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1.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104641, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical pancreatic disease. Patients with different severity levels have different clinical outcomes. With the advantages of algorithms, machine learning (ML) has gradually emerged in the field of disease prediction, assisting doctors in decision-making. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Publication time was limited from inception to 29 May 2021. Studies that have used ML to establish predictive tools for AP were eligible for inclusion. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted in accordance with the IJMEDI checklist. RESULTS: In this systematic review, 24 of 2,913 articles, with a total of 8,327 patients and 47 models, were included. The studies could be divided into five categories: 10 studies (42%) reported severity prediction; 10 studies (42%), complication prediction; 3 studies (13%), mortality prediction; 2 studies (8%), recurrence prediction; and 2 studies (8%), surgery timing prediction. ML showed great accuracy in several prediction tasks. However, most of the included studies were retrospective in nature, conducted at a single centre, based on database data, and lacked external validation. According to the IJMEDI checklist and our scoring criteria, two studies were considered to be of high quality. Most studies had an obvious bias in the quality of data preparation, validation, and deployment dimensions. CONCLUSION: In the prediction tasks for AP, ML has shown great potential in assisting decision-making. However, the existing studies still have some deficiencies in the process of model construction. Future studies need to optimize the deficiencies and further evaluate the comparability of the ML systems and model performance, so as to consequently develop high-quality ML-based models that can be used in clinical practice.

3.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(11): 696-706, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788143

RESUMO

Objective: To identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) correlated with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients using in silico analysis and laboratory validation studies. Methods: GSE68204 and GSE68204 data sets were analyzed to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs in NCRT responders using the GEO2R Limma package within the R software suite. Then we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the upregulated target miRNAs in the serum of 20 LARC patients. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of serum miRNA level on response. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed to predict the corresponding functions of the DE miRNAs. Correlation between the expression of the hub target genes and the abundance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was further investigated. Results: hsa-miR-30e and hsa-miR-210 were verified to be upregulated in tumor tissues of NCRT responders. Subsequent liquid-biopsy studies revealed that the serum level of miR-30e was associated with a 2.47-fold increased incidence of NCRT-responsive patients in comparison with nonresponders (p-value = 0.038, Mann-Whitney test). Nine hub target genes of hsa-miR-30e were enriched in pathways including immune regulation. The expression of these hub target genes was correlated with abundance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusion: In summary, hsa-miR-30e was determined to be upregulated in rectal cancer tissues of NCRT-responders. Further investigations showed that increased serum levels of hsa-miR-30e were associated with an effective NCRT response in LARC patients.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796104

RESUMO

Background: Squamous cell cancers in the hypopharynx (HP) and cervical esophagus (CE) are different diseases with different staging systems and treatment approaches. Pharyngoesophageal junction (PEJ) tumor involves both the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus simultaneously, but few reports focused on PEJ tumors. This study aimed to clarify clinical characteristics and the treatment approaches of PEJ tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the HP, PEJ, and CE were collected between January 2008 and June 2018 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. We compared different lymph node metastatic patterns of three diseases above and the survival of different tumor locations, different lymph node metastasis, and different radiotherapy approaches. Results: For HP, PEJ, and CE cancer, the upper and middle cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 85.7%, 47.1%, and 5.8%, respectively; the lower cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 36.7%, 42.9%, and 35.0%, respectively; and the mediastinal lymph node metastatic rates were 2.0%, 72.9%, and 80.6%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rates were 69.5% in the HP group, 52.0% in the PEJ group, and 69.6% in the CE group (p = 0.024). No survival differences were found between the involved-field-irradiation and elective-node-irradiation subgroups among PEJ tumors (p = 0.717 for OS and p = 0.454 for PFS, respectively). Conclusion: HP cancers had a high prevalence in all cervical lymph node metastases, while CE cancers had a lower prevalence in the cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases. PEJ cancer had the combined metastatic patterns of both HP and CE cancers. Involved field irradiation was feasible in chemoradiotherapy for PEJ cancers.

