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1.
PET Clin ; 16(2): 205-217, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589387

RESUMO

"Glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor imaging, using radiolabeled exendin-4, was recently established for detecting insulinoma in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. It has proven to be a sensitive and specific method for preoperative localization of insulinoma. This review introduces the development, clinical research, and perspective of GLP-1 receptor imaging mainly in insulinoma.

2.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525711

RESUMO

Monascus vinegar (MV), during whose brewing process Monascus spp. and polished rice (PR) are normally used as the starter and the raw material, respectively, is one of the traditional vinegars in China. In this study, the effects of three raw materials, including PR, unhusked rice (UR), and germinated UR (GR), on MV volatile compounds have been investigated. The results revealed that MV of GR (GMV), and its intermediate Monascus wine (GMW), exhibited the highest amount of aroma, not only in the concentrations but also in the varieties of the aromatic compounds mainly contributing to the final fragrance. Especially after three years of aging, the contents of benzaldehyde and furfural in GMV could reach to 13.93% and 0.57%, respectively, both of which can coordinate synergistically on enhancing the aroma. We also found that the filtering efficiency was significantly improved when UR and GR were applied as the raw materials, respectively. Therefore, GR might be more suitable raw materials for MV.

3.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595023

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that a small particle size and rough surface can enhance tumor tissue accumulation and tumor cellular uptake of nanoparticles, respectively. Herein, sub-50 nm urchin-inspired disulfide bond-bridged mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (UMONs) featured with a spiky surface and glutathione (GSH)-responsive biodegradability were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot biphasic synthesis strategy for enhanced cellular internalization and tumor accumulation. l-Arginine (LA) is encapsulated into the mesopores of UMONs, whose outer surface is capped with the gatekeeper of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles, i.e., UMONs-LA-Au. On the one hand, the mild acidity-activated uncapping of ultrasmall gold can realize a tumor microenvironment (TME)-responsive release of LA. On the other hand, the unique natural glucose oxidase (GOx)-mimicking catalytic activity of ultrasmall gold can catalyze the decomposition of intratumoral glucose to produce acidic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid. Remarkably, these products can not only further facilitate the release of LA, but also catalyze the LA-H2O2 reaction for an increased nitric oxide (NO) yield, which realizes synergistic catalysis-enhanced NO gas therapy for tumor eradication. The judiciously fabricated UMONs-LA-Au present a paradigm of TME-responsive nanoplatforms for both enhanced cellular uptake and tumor-specific precision cascaded therapy, which broadens the range of practical biomedical applications and holds a significant promise for the clinical translation of silica-based nanotheranostics.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2007798, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604928

RESUMO

Inhibiting the myofibroblast differentiation of lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) is a promising yet challenging approach for pulmonary fibrosis (PF) therapy. Here, micelles formed by a graft copolymer of multiple PEGs modified branched polyethylenimine are used for delivering runt-related transcription factor-1 (RUNX1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) (siRUNX1) to the lung, aiming to inhibit the myofibroblast differentiation of LR-MSCs. LR-MSC targeting is achieved by functionalizing the micelle surface with an anti-stem-cell antigen-1 antibody fragment (Fab'). Consequently, therapeutic benefits are obtained by successful suppression of myofibroblast differentiation of LR-MSCs in bleomycin-induced PF model mice treated with siRUNX1-loaded micelles. Furthermore, an excellent synergistic effect of PF therapy is achieved for this micelle system loaded siRUNX1 and glioma-associated oncogene homolog-1 (Gli1) small interfering RNA (siGli1), a traditional anti-PF siRNA of glioma-associated oncogene homolog-1. Hence, this work not only provides RUNX1 as a novel PF therapeutic target, but also as a promising dual siRNA-loaded nanocarrier system for the therapy of PF.

5.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(4): 2839-2891, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524093

RESUMO

Among the many challenges in medicine, the treatment and cure of cancer remains an outstanding goal given the complexity and diversity of the disease. Nanotheranostics, the integration of therapy and diagnosis in nanoformulations, is the next generation of personalized medicine to meet the challenges in precise cancer diagnosis, rational management and effective therapy, aiming to significantly increase the survival rate and improve the life quality of cancer patients. Different from most conventional platforms with unsatisfactory theranostic capabilities, supramolecular cancer nanotheranostics have unparalleled advantages in early-stage diagnosis and personal therapy, showing promising potential in clinical translations and applications. In this review, we summarize the progress of supramolecular cancer nanotheranostics and provide guidance for designing new targeted supramolecular theranostic agents. Based on extensive state-of-the-art research, our review will provide the existing and new researchers a foundation from which to advance supramolecular cancer nanotheranostics and promote translationally clinical applications.

