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1.
Plant Dis ; 104(2): 315-319, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809254

RESUMO

Phytophthora nicotianae is a widespread cause of black shank disease of tobacco plants and causes substantial harvest losses in all major cultivation areas. The oomycete primarily affects plant roots and the stem, where it leads to a progressing decay of the diseased tissues. In this resource announcement, we provide two complementary datasets comprising 16S gene fragment amplicons (bacteriome) and ITS1 region amplicons (mycobiome) that were sequenced on an Illumina-based platform. Soil samples were obtained from disease-affected fields in Guizhou province (China) and include control samples from adhering fields without previous disease incidence. Both datasets were acquired at a high sequencing depth and accompanied by detailed metadata, which facilitate their implementation in comparative studies. The resource announcement provides a basis for disease-specific biomarker detection and correlation studies that include the microbiome.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 667: 33-40, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825819

RESUMO

The plant microbiome is known to be influenced by certain biotic as well as abiotic factors. Nevertheless, the drivers for specific changes in microbial community composition and structure are largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of chemical and biological treatments for plant protection on the indigenous microbiome of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze were contrasted. Assessment of bacteria-specific ribosomal RNA gene fragment amplicons from a representative set of samples showed an increased microbial diversity in treated plants when compared to untreated samples. Moreover, distinct microbial fingerprints were found for plants subjected to a conventional pesticide treatment with lime sulfur as well as for plants that were biologically treated with a Piriformospora indica spore solution. The bacterial community of pesticide-treated plants was augmented by 11 taxa assigned to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. In contrast, plants from biological control treatments were augmented by 10 taxa representing a more diversified community enrichment and included members of Actionobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Complementary, molecular quantification of fungi in the samples showed a significantly lower number of internal transcribed spacer copies in plants subjected to biological control treatments, indicating the highest efficiency against fungal pathogens. The overall results show that leaves that are used for tea production show distinct microbiome shifts that are elicited by common pest and pathogen management practices. These shifts in the microbial population indicate non-target effects of the applied treatments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 16(1): 272, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27829359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the search for new natural resources for crop protection, streptomycetes are gaining interest in agriculture as plant growth promoting bacteria and/or biological control agents. Because of their peculiar life cycle, in which the production of secondary metabolites is synchronized with the development of aerial hyphae and sporulation, the commonly used methods to screen for bacterial antagonists need to be adapted. RESULTS: The dual culture assay was standardized in terms of inoculation timing of Streptomyces antagonist and pathogen, and growth rate of different fungal pathogens. In case of fast-growing fungi, inoculation of the antagonist 2 or 3 days prior to the pathogen resulted in significantly stronger inhibition of mycelium growth. One hundred and thirty Streptomyces strains were evaluated against six destructive soil borne pathogens. The activity of strains varied from broad-spectrum to highly specific inhibition of individual pathogens. All strains inhibited at least one tested pathogen. Three strains, which combined the largest broad-spectrum with the highest inhibition activity, were selected for further characterization with four vegetable species. All of them were able to colonize seed surface of all tested vegetable crops. They mostly improved radicle and hypocotyl growth in vitro, although no statistically significant enhancement of biomass weight was observed in vivo. Occasionally, transient negative effects on germination and plant growth were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The adapted dual culture assay allowed us to compare the inhibition of individual Streptomyces strains against six fungal soil borne pathogens. The best selected strains were able to colonize the four vegetable crops and have a potential to be developed into biocontrol products. Although they occasionally negatively influenced plant growth, these effects did not persist during the further development. Additional in vivo studies are needed to confirm their potential as biological control or plant growth promoting agents.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Antibiose , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Streptomyces/metabolismo
4.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 714, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27242735

RESUMO

Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Streptomyces spp. as biological control agents against S. sclerotiorum on lettuce. Two Streptomyces isolates, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I, inhibit mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by more than 75% in vitro. We evaluated their biocontrol activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo, and compared them to Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, isolated from Actinovate®. When Streptomyces spp. (10(6) CFU/mL) were applied to S. sclerotiorum inoculated substrate in a growth chamber 1 week prior lettuce sowing, they significantly reduced the risk of lettuce drop disease, compared to the inoculated control. Interestingly, under field conditions, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I protected lettuce from drop by 40 and 10% respectively, whereas S. lydicus WYEC 108 did not show any protection. We further labeled S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I with the enhanced GFP (EGFP) marker to investigate their rhizosphere competence and ability to colonize lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The abundant colonization of young lettuce seedlings by both strains demonstrated Streptomyces' capability to interact with the host from early stages of seed germination and root development. Moreover, the two strains were detected also on 2-week-old roots, indicating their potential of long-term interactions with lettuce. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed EGFP-S. exfoliatus FT05W endophytic colonization of lettuce root cortex tissues. Finally, we determined its viability and persistence in the rhizosphere and endorhiza up to 3 weeks by quantifying its concentration in these compartments. Based on these results we conclude that S. exfoliatus FT05W has high potential to be exploited in agriculture for managing soil borne diseases barely controlled by available plant protection products.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705206

RESUMO

Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

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