5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 171, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of comorbid hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and abdominal obesity (AO) on acute pancreatitis (AP) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of comorbid HTG and AO and discuss which is the dominant disorder. METHODS: In this study, 1219 AP patients who presented with HTG or AO were stratified into four groups: non-HTG + non-AO, HTG + non-AO, non-HTG + AO, and HTG + AO. RESULTS: The 328 patients with comorbid HTG + AO were much younger (42.29 ± 11.77), mainly male (79.57%), and had higher TG levels, larger waist circumferences, and more past medical histories than the patients in the other three non-comorbid groups (P < 0.001). The comorbidity group developed more incidences of persistent organ failure and local complications (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that AO (OR = 3.205, 95% CI = 1.570-6.544), mild HTG (OR = 2.746, 95% CI = 1.125-6.701), and moderate to very severe HTG (OR = 3.649, 95% CI = 1.403-9.493) were independent risk factors for persistent respiratory failure (P < 0.05). Age > 60 years (OR = 1.326, 95% CI = 1.047-1.679), AO (OR = 1.701, 95% CI = 1.308-2.212), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.551, 95% CI = 1.063-2.261), mild HTG (OR = 1.549, 95% CI = 1.137-2.112), and moderate to very severe HTG (OR = 2.810, 95% CI = 1.926-4.100) were independent risk factors associated with local complications (P < 0.05). Moreover, HTG seemed to be more dangerous than AO. The higher the serum TG level was, the greater the likelihood of persistent respiratory failure and local complications. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid HTG and AO will aggravate the severity and increase the incidence of local complications of AP. HTG may play a dominant role of risk in the condition of comorbidity. CHINESE CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ChiCTR2100049566 . Registered on 3rd August, 2021. Retrospectively registered, https://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=127374&htm=4 .

6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 151: 110965, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of microtia generally starts in childhood, and costal cartilage is the most widely used material for auricular reconstruction. However, multiple costal cartilage harvests lead to local cartilage defects, which may influence the growth of the hemithorax, that need close attention by doctors. In this study, morphological changes of the thorax were measured and analyzed in different follow-up groups. METHODS: Twenty-eight adolescent microtia patients underwent auricular reconstruction using 6th-8th costal cartilage. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction was performed preoperatively and during follow-up. Comparison of the hemithorax on the operated and unoperated sides was performed by measuring several thoracic parameters using Mimics software (Materialise, Belgium). The data were further analyzed by a paired-samples t-test. RESULTS: In the operated hemithorax, the costochondral junction midpoints moved medially (6th-8th), posteriorly (6th-7th) and descended less (6th-9th) with significant differences as P < 0.05 compared to the unoperated hemithorax. In addition, height differences indicated local depressions in the chest wall in the areas of cartilage defects (6th-9th, P < 0.05). Following local depression of the chest wall and migration of the ribs, the operated hemithorax also had a smaller area than the unoperated hemithorax (6th-9th, P < 0.05). The differences in the hemithorax were more significant in the midterm group (5-10 y) than in the other follow-up groups, while most parameters showed no significant differences in the long-term group (10-15 y). No significant differences were found in the modified Haller index. CONCLUSION: Multiple costal cartilage harvests caused morphological changes and asymmetry of the thorax in adolescent patients. As indicated by thoracic CT, significant changes occurred in the local area of cartilage defects, which did not affect the overall thorax. In the long term, more than 10 years after harvesting, the differences in the hemithorax between the operated and unoperated sides decreased significantly. This study provides an important reference for thoracic changes when applying auricular reconstruction in the pediatric microtia patients.

