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1.
Gene ; 764: 145100, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877748

RESUMO

Adipocyte differentiation is an essential part of adipose tissue development, and is closely related to obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study, we found that the expression of PPARγ, RUVBL2 and Adiponectin were concurrently obviously increased in the 5th-7th day of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. PPARγ overexpression or the PPARγ activator facilitated Adiponectin trafficking and secretion and upregulated RUVBL2 expression as well as AS160 phosphorylation during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Consistently RUVBL2 overexpression also enhanced the polymerization and secretion of Adiponectin, in contrast, RUVBL2 knockdown reduced Adiponectin secretion. Further, PPARγ significantly enhanced RUVBL2 promoter activity and transcription. The progressive deletions and mutations of RUVBL2 promoter for PPARγ binding sites suggested that the PPARγ binding motif situated at -804/-781 bp is an essential component required for RUVBL2 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays determined that PPARγ can directly interact with the RUVBL2 promoter DNA. Taken together, these data suggest that PPARγ promotes the expression, polymerization and secretion of Adiponectin by activating RUVBL2 transcriptionally, which accelerates 3T3-L1 cell differentiation.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Multimerização Proteica/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
2.
Adv Mater ; : e2004401, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169447

RESUMO

Solar evaporation through a photothermal porous material provides a feasible and sustainable method for water remediation. Several photothermal materials have been developed to enhance solar evaporation efficiency. However, a critical limitation of current photothermal materials is their inability to separate water from the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in wastewater. Here, a microstructured ultrathin polymeric membrane that enables freshwater separation from VOC pollutants by solar evaporation with a VOC removal rate of 90%, is reported. The different solution-diffusion behaviors of water and VOCs with polymeric membranes facilitate their separation. Moreover, owing to increased light absorption, enlarged liquid-air interface, and shortened mass transfer distance, the microstructured and ultrathin configuration of the membrane helps to balance the tradeoff between permeation selectivity and water production capacity. The membrane is not only effective for evaporation of simulated volatile pollutants in a prototype, but can also intercept complex volatile organic contaminants in natural water sources and produce water that meets drinking-water standards. With practical demonstration and satisfactory purification performance, this work paves the way for practical application of solar evaporation for effective water remediation.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4751756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134378

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the proportion and characteristic of Chinese adults meeting The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) eligibility criteria and assess its generalizability. Method: Our study was based on a cross-sectional, population-based survey with a sample of 26,093 participants aged over 20 years. The SPRINT eligibility criteria were age ≥ 50 years, elevated SBP of 130 to 180 mmHg depending on the number of antihypertensive medication classes being taken, and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) but without diabetes, history of stroke and estimated glomerular filtration rate < 20 ml/min/1.73 m2, or receiving dialysis. Results: Overall, we estimated that 4,036 (15.5%) participants would meet the SPRINT eligibility criteria. They were generally older, likely to be female, lower educational level, tended to be more overweight, and had higher Framingham risk score compared with overall population or subjects aged ≥ 50 years. Of participants eligible for SPRINT, most (56.2%) of them were not treated for hypertension, and 542 (13.4%) were not previously considered to have hypertension or need for antihypertension therapy. Among the 11,637 adults with hypertension, 3,494 (30.0%) would potentially benefit from treatment intensification. The most common antihypertensive medication class being taken was diuretic agents. Conclusion: A substantial percentage of Chinese subjects meet the SPRINT eligibility criteria. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness from treatment intensification in Chinese setting.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 932, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127878

RESUMO

The continued increase in global life expectancy predicts a rising prevalence of age-related cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD), which requires a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In recent years, the concept of "inflammaging" has attracted increasing attention. It refers to the chronic sterile low-grade inflammation in elderly organisms and is involved in the development of a variety of age-related chronic diseases. Inflammaging is a long-term result of chronic physiological stimulation of the immune system, and various cellular and molecular mechanisms (e.g., cellular senescence, immunosenescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective autophagy, metaflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis) are involved. With the deepening understanding of the etiological basis of age-related CSVD, inflammaging is considered to play an important role in its occurrence and development. One of the most critical pathophysiological mechanisms of CSVD is endothelium dysfunction and subsequent blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, which gives a clue in the identification of the disease by detecting circulating biological markers of BBB disruption. The regional analysis showed blood markers of vascular inflammation are often associated with deep perforating arteriopathy (DPA), while blood markers of systemic inflammation appear to be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Here, we discuss recent findings in the pathophysiology of inflammaging and their effects on the development of age-related CSVD. Furthermore, we speculate the inflammaging as a potential target for future therapeutic interventions to delay or prevent the progression of the age-related CSVD.