6.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2038-2067, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486944

RESUMO

Innovative multifunctional nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest in current research by facilitating simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. Among them, antimony (Sb)- and bismuth (Bi)-based nanoparticles are important species with multifunction to boost cancer theranostic efficacy. Despite the rapid development, the extensive previous work treated Sb- and Bi-based nanoparticles as mutually independent species, and therefore a thorough understanding of their relationship in cancer theranostics was lacking. We propose here that the identical chemical nature of Sb and Bi, being semimetals, provides their derived nanoparticles with inherent multifunction for near-infrared laser-driven and/or X-ray-based cancer imaging and therapy as well as some other imparted functions. An overview of recent progress on Sb- and Bi-based nanoparticles for cancer theranostics is provided to highlight the relationship between chemical nature and multifunction. The understanding of Sb- and Bi-based nanoparticles in this way might shed light on the further design of smart multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 523, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483518

RESUMO

The outcome of radiotherapy is significantly restricted by tumor hypoxia. To overcome this obstacle, one prevalent solution is to increase intratumoral oxygen supply. However, its effectiveness is often limited by the high metabolic demand for O2 by cancer cells. Herein, we develop a hybrid semiconducting organosilica-based O2 nanoeconomizer pHPFON-NO/O2 to combat tumor hypoxia. Our solution is twofold: first, the pHPFON-NO/O2 interacts with the acidic tumor microenvironment to release NO for endogenous O2 conservation; second, it releases O2 in response to mild photothermal effect to enable exogenous O2 infusion. Additionally, the photothermal effect can be increased to eradicate tumor residues with radioresistant properties due to other factors. This "reducing expenditure of O2 and broadening sources" strategy significantly alleviates tumor hypoxia in multiple ways, greatly enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy both in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrates the synergy between on-demand temperature-controlled photothermal and oxygen-elevated radiotherapy for complete tumor response.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos de Organossilício/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Compostos de Organossilício/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Pontos Quânticos/química , Pontos Quânticos/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(5): 1399-1409, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to analyze the role of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) as a molecular target for the imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer through analysis of SSTR2 expression and its epigenetic modulation and testing tumor uptake of different radiolabeled SSTR2 analogues. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed SSTR2 expression by immunostaining of 92 thyroid cancer tissue samples and quantified standard uptake values (SUVmax) of SSTR2 analogue, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE, by PET/CT imaging in 25 patients with metastatic thyroid cancer. We utilized human thyroid cancer cell lines characterized by differential SSTR2 expression (TT, BCPAP, and FTC133) and rat pancreatic cell line (AR42J) with intrinsically high SSTR2 expression for functional in vitro studies. SSTR2-high (AR42J) and SSTR2-low (FTC133) xenograft mouse models were used to test the uptake of radiolabeled SSTR2 analogues and their therapeutic efficacy in vivo. RESULTS: Thyroid cancer had a higher SSTR2 expression than normal thyroid. Hurthle cell thyroid cancer was characterized by the highest 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake [median SUVmax, 16.5 (7.9-29)] than other types of thyroid cancers. In vivo studies demonstrated that radiolabeled DOTA-EB-TATE is characterized by significantly higher tumor uptake than DOTA-TATE (P < 0.001) and DOTA-JR11 (P < 0.001). Treatment with 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE extended survival and reduced tumor size in a mouse model characterized by high somatostatin (SST) analogues uptake (SUVmax, 15.16 ± 4.34), but had no effects in a model with low SST analogues uptake (SUVmax, 4.8 ± 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: A novel SST analogue, 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE, has the potential to be translated from bench to bedside for the targeted therapy of patients characterized by high uptake of SST analogues in metastatic lesions.