8.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 99, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lei-gong-gen formula granule (LFG) is a folk prescription derived from Zhuang nationality, the largest ethnic minority among 56 nationalities in China. It consists of three herbs, namely Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Smilax glabra Roxb, and Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. It has been widely used as health protection tea for hundreds of years to prevent hypertension in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The purpose of this study is to validate the antihypertensive effect of LFG on the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, and to further identify the effective components and anti-hypertension mechanism of LFG. METHODS: The effects of LFG on blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate were investigated in vivo using the SHR model. The levels of NO, ANG II, and ET-1 in the serum were measured, and pathological changes in the heart were examined by H&E staining. The main active components of LFG, their corresponding targets, and hypertension associated pathways were discerned through network pharmacology analysis based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID), and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM). Then the predicted results were further verified by molecular biology experiments such as RT-qPCR and western blot. Additionally, the potential active compounds were predicted by molecular docking technology, and the chemical constituents of LFG were analyzed and identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS technology. Finally, an in vitro assay was performed to investigate the protective effects of potential active compounds against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RESULTS: LFG could effectively reduce blood pressure and increase serum NO content in SHR model. Histological results showed that LFG could ameliorate pathological changes such as cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial inflammation. From network pharmacology analysis, 53 candidate active compounds of LFG were collected, which linked to 765 potential targets, and 828 hypertension associated targets were retrieved, from which 12 overlapped targets both related to candidate active compounds from LFG and hypertension were screened and used as the potential targets of LFG on antihypertensive effect. The molecular biology experiments of the 12 overlapped targets showed that LFG could upregulate the mRNA and protein expressions of NOS3 and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC (SRC) in the thoracic aorta. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway was closely related to the expression of NOS3 and SRC. Moreover, western blot results showed that LFG significantly increased the protein expression levels of PI3K and phosphorylated AKT in SHR model, suggesting that LFG may active the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway to decrease hypertension. Molecular docking study further supported that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, cedar acid, shikimic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinic acid, linalool, and histidine can be well binding with NOS3, SRC, PI3K, and AKT. UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis confirmed that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shikimic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid existed in LFG. Pre-treatment of HUVEC with nicotinic acid could alleviate the effect on cell viability induced by H2O2 and increase the NO level in cell supernatants. CONCLUSIONS: LFG can reduce the blood pressure in SHR model, which might be attributed to increasing the NO level in serum for promoting vasodilation via upregulating SRC expression level and activating the PI3K-AKT-NOS3 signaling pathway. Nicotinic acid might be the potential compound for LFG antihypertensive effect.

9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 363, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and effective ocular screening may help to eliminate treatable eye disorders. The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study (LCES) revealed the particular prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in grade one schoolchildren (starting age of 6 years old) in Lhasa. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional part of school-based cohort study. One thousand nine hundred forty-three children were enrolled (median age, 6.78 years, range, 5.89 to 10.32). Each child underwent general and ocular examinations, including logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy evaluation. Multivariate and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the association between refractive error with gender and ethnics. RESULTS: The prevalence of visual impairment (logMAR visual acuity ≥0.3 in the better-seeing eye) of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 12.2, 11.7 and 2.7%, respectively. Refractive error presented in 177 (78.0%) out of 227 children with bilateral visual impairment. Myopia (spherical equivalent refractor [SER] ≤ - 0.50 diopter [D] in either eye) was present in 4.7% children when measured after cycloplegic autorefraction. Hyperopia (SER ≥ + 2.00 D) affected 12.1% children. Hyperopia was significantly associated with female gender (P<0.001). Astigmatism (cylinder value ≤ - 0.75 D) was present in 44.8% children. In multivariate regression and correlation analysis, SER had no significant difference between ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study is the first school-based cohort study to reveal the prevalence and pattern of refractive error and visual impairment in Lhasa. Effective strategies such as corrective spectacles should be considered to alleviate treatable visual impairment.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
10.
Neuroscience ; 480: 65-78, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695538

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequently diagnosed neurodegenerative disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between microbiota composition in important mucosal interfaces (oral, nasal, and intestinal) and PD. Sequencing was undertaken of the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the microbiome from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and gut of 91 PD patients and 91 healthy controls. Significant differences were found in microbiota composition in the oral cavity and gut, but not the nasal cavity, between PD patients and healthy controls after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). More genera in the oral cavity were significantly positively correlated with clinical characteristics, such as the HAMA and HAMD rating scales. The taxa c_Clostridia, o_Clostridiales, and f_Ruminococcaceae in the gut microbiota were associated with weight and MMSE score. Furthermore, as a result of dysbiosis, there was an enrichment of ion channel-, oxidative phosphorylation-, and carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways in the oral cavity and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis- and propanoate metabolism-related pathways in the intestine. Changes in these pathways can influence metabolism and inflammation, thereby contributing to PD pathogenesis. In addition, several subnetworks containing differentially abundant microbiota in the oral cavity and gut samples from PD patients may regulate microbial composition and function in PD. Overall, our results indicate that oral and gut dysbiosis may affect PD progression and provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of PD and identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease.

