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1.
Exp Cell Res ; 408(2): 112858, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600901

RESUMO

In contrast to conventional cancer treatment, in personalized cancer medicine each patient receives a specific treatment. The response to therapy, clinical outcomes, and tumor behavior such as metastases, tumor progression, carcinogenesis can be significantly affected by the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME) and interpersonal differences. Therefore, using native tumor microenvironment mimicking models is necessary to improving personalized cancer therapy. Both in vitro 2D cell culture and in vivo animal models poorly recapitulate the heterogeneous tumor (immune) microenvironments of native tumors. The development of 3D culture models, native tumor microenvironment mimicking models, made it possible to evaluate the chemoresistance of tumor tissue and the functionality of drugs in the presence of cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in a 3D construction. Various personalized tumor models have been designed to preserving the native tumor microenvironment, including patient-derived tumor xenografts and organoid culture strategies. In this review, we will discuss the patient-derived organoids as a native tumor microenvironment mimicking model in personalized cancer therapy. In addition, we will also review the potential and the limitations of organoid culture systems for predicting patient outcomes and preclinical drug screening. Finally, we will discuss immunotherapy drug screening in tumor organoids by using microfluidic technology.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14636, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282208

RESUMO

Finding effective and objective biomarkers to inform the diagnosis of schizophrenia is of great importance yet remains challenging. Relatively little work has been conducted on multi-biological data for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In this cross-sectional study, we extracted multiple features from three types of biological data, including gut microbiota data, blood data, and electroencephalogram data. Then, an integrated framework of machine learning consisting of five classifiers, three feature selection algorithms, and four cross validation methods was used to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Our results show that the support vector machine classifier without feature selection using the input features of multi-biological data achieved the best performance, with an accuracy of 91.7% and an AUC of 96.5% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that multi-biological data showed better discriminative capacity for patients with schizophrenia than single biological data. The top 5% discriminative features selected from the optimal model include the gut microbiota features (Lactobacillus, Haemophilus, and Prevotella), the blood features (superoxide dismutase level, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil count), and the electroencephalogram features (nodal local efficiency, nodal efficiency, and nodal shortest path length in the temporal and frontal-parietal brain areas). The proposed integrated framework may be helpful for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing biomarkers for schizophrenia using multi-biological data.

3.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(12): 4191-4203, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324119

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is considered as one of the most aggressive tumor types, representing over 45,750 mortality cases annually in the USA solely. The aggressive nature and late identification of pancreatic cancer, combined with the restrictions of existing chemotherapeutics, present the mandatory need for the advancement of novel treatment systems. Ongoing reports have shown an important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the initiation, migration, and metastasis of malignancies. Besides, abnormal transcriptional levels of miRNAs have regularly been related with etiopathogenesis of pancreatic malignancy, underlining the conceivable utilization of miRNAs in the management of pancreatic disease patients. In this review article, we give a concise outline of molecular pathways involved in etiopathogenesis of pancreatic cancer patients as well as miRNA implications in pancreatic cancer patients. Ensuing sections describe the involvement of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of pancreatic cancer patients. The involvement of miRNAs in the chemoresistance of pancreatic cancers was also discussed. End area portrays the substance of survey with future headings.

4.
Gels ; 7(2)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066884

RESUMO

Sodium hydroxide was used as a base catalyst to reduce the flammability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aerogels. The base-modified aerogels exhibited significantly enhanced compressive moduli, likely resulting in decreased gallery spacing and increased numbers of "struts" in their structures. The onset of decomposition temperature decreased for the PVA aerogels in the presence of the base, which appears to hinder the polymer pyrolysis process, leading instead to the facile formation of dense char. Cone calorimetry testing showed a dramatic decrease in heat release when the base was added. The results indicate that an unexpected base-catalyzed dehydration occurs at fire temperatures, which is the opposite of the chemistry normally observed under typical synthesis conditions.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033245

RESUMO

A small percentage of data obtained from animal/2D culture models can be translated to humans. Therefore, there is a need to using native tumour microenvironment mimicking models to improve preclinical screening and reduce this attrition rate. For this purpose, currently, the utilization of organoids is expanding. Tumour organoids can recapitulate tumour microenvironment that is including cancer cells and non-neoplastic host components. Indeed, tumour organoids, both phenotypically and genetically, resemble the tumour tissue that originated from it. The unique properties of the tumour microenvironment can significantly affect drug response and cancer progression. In this review, we will discuss about various organoid culture strategies for modelling the tumour immune microenvironment, their applications and advantages in cancer research such as testing cancer immunotherapeutics, developing novel approaches for personalized medicine, testing drug toxicity, drug screening, study cancer initiation and progression, and we will also review the limitations of organoid culture systems.