9.
BJR Case Rep ; 6(4): 20200024, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299586

RESUMO

Increased vascular cell adhesion (hyperadhesion) to the endothelium is responsible for the hallmark acute pain episodes, or vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), of sickle cell disease. The integrin αvß3 plays an important role in VOC since it mediates sickle red blood cell adhesion to the endothelium, a process that leads to ischemia and painful bone infarction. In the pilot study presented herein, we hypothesized that real-time imaging of hyperadhesion could quantify VOC severity and identify the most vulnerable anatomical sites. We also hypothesized that harnessing hyperadhesion as a proximate event in VOC would provide sensitive, objective evidence of VOC before pain has developed. Specifically, we tested whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin αvß3 using the PET tracer 68Ga-PRGD2 would successfully image hyperadhesion associated with VOC in a patient with sickle cell disease. We observed persistently higher tracer uptake in the femurs during VOC compared to baseline. In the vessel, after an initial and transient increase during VOC, blood pool activity was similar between baseline and VOC. These findings suggest that PET imaging of integrin αvß3 may be a valuable strategy for imaging of VOC.

10.
N Biotechnol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301924

RESUMO

An amplification-based single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (asmFISH) assay is introduced that exploits improved probe design for highly specific imaging of individual transcripts in fixed cells and tissues. In this method, a pair of DNA ligation probes are ligated on RNA templates upon specific hybridization, followed by probe circularization based on enzymatic DNA ligation and rolling circle amplification for signal boosting. The method is more efficient and specific than the padlock probe assay for detection of the same RNA molecules and discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, asmFISH is a versatile method which can be applied not only to cultured cells, but also to fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

11.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(12): 2763-2764, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317270
12.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310853

RESUMO

Artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) can stimulate CD8+ T cell activation. While nanosized aAPCs (naAPCs) have a better safety profile than microsized (maAPCs), they generally induce a weaker T cell response. Treatment with aAPCs alone is insufficient due to the lack of autologous antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Here, we devised a nanovaccine for antigen-specific CD8+ T cell preactivation in vivo, followed by reactivation of CD8+ T cells via size-transformable naAPCs. naAPCs can be converted to maAPCs in tumor tissue when encountering preactivated CD8+ T cells with high surface redox potential. In vivo study revealed that naAPC's combination with nanovaccine had an impressive antitumor efficacy. The methodology can also be applied to chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Our findings provide a generalizable approach for using size-transformable naAPCs in vivo for immunotherapy in combination with nanotechnologies that can activate CD8+ T cells.

13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340451

RESUMO

Despite our growing understanding of embryonic immune development, rare early megakaryocytes (MKs) remain relatively understudied. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing of human MKs from embryonic yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver (FL) to characterize the transcriptome, cellular heterogeneity, and developmental trajectories of early megakaryopoiesis. In the YS and FL, we found heterogeneous MK subpopulations with distinct developmental routes and patterns of gene expression that could reflect early functional specialization. Intriguingly, we identified a subpopulation of CD42b+CD14+ MKs in vivo that exhibit high expression of genes associated with immune responses and can also be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro. Furthermore, we identified THBS1 as an early marker for MK-biased embryonic endothelial cells. Overall, we provide important insights and invaluable resources for dissection of the molecular and cellular programs underlying early human megakaryopoiesis.

15.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206522

RESUMO

Nanotheranostics based on tumor-selective small molecular prodrugs could be more advantageous in clinical translation for cancer treatment, given its defined chemical structure, high drug loading efficiency, controlled drug release, and reduced side effects. To this end, we have designed and synthesized a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable heterodimeric prodrug, namely, HRC, and nanoformulated it for tumor-selective imaging and synergistic chemo- and photodynamic therapy. The prodrug consists of the chemodrug camptothecin (CPT), the photosensitizer 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH), and a thioketal linker. Compared to CPT- or HPPH-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), HRC-loaded NPs possess higher drug loading capacity, better colloidal stability, and less premature drug leakage. Interestingly, HRC NPs were almost nonfluorescent due to the strong π-π stacking and could be effectively activated by endogenous ROS once entering cells. Thanks to the higher ROS levels in cancer cells than normal cells, HRC NPs could selectively light up the cancer cells and exhibit much more potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Moreover, HRC NPs demonstrated highly effective tumor accumulation and synergistic tumor inhibition with reduced side effects on mice.