11.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 52, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615551

RESUMO

Despite the widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in clinical practice, there are a lot of challenges. We conducted a secondary analysis of 129 malaria RDT data from rounds 5-8 of the World Health Organization (WHO) product testing summary and discuss the causes of false-negative (FN) results with a focus on low parasite density, improper RDT storage, operation and interpretation, and plasmodium falciparum with a pfhrp2/3 gene deletion. The results demonstrated that the malaria RDTs currently commercially available might cause FN results in practice.

12.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 131, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial dysfunction caused by sepsis (SIMD) leads to high mortality in critically ill patients. We investigated the function and mechanism of long non-coding RNA MAPKAPK5-AS1 (lncRNA MAPKAPK-AS1) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation response in vivo and in vitro. METHOD: Male SD rats were utilized for in vivo experiments. Rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2) were employed for in vitro experiments. Western blotting was employed to measure protein expression, and RT-PCR was performed to measure mRNA expression of inflammation factors. TUNEL and flow cytometry were carried out to evulate cell apoptosis. RESULT: The results showed that the expression of MAPKAPK5-AS1 was increased, while the expression of miR-124-3p was decreased in the inflammatory damage induced by LPS in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of MAPKAPK5-AS1 reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis and inflammation response, while overexpression of miR-124-3p weakened the effects of MAPKAPK5-AS1 knockdown on LPS-induced cell apoptosis and inflammation response. Moreover, miR-124-3p was identified as a downstream miRNA of MAPKAPK5-AS1, and E2F3 was a target of miR-214-3p. MAPKAPK5-AS1 knockdown increased the expression of miR-124-3p, while miR-124-3p overexpression reduced the expression of MAPKAPK5-AS1. In addition, miR-124-3p was found to downregulate E2F3 expression in H9C2 cells. CONCLUSION: MAPKAPK5-AS1/miR-124-3p/E2F3 axis regulates LPS-related H9C2 cell apoptosis and inflammatory response.

13.
Korean J Radiol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of functional evaluation of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 119 patients with TMD (23 male and 96 female; mean age ± standard deviation, 41 ± 15 years; 58 bilateral and 61 unilateral involvements for a total of 177 joints) and 20 healthy volunteers (9 male and 11 female; 40 ± 13 years; 40 joints) were included in this prospective study. Based on DTI of the jaw in the resting state, the diffusion parameters, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), λ1, λ2, and λ3 of the superior and inferior heads of the LPM (SHLPM and IHLPM) were measured. Patients with TMD with normal disc position (ND), anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADWR), and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADWOR) were compared. RESULTS: Patients with TMD overall, and ADWR and ADWOR subgroups had significantly higher ADC, λ1, λ2, and λ3 in both the SHLPM and IHLPM than those in volunteers (p < 0.05 for all), whereas the ND subgroup only had significantly higher ADC and λ1 (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, significant differences in FA in the SHLPM and IHLPM were found between volunteers and ADWOR (p = 0.014 and p = 0.037, respectively). Among the three TMD subgroups, except for λ3 and FA in the ADWR subgroup, ADWR and ADWOR subgroups had significantly higher ADC, λ1, λ2, and λ3 and lower FA than those in the ND group (p < 0.050). There was no significant difference in diffusion variables between ADWR and ADWOR. In ADWOR, the osteoarthritis group had significantly higher λ3 and lower FA values in the IHLPM than those in the non-osteoarthritis group. CONCLUSION: DTI successfully detected functional changes in the LPM in patients with TMD. The unsynchronized diffusivity changes in the LPM in different subgroups of TMD signified the possibility of using diffusion parameters as indicators to identify the severity of LPM hyperfunction at various stages of TMD.

