Lens morphology, i.e., the location, size, and depth of the cataract lesion, was measured with a Scheimpflug imaging system. To help control for baseline differences in the groups, patients were matched with controls by propensity score methodology. RESULTS: The study evaluated 60 patients (30 in the surgery group and 30 in the conservative therapy group) after matching by propensity score. Patients who underwent cataract surgery showed greater BCVA improvements (0.36±0.24 logMAR) than patients who were treated without surgery (0.22±0.26 logMAR; P=0.036). Surgery was effective in patients with a rear projection length (RPL) less than 1.0 mm and a pretreatment BCVA worse than 0.52 logMAR. CONCLUSION: Children with small PPC and posterior lenticonus who undergo cataract surgery experience greater BCVA improvements than those managed conservatively. Certain patients presenting with a RPL less than 1.0 mm and a pretreatment BCVA of 0.52 logMAR or worse may benefit from surgery.

17.
J Periodontol ; 92(5): 738-747, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid-phase concentrated growth factor (LPCGF), a new-generation platelet concentrate, may potently stimulate human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. This study assessed the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and/or LPCGF on periodontally diseased root surfaces through their effects on PDL cells. METHODS: Dentin blocks prepared from periodontal teeth were divided into four groups and treated as follows: group I, scaling and root planning (SRP); group II, SRP + EDTA; group III, SRP + LPCGF; and group IV, SRP+EDTA + LPCGF. PDL cells were cultured on dentin blocks, and LPCGF-induced biological effects were evaluated by migration and cell adhesion/proliferation assays. Furthermore, PDL cell differentiation was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Significantly more adherent cells were observed in the EDTA, LPCGF and combination treatment groups than in the control group. Root conditioning with EDTA and/or LPCGF enhanced cell proliferation and migration more than SRP did. Compared with the control group, the combined treatment group exhibited significant upregulation of cell differentiation-related genes. Electron microscopy of the tooth surface revealed removal of the smear layer and exposed dentin holes in the EDTA-treated group but not in the control group. CONCLUSION: EDTA and LPCGF application to periodontitis-affected root surfaces forms a surface suitable for cell attachment, growth, migration and differentiation. Thus, LPCGF is promising in clinical periodontics applications. Further studies to support these results are necessary.


Assuntos
Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Raiz Dentária , Adesão Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Dentina , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
18.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(22): 1542, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313287

RESUMO

Background: Although influencing the severity of postoperative intraocular inflammation of congenital cataract, the developmental characteristics of cytokine profile in the aqueous humor during childhood had not been described. And its relationship with the inflammatory response after intraocular surgery remained unsolved. Methods: Preoperative aqueous humor samples were collected from 65 eyes of congenital cataract patients (CC group) and 13 eyes of age-related cataract patients (ARC group) from January 2015 to May 2017. The concentrations of 22 cytokines were measured. Differences in concentrations between the CC and ARC groups were described. Correlation analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multivariate linear regression were then used to investigate the dynamic changes in the cytokine profile with age and their relationships with the postoperative inflammatory response. Results: The concentrations of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-α2, interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-7 were higher in the CC group than in the ARC group, while the concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were more abundant in the ARC group (P<0.05). Within the CC group, the concentrations of EGF and IL-3 were positively correlated with age, while negative correlations were observed for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 (P<0.05). Further multivariate analysis revealed that age was an independent associated factor of MCP-1 (ß=-0.337, P<0.001). IL-3 (ß=-0.490, P=0.006) and EGF (ß=-0.415, P=0.044) were significantly correlated with the postoperative inflammatory response [evaluation of posterior capsule opacification (EPCO)] at 3 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the dynamic change in the cytokine profile of the aqueous humor in children and its relationship with the postoperative inflammatory response. These findings can serve as the foundation for further investigation into the mechanisms that underlie the early development of intraocular immunology.

19.
Nat Immunol ; 21(12): 1506-1516, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028979

RESUMO

A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations has become a hallmark of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19 pandemic, although the immunological underpinnings of diverse disease outcomes remain to be defined. We performed detailed characterization of B cell responses through high-dimensional flow cytometry to reveal substantial heterogeneity in both effector and immature populations. More notably, critically ill patients displayed hallmarks of extrafollicular B cell activation and shared B cell repertoire features previously described in autoimmune settings. Extrafollicular activation correlated strongly with large antibody-secreting cell expansion and early production of high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Yet, these patients had severe disease with elevated inflammatory biomarkers, multiorgan failure and death. Overall, these findings strongly suggest a pathogenic role for immune activation in subsets of patients with COVID-19. Our study provides further evidence that targeted immunomodulatory therapy may be beneficial in specific patient subpopulations and can be informed by careful immune profiling.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem
20.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 5063789, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934844

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the demographics and distribution of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery in patients from western China and to compare and analyze these findings with those of patients in southern China. Setting. People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Design: Clinical-based cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients undergoing cataract surgery in the People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from February 2012 to August 2019 were recruited. Preoperative keratometric data measured by performing preoperative bilateral partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster), and patient demographics were recorded and analyzed. Results: This study comprised 12,236 eyes of 7065 patients with a mean age of 64.75 ± 9.66 years, and 52.77% of the patients were female. The mean axial length was 23.14 ± 0.96 mm. Astigmatism ranged from 0 diopters (D) to 6.94 D, with a mean of 1.28 D. Corneal astigmatism was between 0.25 D and 1.25 D in 53.71% of eyes, 1.25 D or higher in 39.06% eyes, and less than 0.25 D in 7.23% of eyes. Astigmatism was with the rule (WTR) in 41.94% of the patients and against the rule (ATR) in 38.80% of patients. The mean flat and steep keratometry measurement was 43.19 ± 1.50 D and 44.24 ± 1.62 D, respectively. After matching, corneal astigmatism in western China was 1.30 ± 1.03 D, and it was significantly higher than that in southern China (0.98 ± 0.67 D, P < 0.001). After matching, the proportion of WTR astigmatism was 40.99% in western China, which was also significantly higher than the proportion (26.46%) in southern China (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Corneal astigmatism in patients before cataract surgery in western China was mainly between 0.25 D and 1.25 D. Compared with patients in southern China, patients in western China are younger, have a much higher degree of astigmatism, and have a higher proportion of WTR astigmatism.

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