5.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) ; 9(12): 676-685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124965

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy and advantages of five-in-one comprehensive limb salvage technologies for the treatment of severe diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Approach: Clinical data for 120 patients with severe DFU treated between January 2012 and December 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The control group (48 cases) was treated with traditional therapies, including controlling blood sugar, improving microcirculation, preserving nerve function, and dressing changes, whereas the experimental group (72 cases) was treated with traditional therapy combined with additional techniques, such as early and thorough debridement, negative pressure wound therapy, revascularization, and skin graft or flap. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2), wound healing rate, healing time, ulcer recurrence rate, and amputation rate were recorded. Results: Compared with the control group, the experimental group significantly improved wound healing rate (93.1% vs. 72.9%; p < 0.01), decreased wound healing time (16.2 ± 5.4 days vs. 32.2 ± 7.8 days; p < 0.05), reduced major limb amputation rate (1.4% vs. 10.4%, p < 0.05), and ulcer recurrence rate (5.6% vs. 14.6%; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in amputation rate between experimental and control group (29.2% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.628). After revascularization, the revascularization group showed significantly improved ABI (0.75 ± 0.21 vs. 0.35 ± 0.16, p < 0.05) and TcPO2 (36 ± 6 mmHg vs. 15 ± 4 mmHg, p < 0.05). Innovation: We propose a five-in-one comprehensive treatment method, which provides a multidisciplinary cooperative model for comprehensive medical and surgical treatments for DFU. Conclusion: The five-in-one comprehensive limb salvage treatment technologies played a vital role in enhancing the healing rate of severe DFU, shortening the healing time, and reducing the rate of recurrence and major amputation, thus improving the overall quality of life.

6.
Adv Mater ; 32(45): e2004805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006183

RESUMO

Artificial scent screening systems (known as electronic noses, E-noses) have been researched extensively. A portable, automatic, and accurate, real-time E-nose requires both robust cross-reactive sensing and fingerprint pattern recognition. Few E-noses have been commercialized because they suffer from either sensing or pattern-recognition issues. Here, cross-reactive colorimetric barcode combinatorics and deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) are combined to form a system for monitoring meat freshness that concurrently provides scent fingerprint and fingerprint recognition. The barcodes-comprising 20 different types of porous nanocomposites of chitosan, dye, and cellulose acetate-form scent fingerprints that are identifiable by DCNN. A fully supervised DCNN trained using 3475 labeled barcode images predicts meat freshness with an overall accuracy of 98.5%. Incorporating DCNN into a smartphone application forms a simple platform for rapid barcode scanning and identification of food freshness in real time. The system is fast, accurate, and non-destructive, enabling consumers and all stakeholders in the food supply chain to monitor food freshness.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(44): 12485-12492, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084347

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used in plant factories and agricultural facilities. Different LEDs can be designed in accordance with the light quality and intensity requirements of different plants, allowing the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as metabolic processes. Blue and red lights have significant effects on anthocyanin metabolism in strawberry fruit, but their effects on other metabolites are unknown. Here, we studied the effects of blue and red lights on the metabolism and gene expression of strawberry using metabolomics combined with transcriptomics. A total of 33 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) and 501 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were isolated and identified. Among these DEMs, chlorogenic acid synthesis was upregulated by the blue light compared with the red light. Co-expression network analysis of DEMs and DEGs revealed that the expression of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (FvHCT), the main gene in the chlorogenic acid synthetic pathway, was induced by blue light. Using multi-omics-based approach, our results suggest that different LED lights have multiple effects on strawberry fruit, with blue light able to co-upregulate chlorogenic acid synthesis and FvHCT gene expression.