6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 630943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681168

RESUMO

The applications of hydrogels in biomedical field has been since multiple decades. Discoveries in biology and chemistry render this platform endowed with much engineering potentials and growing continuously. Novel approaches in constructing these materials have led to the production of complex hybrid hydrogels systems that can incorporate both natural and synthetic polymers and other functional moieties for mediated cell response, tunable release kinetic profiles, thus they are used and research for diverse biomedical applications. Recent advancement in this field has established promising techniques for the development of biorelevant materials for construction of hybrid hydrogels with potential applications in the delivery of cancer therapeutics, drug discovery, and re-generative medicines. In this review, recent trends in advanced hybrid hydrogels systems incorporating nano/microstructures, their synthesis, and their potential applications in tissue engineering and anticancer drug delivery has been discussed. Examples of some new approaches including click reactions implementation, 3D printing, and photopatterning for the development of these materials has been briefly discussed. In addition, the application of biomolecules and motifs for desired outcomes, and tailoring of their transport and kinetic behavior for achieving desired outcomes in hybrid nanogels has also been reviewed.

7.
J Med Chem ; 64(1): 871-889, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332136

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical component of innate immunity, which defends internal and external threats. However, inappropriate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induces various human diseases. In this study, we discovered and synthesized a series of tetrahydroquinoline inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammasome. Among these analogues, compound 6 exhibited optimal NLRP3 inhibitory activity. In vitro studies indicated that compound 6 directly bound to the NACHT domain of NLRP3 but not to protein pyrin domain (PYD) or LRR domain, inhibited NLRP3 ATPase activity, and blocked ASC oligomerization, thereby inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Compound 6 specifically inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but had no effect on the activation of NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasomes. Furthermore, in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, compound 6 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Therefore, our study provides a potent NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, which deserves further structural optimization as a novel therapeutic candidate for NLRP3-driven diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolinas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Desenho de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Quinolinas/metabolismo , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Oncol Lett ; 20(6): 377, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154775

RESUMO

Approximately 500,000 new head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cases are detected every year around the world, and its incidence ranks sixth among all cancer types globally. Among these cases, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are HNSCC subtypes with high incidence rates, especially in China. The present study examines the association between the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) mRNA and protein expression and clinical parameters in HNSCC. The two most common types (oral and larynx) of HNSCC were selected for subgroup analyses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect APOL1 protein expression levels in HNSCC clinical specimens. It was demonstrated that APOL1 protein expression in 221 cases of HNSCC was higher compared with that in normal tissues. Consistent upregulation of APOL1 protein was also found in subgroups of OSCC and LSCC. Through mining the ArrayExpress, The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus databases, microarrays and RNA sequencing data for HNSCC were retrieved, which were used to analyze APOL1 mRNA expression levels. The results showed that APOL1 expression was higher in both OSCC and LSCC subtypes, as well as in HNSCC, compared with that in non-cancerous squamous epithelium. The summary receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that APOL1 had potential as a diagnostic biomarker for HNSCC, OSCC and LSCC. Thus, upregulation of APOL1 may contribute to the tumorigenesis of HNSCC.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179959

RESUMO

Background: The expression level and clinical significance of integrin subunit beta 4 (ITGB4) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain unclear. Materials and Methods: Expression of ITGB4 in HNSCC tissues were evaluated by calculating standard mean differences (SMDs) based on gene chips, RNA-seq, and immunohistochemistry data (n = 2330) from multiple sources. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to detect the ability of ITGB4 to distinguish HNSCC from non-HNSCC samples. The relationship between the expression level of ITGB4 and clinical parameters was evaluated by calculating SMDs. Results: Identical results of mRNA and protein levels indicated remarkable up-expression of ITGB4 in HNSCC tissues. Further ROC curves showed that ITGB4 could distinguish HNSCC from non-HNSCC samples. Genetic alteration analysis of ITGB4 in HNSCC indicated that overexpression of ITGB4 in HNSCC was likely not owing to genetic alteration of ITGB4. Moreover, ITGB4 overexpression level may be correlated with clinical T stage. Conclusion: ITGB4 likely plays an essential role in HNSCC occurrence based on our study and its potential diagnostic value is worthy of further exploration in the future.