16.
Curr Opin Chem Biol ; 61: 19-31, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147551

RESUMO

The metal-based drugs represented by cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in cancer treatment, whereas new therapeutics are extremely slow to step into the clinic. Poor pharmacokinetics, multidrug resistance, and severe side effects greatly limit the development of metal-based anticancer drugs. The robustness and modular composition of supramolecular coordination complexes allow for the incorporation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, showing promising potentials for precise cancer theranostics. In this mini review, we highlight the recent advances in the development of supramolecular coordination complexes as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The key focuses of these reports lie in searching sophisticated coordination ligands and nanoformulations that can potentially solve the issues faced by current metal-based drugs including imaging, resistance, toxicity, and pharmacological deficiencies.

17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 446, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076973

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

18.
Adv Mater ; 32(47): e2004853, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089578

RESUMO

Immunomodulation of macrophages against cancer has emerged as an encouraging therapeutic strategy. However, there exist two major challenges in effectively activating macrophages for antitumor immunotherapy. First, ligation of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to CD47, a "don't eat me" signal on cancer cells, prevents macrophage phagocytosis of cancer cells. Second, colony stimulating factors, secreted by cancer cells, polarize tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, it is reported that genetically engineered cell-membrane-coated magnetic nanoparticles (gCM-MNs) can disable both mechanisms. The gCM shell genetically overexpressing SIRPα variants with remarkable affinity efficiently blocks the CD47-SIRPα pathway while the MN core promotes M2 TAM repolarization, synergistically triggering potent macrophage immune responses. Moreover, the gCM shell protects the MNs from immune clearance; and in turn, the MN core delivers the gCMs into tumor tissues under magnetic navigation, effectively promoting their systemic circulation and tumor accumulation. In melanoma and breast cancer models, it is shown that gCM-MNs significantly prolong overall mouse survival by controlling both local tumor growth and distant tumor metastasis. The combination of cell-membrane-coating nanotechnology and genetic editing technique offers a safe and robust strategy in activating the body's immune responses for cancer immunotherapy.

19.
Adv Funct Mater ; 30(4)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041745

RESUMO

The combination of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-involved photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) holds great promise for enhancing ROS-mediated cancer treatment. Herein, we reported an in situ polymerized hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticle (HMON) biocatalysis nanoreactor to integrate the synergistic effect of PDT/CDT for enhancing ROS-mediated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treatment. HPPH photosensitizer was hybridized within the framework of HMON via an "in situ framework growth" approach. Then, the hollow cavity of HMONs was exploited as a nanoreactor for "in situ polymerization" to synthesize the polymer containing thiol groups, thereby enabling the immobilization of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles, which behave like glucose oxidase-like nanozyme, converting glucose into H2O2 to provide self-supplied H2O2 for CDT. Meanwhile, Cu2+-tannic acid complexes were further deposited on the surface of HMONs (HMON-Au@Cu-TA) to initiate Fenton-like reaction to covert the self-supplied H2O2 into •OH, a highly toxic ROS. Finally, collagenase (Col), which can degrade the collagen I fiber in the extracellular matrix (ECM), was loaded into HMON-Au@Cu-TA to enhance the penetration of HMONs and O2 infiltration for enhanced PDT. This study provides a good paradigm for enhancing ROS-mediated anti-tumor efficacy. Meanwhile, this research offers a new method to broaden the application of silica based nanotheranostics.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4951, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009382

RESUMO

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) and tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes are severely weakened by elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tumour microenvironment. It is therefore of critical importance to modulate the level of extracellular ROS for the reversal of immunosuppressive environment. Here, we present a tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) targeting ROS nanoscavenger masked by pH sensitive covalently crosslinked polyethylene glycol. The nanoscavenger anchors on the ECM to sweep away the ROS from tumour microenvironment to relieve the immunosuppressive ICD elicited by specific chemotherapy and prolong the survival of T cells for personalized cancer immunotherapy. In a breast cancer model, elimination of the ROS in tumour microenvironment elicited antitumour immunity and increased infiltration of T lymphocytes, resulting in highly potent antitumour effect. The study highlights a strategy to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by scavenging extracellular ROS using advanced nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Morte Celular Imunogênica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Morte Celular Imunogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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