8.
Biosci Rep ; 40(11)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015714

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a non-infectious chronic inflammatory disease of nasal mucosa provoking T helper cell (Th) 17 response. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in various agricultural products, possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. However, the effect of CGA on AR is unclear. Thus, our study explored the effect of CGA in modulating AR-related symptoms and immunoreaction, especially Th17 response. AR mice were induced by ovalbumin (OVA) administration and further treated with CGA or dexamethasone (Dex). The frequencies of rubbing and sneezing of AR mice were recorded. Histopathological analysis of nasal mucosa was conducted by Hematoxylin-Eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff stainings. The serum and nasal mucosa levels of OVA-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, interferon (IFN)-γ, retinoic acid-associated nuclear orphan receptor (ROR)-γt, and interleukin (IL)-17A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), or Western blot. The ratio of CD4+IL-17+Th17 cells to CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of AR mice was assessed by flow cytometer. CGA diminished the frequencies of rubbing and sneezing of AR mice in a concentration-dependent manner. CGA attenuated histopathological abnormalities and decreased goblet cell number in nasal mucosa of AR mice. CGA decreased the serum levels of OVA-IgE, ROR-γt, and IL-17A, while increasing the serum level of IFN-γ in AR mice. Meanwhile, CGA decreased the ratio of CD4+IL-17+Th17 cells to CD4+T cells in peripheral blood and the mRNA and protein levels of IL-17A and ROR-γt in AR mice. CGA ameliorated AR-related symptoms in mice by regulating Th17 cells, which could be a candidate for the treatment of AR.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nutrition status is of great significance to the clinical outcome after major abdominal surgery. However, the effect of preoperative short-term parenteral nutrition (PN) support among gastric cancer (GC) patients remains unknown and was evaluated in the current study. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 455 nutritionally at-risk GC patients after radical resection from 2010 to 2016. We matched patients with 3-7 days of PN support to those without PN support. χ2 And Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare differences between the PN and control groups. RESULTS: The propensity-matched sample included 368 GC patients (PN group, n = 184; control group, n = 184). The PN and control groups did not differ regarding postoperative complications (P = .528). The incidence of anastomotic leakage in the PN group was lower than in the control group (P = .011), whereas other complications were not found to differ between the groups. The hospitalization cost of the PN group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < .001), whereas other outcome indicators were similar. Subgroup analysis showed that short-term PN support may have an improved benefit for patients with serum albumin level <35 g/L, but not at the level of statistical significance (P = .17). CONCLUSION: Short-term PN support did not significantly improve the short-term clinical outcomes of nutritionally at-risk GC patients, with the exception of a lower incidence of anastomotic leakage. Considering that short-term PN support increases economic burden, PN should not be the preferred method among these patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044724

RESUMO

In 2013, China's first Mental Health Law (MHL) took effect, with the goal of better protecting patients' rights. Under the law the police, with appropriate training, rather than family members, employers or medical staff sent from a hospital, are the ones who bring persons in behavioral crises to medical facilities for psychiatric assessment for possible involuntary hospitalization. We examined the proportion and distinctive characteristics of persons brought to psychiatric emergency services (PES) by the police since the implementation of MHL. We used medical records to document demographic and clinical characteristics of all persons evaluated at the PES of the Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital, the largest psychiatric hospital in China's fourth largest city, from April 2017 to August 2017. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify characteristics of patients brought to the PES by the police. Among 1515 PES visits, 166 (11.0%) were brought by the police as compared to virtually none in the years before the law took effect. Compared to non-police referrals, police referrals were associated with male gender, age greater than 30, more documented violent behavior, greater likelihood of having been restrained, and higher rates of hospital admission after assessment. Assessed risk of suicidality and diagnoses of substance use disorder were not significantly associated with police referral. A modest but increased and noteworthy proportion of patients evaluated at the PES after implementations of China's MHL were brought by the police, especially those with violent behavior requiring restraint and hospitalization resulting from mental illness.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 13333-13343, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931260

