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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939551

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that Transforming Growth Factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) plays an immunosuppressive role in clinical tuberculosis (TB). However, the contribution of TGF-ß1 gene polymorphisms to human TB susceptibility remains undetermined. In this study, we showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGF-ß1 gene were associated with increased susceptibility to TB in the discovery cohort (1533 cases and 1445 controls) and the validation cohort (832 cases and 1084 controls), and two SNPs located in the promoter region (rs2317130 and rs4803457) are in strong linkage disequilibrium. The SNP rs2317130 was associated with the severity of TB. Further investigation demonstrated that rs2317130CC genotype is associated with higher TGF-ß1 and IL-17A production. The mechanistic study showed rs2317130 C allele affected TGF-ß1 promoter activity through regulating binding activity to nuclear extracts. These findings provide insights into the pathogenic role of TGF-ß1 in human TB and reveal a function for the TGF-ß1 promoter SNPs in regulating immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 7-9, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829053

RESUMO

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, has rapidly spread to produce a global pandemic. It is now clear that person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been occurring and that the virus has been dramatically growing in recent months. Early, rapid and accurate diagnosis is of great significance for curtailing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. There are currently several diagnostic techniques (e.g. viral culture and nucleic acid amplification test) being used to detect the virus. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these methods are quite different, with the sample source and detection limit varying greatly. This study reviewed all types and characteristics of the currently available laboratory diagnostic assays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarized the selection strategies of testing and sampling sites at different disease stages to improve the diagnostic accuracy of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 7-9, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776513

RESUMO

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, has rapidly spread to produce a global pandemic. It is now clear that person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been occurring and that the virus has been dramatically growing in recent months. Early, rapid and accurate diagnosis is of great significance for curtailing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. There are currently several diagnostic techniques (e.g. viral culture and nucleic acid amplification test) being used to detect the virus. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these methods are quite different, with the sample source and detection limit varying greatly. This study reviewed all types and characteristics of the currently available laboratory diagnostic assays for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarized the selection strategies of testing and sampling sites at different disease stages to improve the diagnostic accuracy of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681308

RESUMO

We developed a chemiluminescence immunoassay method based on the recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and assessed its performance for the clinical diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infections by detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in patients. Full-length recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and tosyl magnetic beads were used to develop the chemiluminescence immunoassay approach. Plasmas from 29 healthy cohorts, 51 tuberculosis patients, and 79 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients were employed to evaluate the chemiluminescence immunoassay method performance for the clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. A commercial ELISA kit (Darui Biotech, China) using the same nucleocapsid antigen was used for the in-parallel comparison with our chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The IgM and IgG manner of testing in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 60.76% (95% CI 49.1 to 71.6) and 92.25% (95% CI 83.4 to 97.2) and 82.28% (95% CI 72.1 to 90.0) and 97.5% (95% CI 91.3 to 99.7), respectively. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method compared with the Darui Biotech ELISA kit. The developed high sensitivity and specificity chemiluminescence immunoassay IgG testing method combined with the RT-PCR approach can improve the clinical diagnosis for SARS-CoV-2 infections and thus contribute to the control of COVID-19 expansion.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652076

RESUMO

We developed a chemiluminescence immunoassay method based on the recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and assessed its performance for the clinical diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infections by detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in patients. Full-length recombinant nucleocapsid antigen and tosyl magnetic beads were used to develop the chemiluminescence immunoassay approach. Plasmas from 29 healthy cohorts, 51 tuberculosis patients, and 79 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients were employed to evaluate the chemiluminescence immunoassay method performance for the clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. A commercial ELISA kit (Darui Biotech, China) using the same nucleocapsid antigen was used for the in-parallel comparison with our chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The IgM and IgG manner of testing in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 60.76% (95% CI 49.1 to 71.6) and 92.25% (95% CI 83.4 to 97.2) and 82.28% (95% CI 72.1 to 90.0) and 97.5% (95% CI 91.3 to 99.7), respectively. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed in the chemiluminescence immunoassay method compared with the Darui Biotech ELISA kit. The developed high sensitivity and specificity chemiluminescence immunoassay IgG testing method combined with the RT-PCR approach can improve the clinical diagnosis for SARS-CoV-2 infections and thus contribute to the control of COVID-19 expansion.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 579: 479-488, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622097

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Superlubricity is known to dramatically reduce frictional energy consumption and to improve service life of mechanical devices and biological systems. However, reduction of wear during the running-in period of friction pairs, especially under high contact pressures, still remains an unresolved issue affecting all machines. EXPERIMENTS: Here the lubrication, adsorption, and conformational properties of hydrated ions and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixtures were evaluated at different mass fractions and concentrations of PEG and salts by ball-on-disc tribometer, ζ-potential, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and dynamic light scatting (DLS) analyses. FINDINGS: These mixtures exhibited superlubricity between Si3N4 and sapphire surfaces in a wide range of concentrations and ions valency. Interestingly, a running-in phase shorter than 1 min and low wear rate of 1.85 µm3/(N·m) were observed at contact pressures up to 555 MPa, significantly higher to earlier findings. PEG chains retain random coils filling the bulk of the interfacial film without strongly adsorbing on the interfaces but significantly increasing the viscosity of lubricating film, thereby favoring hydrodynamic lubrication. Hydrated ions are strongly adsorbed on the negatively charged ceramic surfaces, ensuring a sustained hydration effect maintaining superlubricity. The outstanding lubrication characteristics of the PEG/ions mixtures were attributed to the synergistic action of hydration and hydrodynamic lubrication, which appears as a promising avenue for developing new green lubricants and has implications for industrial and biological applications.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1444-1452, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552447