10.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 576348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042977

RESUMO

Wounds present serious medical complications and their healing requires strategies that promote angiogenesis, deposition of collagen as well as re-epithelialization of wounds. Currently used conventional wound healing strategies have become less effective due to various issues associated with them. Thus, novel strategies are needed to be developed for early and effective healing of wounds. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), formed by linking of metal ions through organic bridging ligands, are highly tunable hybrid materials and have attracted more considerable scientific attention due to their charming and prominent properties, such as abundant pore structures and multiple functionalities. Surface engineering of MOFs with unique ligands can overcome issues associated with conventional wound healing methods, thus resulting in early and effective wound healing. This review has been undertaken to elaborate wound healing, and the use of surface engineered MOFs for effective and rapid wound healing. The process of wound healing will be discussed followed by a detailed review of recent literature for summarizing applications of surface engineered MOFs for wound healing. MOFs wound healing will be discussed in terms of their use as antibacterial agents, therapeutic delivery vehicles, and dressing systems in wound healing.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041784

RESUMO

Our previous studies showed that Astragaloside IV derivative (LS-102) exhibited potent protective function against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but little is known about the mechanisms. Mitochondrial fission regulated by dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) is a newly recognized determinant of mitochondrial function. This study aimed to investigate the protection of LS-102 on mitochondrial structure and function by regulating the activity of Drp1 using models of H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury induced by hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R), and rat heart injury induced by I/R. The results showed that LS-102 significantly decreased apoptosis, levels of ROS, CK, LDH, and calcium, upregulating MMP, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cardiomyocytes during I/R injury. Furthermore, LS-102 prevented I/R-induced mitochondrial fission by decreasing Drp1's mitochondrial localization through decreasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 (Drp1Ser616) and increasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 (Drp1Ser637) in H9c2 cells. Importantly, we also robustly confirmed Drp1Ser616 as a novel GSK-3ß phosphorylation site. GSK-3ß-mediated phosphorylation at Drp1Ser616 may be associated with mitochondrial fission during I/R of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, LS-102 exerts cardio protection against I/R-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial fission via blocking GSK-3ß-mediated phosphorylation at Ser616 of Drp1.

12.
Organogenesis ; 16(4): 113-125, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799735

RESUMO

Bone defects or fractures generally heal in the absence of major interventions due to the high regenerative capacity of bone tissue. However, in situations of severe/large bone defects, these orchestrated regeneration mechanisms are impaired. With advances in modern medicine, natural and synthetic bio-scaffolds from bioceramics and polymers that support bone growth have emerged and gained intense research interest. In particular, scaffolds that recapitulate the molecular cues of extracellular signals, particularly growth factors, offer potential as therapeutic bone biomaterials. The current challenges for these therapies include the ability to engineer materials that mimic the biological and mechanical properties of the real bone tissue matrix, whilst simultaneously supporting bone vascularization. In this review, we discuss the very recent innovative strategies in bone biomaterial technology, including those of endogenous biomaterials and cell/drug delivery systems that promote bone regeneration. We present our understanding of their current value and efficacy, and the future perspectives for bone regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Regeneração Óssea , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte , Biomimética , Cerâmica/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Medicina Regenerativa
13.
Cancer Biomark ; 29(1): 111-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623386