RESUMO

Electro-generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are of fundamental importance to the electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP). Radical-specific electron spin resonance (ESR) evidence is still lacking in association with the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of spin trap (e.g., 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide; DMPO) and side reactions of the DMPO-OH adduct in the strongly oxidative environment offered by anodic polarization. Herein, we showed ESR identification of electro-generated •OH in EAOP based on the principle of kinetic selection. Excessive addition of a DMPO agent and fast spin trapping allowed suitable kinetic conditions to be set for effective spin trapping of electro-generated •OH and subsequent ESR identification. Otherwise, interferential triplet signals would emerge due to formation of paramagnetic dimer via dehydrogenation, DET oxidation, and dimerization reactions of the DMPO-OH adduct. The results demonstrate that •OH formation during spin-trapping on the titanium suboxide (TiSO) anode could be quantified as 47.84 ± 0.44 µM at current density of 10 mA cm-2. This value revealed a positive dependence on electrolysis time, current density, and anode potential. The effectiveness of ESR measurements was verified by the results obtained with the terephthalic acid probe. The ESR identification not only provides direct evidence for electro-generated •OH from a fundamental point of view, but also suggests a strategy to screen effective anode materials.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930454

RESUMO

Skin is the largest organ, with the functionalities of protection, regulation, and sensation. The emulation of human skin via flexible and stretchable electronics gives rise to electronic skin (e-skin), which has realized artificial sensation and other functions that cannot be achieved by conventional electronics. To date, tremendous progress has been made in data acquisition and transmission for e-skin systems, while the implementation of perception within systems, that is, sensory data processing, is still in its infancy. Integrating the perception functionality into a flexible and stretchable sensing system, namely artificial skin perception, is critical to endow current e-skin systems with higher intelligence. Here, recent progress in the design and fabrication of artificial skin perception devices and systems is summarized, and challenges and prospects are discussed. The strategies for implementing artificial skin perception utilize either conventional silicon-based circuits or novel flexible computing devices such as memristive devices and synaptic transistors, which enable artificial skin to surpass human skin, with a distributed, low-latency, and energy-efficient information-processing ability. In future, artificial skin perception would be a new enabling technology to construct next-generation intelligent electronic devices and systems for advanced applications, such as robotic surgery, rehabilitation, and prosthetics.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4602, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929071

RESUMO

Human behaviors are extremely sophisticated, relying on the adaptive, plastic and event-driven network of sensory neurons. Such neuronal system analyzes multiple sensory cues efficiently to establish accurate depiction of the environment. Here, we develop a bimodal artificial sensory neuron to implement the sensory fusion processes. Such a bimodal artificial sensory neuron collects optic and pressure information from the photodetector and pressure sensors respectively, transmits the bimodal information through an ionic cable, and integrates them into post-synaptic currents by a synaptic transistor. The sensory neuron can be excited in multiple levels by synchronizing the two sensory cues, which enables the manipulating of skeletal myotubes and a robotic hand. Furthermore, enhanced recognition capability achieved on fused visual/haptic cues is confirmed by simulation of a multi-transparency pattern recognition task. Our biomimetic design has the potential to advance technologies in cyborg and neuromorphic systems by endowing them with supramodal perceptual capabilities.


Assuntos
Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Eletrodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Movimento (Física) , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão
14.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(12): 2262-2269, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with the prognosis from malignant tumors. However, evidence of the relationship between sarcopenia and MetS among gastric cancer (GC) patients following radical gastrectomy is lacking. This study assessed the association between preoperative sarcopenia and MetS among GC patients and analyzed the prognosis of patients with different malnutrition statuses. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the preoperative statuses of sarcopenia and MetS among patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from July 2014 to December 2017. We combined sarcopenia and MetS to generate four groups: MetS-related sarcopenia group (MSS), sarcopenia group (S), MetS group (MS), and normal group (N). RESULTS: A total of 749 patients with resectable GC were included in this study. Preoperative MetS was associated with sarcopenia (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression presented that MetS-related sarcopenia (OR = 2.445; p = 0.010) and sarcopenia alone (OR = 2.117; p = 0.001) were independent predictors of grade Ⅱ and above complications, while MetS alone was not (p = 0.342). Cox regression analysis revealed that MetS-related sarcopenia led to the worst prognosis in the four groups (MSS vs MS: HR = 3.555, p < 0.001; MSS vs N: HR = 2.020, p = 0.003; MSS vs S: HR = 1.763, p = 0.021). However, the MetS group had better prognosis than the normal group (MS vs N: HR = 0.568, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Preoperative MetS was associated with sarcopenia among GC patients. MetS-related sarcopenia resulted in a significantly worse prognosis. The long-term prognoses of patients with sarcopenia were impaired by preoperative MetS, while patients without sarcopenia benefited. Thus, patients with both sarcopenia and MetS require more medical interventions.