14.
Opt Lett ; 46(18): 4434-4437, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525015

RESUMO

We demonstrate a circularly polarized optical microscope (POM) by incorporating a hole-patterned electrode (HPE) liquid crystal (LC) lens fabricated by photoalignment. The focal plane is controlled by voltages on the HPE LC lens with a tuning range of 2.2 mm without any mechanical movement. The diopter can be controlled from 0 to -5.0D, and the wavefront optical path difference is less than 0.25λ for our proposed HPE LC lens. Such a low aberration is obtained, because the LC directors are well aligned along with the axially symmetrical electrical field, and there is no observed twist deformation of the LC directors. Finally, we applied our circularly polarized POM to inspect the reflectance properties of several beetles, and we find that the "Chrysochroa toulgoeti" beetle exhibits right circularly polarized reflectance from some small areas on its wings.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 50(39): 13801-13814, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518857

RESUMO

The green treatment of dye wastewater has always been a research hotspot in the environmental field. The photocatalytic technology is considered to be a simple and effective strategy to remove dyes in wastewater. A new type of NiWO4/WO3 Z-scheme heterojunction microspheres were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method and impregnation-calcination process. The crystal structure, microscopic morphology, optical and electrochemical properties of the samples were systematically characterized. The photocatalytic activity of methylene blue (MB) was studied by visible light irradiation. The results show that the direct Z-scheme heterojunction formed by NiWO4/WO3 effectively reduces the transfer resistance of photogenerated carriers and improves the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The degradation rates of NiWO4/WO3-4 Z-scheme heterojunction microspheres to MB dye are 1.8 and 3.2 times higher than that of pure WO3·2H2O and WO3 microspheres, respectively. Combined with the Mott-Schottky curve and the active species capture experiments, a possible Z-scheme photogenerated carrier transfer mechanism is proposed. This study provides a method for the development and design of Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalysts in the field of wastewater purification.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(37): 15233-15242, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514797

RESUMO

Taking advantage of cancer cells' endogenous characters, the responsive activation of DNA nanomachines has achieved great success in tumor therapy. Combining with extra stimuli such as external light irradiation provided spatiotemporal control of DNA nanomachine activation. However, specific activation at the cellular level is still challenging considering the macroscopic-scale exposure area of usual light sources. DNA logic gates located at the cell membrane contributed to cellular specificity, but the free diffusion of input DNA strands during the operation process would impair efficiency and result in side effects to circumjacent normal cells in solid tumors. Here we design a transmembrane DNA logical computation strategy to activate a DNA nanomachine only in cancer cells from a complex solid tumor microenvironment. The DNA nanomachine multishell UCNPs-DNA is prepared by modifying DNA strands on upconversion nanoparticles. LA-apt, a DNA strand anchoring to a cancer cell membrane overexpressed receptor, and intracellular miRNA-21 served as inputs 1 and 2, respectively. Hybridization with input 1 at the cell membrane not only exposes the miRNA-21 recognition region at the DNA nanomachine, but also delivers it into cancer cells. The cascade hybridization with intracellular input 2 completes the "AND" gate operation and releases a DNA strand L2 as output. L2 acts as the trigger to operate the DNA nanomachine and correspondingly activates the photosensitizer Rose Bengal for reactive oxygen species generation. Through the "AND" gate operation of the DNA nanomachine across the cancer cell membrane, highly precise therapy only to cancer cells is achieved in a complex solid tumor microenvironment, which could become a promising modality for precise therapy of solid tumors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the distribution of stereoacuity and to examine its determinants in school-age children in Tibetan plateau, Southwest China. METHODS: This is the cross-sectional part of a school-based cohort study of 7-year-old children in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, Southwest China. Children in first year of primary school were invited to undergo a comprehensive examination, including height, weight, visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction (1% cyclopentolate), anterior segment, cover and uncover test, and stereoacuity (Titmus Stereo Test). RESULTS: A total of 1833 eligible subjects were included, with a mean age of 6.82 ± 0.46 years. Mean stereoacuity was 1.78 ± 0.21 in log units (median: 60 arcsec). Children with stereoacuity equal to 40 arcsec and stereoacuity worse than 100 arcsec accounted for 29.24% and 8.18% of the cohort, respectively. Tibetan ethnicity (OR = 1.98; 95%CI, 1.30-3.03), astigmatism (OR = 1.65; 95%CI, 1.26-2.17), strabismus (OR = 2.92; 95%CI, 1.38-6.18), and amblyopia (OR = 3.77; 95%CI, 1.14-12.49) were risk factors for normal stereoacuity (= 40 arcsec). Shorter height, younger age, strabismus, and worse BCVA (P < 0.05 for all) were both related to lower stereoacuity in Spearman correlation analysis and associated with lower stereoacuity in multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Stereoacuity maturation does not appear fully completed in 7-year-old children, while few children present stereoacuity worse than 100 arcsec (8.18%). Lower stereoacuity was associated with younger age, shorter height, strabismus, and lower best-corrected visual acuity.