RESUMO

Interleukin 24 (IL24) has been documented to be highly expressed in several cancers, but its role in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains unclarified. In this study, to reveal the function and its clinical significance of IL24 in LSCC, multiple detecting methods were used comprehensively. IL24 protein expression was remarkably higher in LSCC (n= 49) than non-cancerous laryngeal controls (n= 26) as detected by in-house immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the IL24 mRNA expression was also evaluated based on high throughput data from Gene Expression Omnibus, The Cancer Genome Atlas, ArrayExpress and Oncomine databases. Consistently with the protein level, IL24 mRNA expression level was also predominantly upregulated in LSCC (n= 172) compared to non-cancerous laryngeal tissues (n= 81) with the standard mean difference (SMD) being 1.25 and the area under the curve (AUC) of the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) being 0.89 (95% CI = 0.86-0.92). Furthermore, the related genes of IL24 and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of LSCC were intersected and sent for Gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) analyses. In the GO annotation, the top terms of biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF) were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular matrix, cytokine activity, respectively. The top pathway of KEGG was ECM-receptor interaction. The PPI networks indicated the top hub genes of IL24-related genes in LSCC were SERPINE1, TGFB1, MMP1, MMP3, CSF2, and ITGA5. In conclusion, upregulating expression of IL24 may enhance the occurrence of LSCC, which owns prospect diagnostic ability and therapeutic significance in LSCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , MicroRNAs , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922854, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide, with low 5-year survival rate. To identify novel prognostic markers for OSCC and determine the immune and stromal landscape of OSCC, a risk signature for OSCC patients was constructed in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immune and stromal scores for OSCC samples from the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal were computed to delineate the tumor microenvironment landscape of oral cancer based on the Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumours using Expression data algorithm. An immune score-based risk signature was constructed by combining random forest and support vector machine methods. Correlation analysis of risk signature gene expression and immune cell infiltration was conducted, and the distinguishing power of individual signature genes was evaluated by analyzing receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Differentially enriched pathways between high and low risk groups were investigated via gene set variation analysis. ROC curves were plotted for signature genes to examine their ability to distinguish the recurrence and survival status of OSCC patients from GSE84846. RESULTS An immune score-related risk signature composed of ARMH1, F2RL2, AC004687.1, COL6A5, AC008750.1, RAB19, CRLF2, GRIP2, and FAM162B performed well in the prognostic stratification of OSCC patients and could effectively distinguish their survival status. Lists of pathways, including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and cell adhesion molecules displayed remarkable differential enrichment between high and low risk OSCC patients. CONCLUSIONS An immune score-based risk signature constructed presently may be useful to decide appropriate treatment options for individual OSCC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro , RNA-Seq , Curva ROC , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Appl Opt ; 59(6): 1711-1714, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225676

RESUMO

In this paper, we proposed a method for producing the azimuthally polarized vector beam experimentally. The experimental setup includes two of the same axicons and one annular glass cylinder. The top angles of the two axicons were placed facing each other and the annular cylinder was set among the two axicons. One circular polarized beam was passed through the first axicon, the annular cylinder, and the second axicon in turn. When the beam incident on the inner surface of the annular cylindrical satisfied the Brewster angle, we obtained the azimuthally polarized beam for the reflected light from the annular cylindrical that only contains the $s$s-polarization component. We have derived that the azimuthally polarized vector beam has the helical phase factor with the helical phase factor of ${\exp}( - {\rm i}\varphi )$exp(-iφ) for the left circularly polarized beam incident and ${\exp}({\rm i}\varphi )$exp(iφ) for the right circularly polarized beam incident.

16.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(2): 152785, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889588

RESUMO

The relationship between integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) expression and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains unclarified. The object of the present study was to explore the clinical significance and potential molecular mechanism of ITGB4 in LSCC. The protein level of ITGB4 was significantly higher in 46 LSCC patients than in 26 non-LSCC tissues detected by in-house immunohistochemistry. Consistently, ITGB4 mRNA level was also greatly upregulated based on microarray and RNA-seq data (standard mean difference, SMD = 1.62, 95 % CI: 1.23-2.00). And the area under curves (AUC) of summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) was 0.87 (95 % CI: 0.84-0.90) based on 172 cases of LSCC and 59 cases of non-cancerous controls. Ninety genes were intersected by the ITGB4 related genes and LSCC differential expressed genes (DEGs) from all available microarray and RNA-seq datasets. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the top terms of biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF) for the 90 ITGB4 related DEGs were extracellular matrix organization, basement membrane and extracellular matrix structural constituent, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that ITGB4 related DEGs mainly participated in the pathways of ECM-receptor interaction, Focal adhesion and Small cell lung cancer. Moreover, the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network indicated that ITGA3, ITGA5, ITGB4, MET, LAMA3, and COL4A1 might be the core genes of LSCC development related to ITGB4. In conclusion, high ITGB4 expression may lead to the occurrence and development of LSCC via various signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Integrina beta4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Integrina beta4/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(1): 1-10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602549

RESUMO

Microcarriers are 100- to 300-micron support matrices that permit the growth of adherent cells in bioreactor systems. They have a larger surface area to volume ratio in comparison to single cell monolayers, enabling cost-effective cell production and expansion. Microcarriers are composed of a solid matrix that must be separated from expanded cells during downstream processing stages. The detachment method is chosen on the basis of several factors like cell type, microcarrier surface chemistry, cell confluency and degree of aggregation. The development of microcarriers with a range of physiochemical properties permit controlled cell and protein associations that hold utility for novel therapeutics. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microcarrier cell culture technology. We also discuss its significance as an ex vivo research tool and the therapeutic potential of newly designed microcarrier systems in vivo.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Microesferas , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/tendências
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111844, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706640