15.
Surg Oncol ; 35: 62-70, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835903

RESUMO

The optimal extent of lymphadenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) has been continuously debatable. The study aimed to determine the incidence of lymph node metastasis at each station in Siewert types Ⅱ/Ⅲ AEG. PubMed was searched and publications reporting metastasis at each nodal station were eligible. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. Twenty-one studies involving 4662 patients were included. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was high (≥20%) in stations No. 3, 1, 2 and 7 in decreasing order, and moderate (10-20%) in stations No. 9, 19 and 110. The incidence did not exceed 10% in stations No. 10, 11p, 20, 8a, 4sa, 4 s b and 4d, was less than 5% in stations No. 5, 6, 11d, 12a, and even close to 0 in stations No. 107, 111 and 112. Compared with type Ⅲ tumors, type Ⅱ tumors had significantly lower incidence in some abdominal stations including No. 3, 4sa, 4 s b, 6, 8a and 10, while significantly higher in the lower mediastinal stations. The present analysis established a map of lymph node metastasis in Siewert types Ⅱ/Ⅲ AEG, which may serve as a valuable reference for the extent of lymphadenectomy.

16.
Adv Mater ; 32(37): e2001903, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743815

RESUMO

Flexible electronics have witnessed exciting progress in academia over the past decade, but most of the research outcomes have yet to be translated into products or gain much market share. For mass production and commercialization, industrial adoption of newly developed functional materials and fabrication techniques is a prerequisite. However, due to the disparate features of academic laboratories and industrial plants, translating materials and manufacturing technologies from labs to fabs is notoriously difficult. Therefore, herein, key challenges in the materials manufacturing of flexible electronics are identified and discussed for its lab-to-fab translation, along the four stages in product manufacturing: design, materials supply, processing, and integration. Perspectives on industry-oriented strategies to overcome some of these obstacles are also proposed. Priorities for action are outlined, including standardization, iteration between basic and applied research, and adoption of smart manufacturing. With concerted efforts from academia and industry, flexible electronics will bring a bigger impact to society as promised.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 533, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) is an important heat-resistant leafy vegetable that can survive under long-time heat stress condition. However, the physiological characteristics and molecular changes in its response to heat stress are poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study the selected water spinach cultivars with different thermo resistance and their physiological response to heat stress were examined. Under prolonged heat stress, plant growth was inhibited in all tested cultivars. This inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of photosynthetic performance. The reactive oxygen species system in terms of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contents, as well as antioxidant polyphenols, were evaluated. The results showed that prolonged heat stress caused reduced antioxidant capacity, but the role of antioxidant capacity in a prolonged thermotolerance was not predominant. Transcriptomic analysis of the water spinach subjected to heat stress revealed that 4145 transcripts were specifically expressed with 2420 up-regulated and 1725 down-regulated in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant cultivars treated with 42 °C for 15 days. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the main metabolic differences between heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant cultivars were the carbohydrate metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The results of carbohydrate profiles and RT-qPCR also suggested that heat stress altered carbohydrate metabolism and associated changes in transcriptional level of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolic transition. CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged heat stress resulted in a reduced antioxidant capacity while the role of antioxidant capacity in a prolonged thermotolerance of water spinach was not predominant. Transcriptome analysis and the measurement of carbohydrates as well as the gene expression evaluation indicated that the response of the metabolic pathway such as carbohydrate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to heat stress may be a key player in thermo resistance.