18.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211033743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have published the association between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the outcome of cervical cancer. However, the prognostic value in cervical cancer remains controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prognostic functions of MMP expression in cervical cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was conducted to identify the eligible studies according to defined selection and excluding criteria and analyzed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fixed and random effects models were evaluated through the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and progress-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: A total of 18 eligible studies including 1967 patients were analyzed for prognostic value. Totally 16 selected studies including 21 tests were relevant to the cervical cancer OS, 4 studies focused on RFS, and 1 study on PFS. The combined pooled HRs and 95% CIs of OS were calculated with random-effects models (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.01-2.65, P = .000). In the subgroup analysis for OS, there was no heterogeneity in MMP-2 (I2 = .0%, P = .880), MMP-1 (I2 = .0%, P = .587), and MMP-14 (I2 = 28.3%, P = .248). In MMP-7 and MMP-9, the heterogeneities were obvious (I2 = 99.2% (P = .000) and I2 = 77.9% (P = .000), respectively). The pooled HRs and 95% CIs of RFS were calculated with fixed-effects models (HR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.38-3.58, P = .001) and PFS (HR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.14-4.58, P = .035). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that MMP overexpression was associated with shorter OS and RFS in cervical cancer patients. It suggested that MMP overexpression might be a poor prognostic marker in cervical cancer. Research Registry Registration Number: reviewregistry 1159.

19.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 190, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535628

RESUMO

This study is the first to explore the potential associations among allergic conjunctivitis (AC), air pollution, and meteorological conditions in Northeast China. Data of meteorology, ambient atmospheric pollutants, and the incidence of allergic conjunctivitis (IAC) in prefecture-level cities between the years 2014 and 2018 are analyzed. The results show an increasing trend in the AC of average growth rate per annum 7.6%, with the highest incidence in the provincial capitals. The IAC is positively correlated with atmospheric pollutants (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) and meteorological factors (i.e., air temperature and wind speed), but negatively correlated with relative humidity. These results suggest that the IAC is directly proportional to pollution level and climatic conditions, and also the precedence of air pollution. We have further obtained the threshold values of atmospheric pollutants concentration and meteorological factors, a turning point above which more AC may be induced. Compared with the air quality standard advised by China and the World Health Organization (WHO), both thresholds of PM10 (70 µg m-3) and PM2.5 (45 µg m-3) are higher than current standards and pose a less environmental risk for the IAC. SO2 threshold (23 µg m-3) is comparable to the WHO standard and significantly lower than that of China's, indicating greater environmental risks in China. Both thresholds of NO2 (27 µg m-3) and O3 (88 µg m-3) are below current standards, indicating that they are major environmental risk factors for the IAC. Our findings highlight the importance of atmospheric environmental protection and reference for health-based amendment.

20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113806, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517305

RESUMO

Poor selectivity, potential systemic toxicity and drug resistance are the main challenges associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. MCT1 and MCT4 and LAT1 play vital roles in tumour metabolism and growth by taking up nutrients and are thus potential targets for tumour therapy. An increasing number of studies have shown the feasibility of including these transporters as components of tumour-targeting therapy. Here, we summarize the recent progress in MCT1-, MCT4-and LAT1-based therapeutic strategies. First, protein structures, expression, relationships with cancer, and substrate characteristics are introduced. Then, different drug targeting and delivery strategies using these proteins have been reviewed, including designing protein inhibitors, prodrugs and nanoparticles. Finally, a dual targeted strategy is discussed because these proteins exert a synergistic effect on tumour proliferation. This article concentrates on tumour treatments targeting MCT1, MCT4 and LAT1 and delivery techniques for improving the antitumour effect. These innovative tactics represent current state-of-the-art developments in transporter-based antitumour drugs.

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