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality. Most of them are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). KRASG12C gene mutation is an important driving factor for NSCLC. However, the development of high-affinity inhibitors targeting KRASG12C mutants remains a daunting challenge. Here, we report the design and development of a series of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides containing d-amino acids to mimic the alpha helix of SOS1. D-hydrocarbon-stapled peptides maintain good alpha helix structure and bind to KRASG12C with high affinity. Subsequent anti-proliferation experiments indicated that D-hydrocarbon-stapled peptide 5 inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC H358 cells carrying KRASG12C. However, it showed no significant anti-proliferative effect on KRASG12S-positive A549 cells, suggesting that peptide 5 selectively inhibits KRASG12C-driven tumor cells. D-hydrocarbon-stapled peptide 5 could also cause the cell cycle of H358 cells to arrest in the G2/M phase and induce apoptosis. No significant cell arrest and apoptosis were observed in A549 cells treated by peptide 5. In summary, the introduction of d-amino acids could improve the affinity and cell selectivity of hydrocarbon peptides. We hope that peptides containing D-form amino acids can provide strategies for further optimization of the KRASG12C/SOS1 inhibitor.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína SOS1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Aminoácidos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Proteína SOS1/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 568585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442381

RESUMO

The Yi nationality herbal formula Wosi is used in China as a folk medicine to treat arthritis and related diseases. Despite its widespread use, the active ingredients, and pharmacological mechanisms are not performed. This is the first time to identify the active compounds from Wosi with the aim at providing the potential effect of Wosi and exploring its underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism in monosodium urate crystals (MSU)-induced arthritis rats. In this study, anti-hyperuricemia effect was assessed by reducing the serum uric acid levels and increasing uric acid excretion in the urine for the hyperuricemia rat model. Wosi significantly suppressed the degree of joint swelling and improved the symptoms of inflammation induced by MSU crystals. The inhibition of IL-2, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, and IL-6 secretion and IL-10 increase in the serum were also observed. This study also focuses on the screening of the main compounds from Wosi against cyclooxygenase for anti-inflammatory properties using molecular docking. The result showed 3-O-[α-L-pyran rhamnose(1-3)-ß-D-pyran glucuronic acid]- oleanolic acid, 3-O-(ß-D-pyran glucuronic acid)-oleanolic acid-28-O-ß-D-pyran glucoside, and 3-O-[α-L-pyran rhamnose(1-3)-ß-D-pyran glucuronic acid]-oleanolic acid-28-O-ß-D-pyran glucoside with a higher binding affinity for COX-2 than COX-1 which indicated relatively higher interaction than COX-1. The preferential selectivity toward inhibiting COX-2 enzyme over COX-1 of three compounds from Wosi were evaluated using in-vitro cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1/2) inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the down-regulated protein expression of COX-2 and VCAM-1 in synovial tissue sections from ankle joints of experiments rats were confirmed by immunohistochemistry analysis after the Wosi treatment. In conclusion, three oleanolic acid glycosides were implied as mainly efficient compounds in Yi nationality herbal formula Wosi for arthritis therapy via selectively influencing COX-2 and VCAM-1 signaling.

20.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(12): 739-749, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589381

RESUMO

The process of metastasis is characterized by the shedding of tumor cells into the bloodstream, where they are transported to other parts of the body to seed new tumors. These cells, known as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), have the potential to reveal much about an individual cancer case, and theoretically can aid in the prediction of outcomes and design of precision treatments. Recent advances in technology now allow for the robust and reproducible characterization of CTCs from a simple blood draw. Both the number of circulating cells and important molecular characteristics correlated with clinical phenotypes such as drug resistance can be obtained and used for real-time prognostic analysis. Molecular characterization can provide a snapshot of the activity of the main tumor (serving as a "liquid biopsy") and early warnings concerning changes such as the development of resistance, and aid in predicting the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches for treatment optimization. Herein, the authors review the current clinical use of CTCs as prognostic biomarkers for several different cancers. The quantification of CTCs can lead to more accurate staging and decision making regarding options such as adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
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