18.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trainees underestimate the amount of operative autonomy they receive, whereas faculty overestimate; this has not been studied in robotics. We aimed to assess the perceptions and expectations of our general surgery trainees and faculty on robotic console participation in academic surgery. METHODS: A survey was administered to general surgery robotic faculty and trainees eligible to sit at the console. Participants estimated the average percentage of trainee console participation time (CPT) per case for robotic cholecystectomies (CCY) and inguinal hernia repairs (IHR) from January to June 2019. Trainees were additionally asked what CPT they expected according to their training level (novice or senior). Expected CPTs were compared to actual CPTs extracted from robotic console logs during the same time frame. RESULTS: Survey response rate was 80% for faculty (4 of 5) and 65% for trainees (15 of 23). Novices expected a higher CPT than they perceived in CCY (42.8% ± 14.8% vs 19.0% ± 17.2%, p = 0.03) and IHR (36.1% ± 17.6% vs. 10.7% ± 13.7%, p = 0.01), but in actuality, they did more CPT than perceived (by 34.9% in CCY, p < 0.01; 14% in IHR, p = 0.10). Senior trainees accurately perceived their CPT in IHR, but expected a higher CPT by 15.9% (p = 0.04). In CCY, seniors perceived a 23.8% higher CPT than in reality (p = 0.04). Faculty generally overperceived trainee CPT by 12.8-16.3% (p > 0.05). Compared to faculty, novices perceived lower CPTs in both CCY by 29.9% (p = 0.16) and IHR by 26.8% (p = 0.07), but seniors tended to agree with the faculty-perceived CPTs (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our robotic trainees expect to do more on the console than they perceive. Faculty think they allow their trainees more participation than in reality. Compared to faculty perception, novice trainees perceive a much lower level of trainee participation than senior trainees do. Expectation setting and standardizing learning curves are important for robotic surgery training.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 1105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765574

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms have become more frequent and serious in recent years. Not only do massive blooms cause environmental pollution and nutrient eutrophication, but they also produce microcystins (MCs), a group of toxic cycloheptapeptides, which threaten aquatic ecosystem and human health. As such, clarifying the allelopathic interactions between cyanobacteria and other algae is critical to better understand the driving factors of blooms. To date, however, such studies remain largely insufficient. Here, we treated model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to determine its allelopathic effects. Results showed that MC-LR markedly suppressed C. reinhardtii cell viability. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses revealed that MC-LR significantly up-regulated protein abundance of antioxidants ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) at the beginning stage of exposure. This was accompanied by an over-accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), suggesting that MC-LR suppresses cell viability via oxidative damage. Furthermore, we found that MCs induced desulfhydrase (DES) activity for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at the beginning stage. Additional H2S donors reactivated antioxidant enzyme activity, which reduced H2O2 accumulation and ultimately enhanced C. reinhardtii tolerance to MC-LR damage. This effect could be reserved by inhibiting H2S biosynthesis. Simultaneously, we found that H2S also suppressed MC-LR-induced cell autophagy, and thus attenuated the toxic effects of MC-LR. Our findings suggest that oxidative bursts may be the main reason for the allelopathic effects of MC-LR on C. reinhardtii viability and that H2S signaling may enhance C. reinhardtii tolerance to MC-LR through the activation of antioxidant enzyme activity and suppression of cell autophagy.

20.
J Surg Educ ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Entrustment is a key component connecting to resident preparedness for surgical practice in the operating room (OR). Residents' self-entrustment of their surgical competencies closely associates with their OR training experience and granted autonomy. Some recent studies have investigated how attending surgeons entrusted residents in the OR. There is little to no data, however, in examining these issues from the resident perspective. The goal of this study was to identify the perception and expectations of autonomy from residents' perspective, as well as the self-entrustment of their surgical competencies in obstetrics (OB) and gynecologic (GYN) procedures. METHODS: Focus group interviews of OB/GYN residents were performed. Residents were selected by convenience sampling. Audio recordings of each interview were transcribed, iteratively analyzed, and emergent themes identified, using a framework method. RESULTS: A total of 123 minutes of interviews were recorded. Eight junior residents (PGY1-2) and 12 senior residents (PGY3-4) participated. Our data illustrated that (1) the perception of autonomy shifted significantly throughout residency training; (2) residents demonstrated higher expectations and self-entrustment for OB surgical procedures than for GYN surgical procedures upon graduation; and (3) case volume, modalities of OR teaching and mutual communication are 3 factors influencing resident self-entrustment of their surgical competencies. CONCLUSIONS: Residents showed disparities in their self-entrustment and expectations of autonomy between OB and GYN surgical procedures. Better understanding these differences and the 3 influencing factors could help programs develop a potential solution for improvement in resident entrustment and autonomy upon graduation.

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