RESUMO

The lung microbiome plays an important role in the pathophysiological processes associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, only a few studies using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing have been reported, and the interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the lung microbiome remain poorly understood. Patients with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with tuberculosis (TB) were enrolled. We analyzed the lung microbiome in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 30 MTB-positive (MTB+) subjects and 30 MTB negative (MTB-) subjects by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Alpha diversity tended to be lower in the MTB+ group than in the MTB- group. There was a significant difference in beta diversity between the MTB+ and MTB- subjects. MTB+ lung samples were dominated by MTB, while MTB- samples were enriched with Streptococcus, Prevotella, Nesseria, Selenomonas and Bifidobacterium, which more closely resemble the microbial composition of a healthy lung. Network analysis suggested that MTB could greatly impact the microbial community structure. MTB+ and MTB- communities showed distinct functional signatures. Fungal communities were also found to be associated with the presence or absence of MTB. Furthermore, it was confirmed that 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing underrepresents Mycobacterium. This pilot study is the first to explore the interplay between MTB and the host microbiome by using metagenomic sequencing. MTB dominates the lung microbiome of MTB+ subjects, while MTB- subjects have a Streptococcus-enriched microbiome. The 16S approach underrepresents Mycobacterium and is not the best way to study the TB-associated microbiome.

12.
J Immunol ; 204(9): 2331-2336, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229539

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) have a key role in mediating the host defense against tuberculosis (TB) in mice, but their human counterparts have not been well characterized. In this article, we recruited patients with TB and determined TRM frequency, trafficking, activation marker expression, and cytokine production by flow or mass cytometry at different infection sites, including peripheral blood, pleural fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung. We found a high frequency of TRMs at all infection sites apart from the peripheral blood. These TRMs exhibited a memory phenotype, were highly activated (based on CD38 and HLA-DR expression), and expressed high levels of trafficking (CCR5 and CXCR6) and exhaustion (PD-1) markers. When stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TRMs secreted cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and exhibited a multifunctional phenotype. TRMs limited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication in macrophages. These data inform our current understanding of immunosurveillance at different infection sites in patients with TB.

13.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269154

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is still the leading killer caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. There is a clear need for new treatment strategy against TB. It has been reported that tamoxifen, known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), exhibits antimycobacterial activity and inhibits M. tuberculosis growth in macrophages. However, it remains unknown whether such antimicrobial activity is a general property of all SERMs and how it works. In this study, we identified that bazedoxifene (BZA), a newer SERM, inhibits intracellular M. tuberculosis growth in macrophages. BZA treatment increases autophagosome formation and LC3B-II protein expression in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. We further demonstrated that the enhancement of autophagy by BZA is dependent on increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and associated with phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR signaling. In summary, our data reveal a previously unappreciated antimicrobial function of BZA and suggest that future investigation focusing on the mechanism of action of SERMs in macrophages may lead to new host-directed therapies against TB.IMPORTANCE Since current strategies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have low efficacy and highly negative side effects, research on new treatments including novel drugs is essential for curing drug-resistant tuberculosis. Host-directed therapy (HDT) has become a promising idea to modulate host cell responses to enhance protective immunity against pathogens. Bazedoxifene (BZA), which belongs to a new generation of SERMs, shows the ability to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis in macrophages and is associated with autophagy. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized antibacterial function of BZA. We propose that the mechanism of SERMs action in macrophages may provide a new potential measure for host-directed therapies against TB.

14.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321821

RESUMO

xCT forms part of the xc - cysteine-glutamate antiporter which inhibits antimicrobial inflammatory immune functions and thus increases susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the associations between xCT gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to TB, as well as whether these modulate xCT expression or affect treatment with the xCT inhibitor sulfasalazine (SASP), are unclear. In the present study, we genotyped xCT polymorphisms in a large Chinese cohort and found that the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13120371 was associated with susceptibility to TB. The rs13120371 AA genotype was strongly associated with an increased risk of TB and increased xCT mRNA expression levels compared to those with the GG or AG genotype. rs13120371 is located on the 3' untranslated (UTR) region of the xCT gene, in the putative binding site for miR-142-3p, and the results of luciferase reporter assays indicated that the rs13120371 AA genotype inhibited the binding of miR-42-3p to xCT. Bacterial burden was also significantly higher in cells with the AA genotype than in those with the GG genotype. Furthermore, pretreatment with SASP alleviated this burden in cells with the AA genotype but conferred no benefit in cells with the GG phenotype. In summary, we identified a functional SNP (rs13120371) in the xCT 3' UTR region that increases susceptibility to TB through interacting with miR-142-3p.IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent globally, and the development of multidrug resistance represents a serious health concern, particularly in the developing world. Novel effective treatments are urgently required. xCT expression is known to increase susceptibility to TB, and certain polymorphisms in the gene encoding this protein interrupt the binding of microRNA and prevent its suppression. Taking advantage of the FDA approval for the use of sulfasalazine (SASP), which inhibits xCT-mediated cystine transport in humans, we demonstrate how host genotype-specific therapies tailored to the xCT genotype can improve TB outcomes.

16.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(10): 1522-1533, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303963

RESUMO

An improved understanding of the lung microbiome may lead to better strategies to diagnose, treat, and prevent pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, the characteristics of the lung microbiomes of patients with TB remain largely undefined. In this study, 163 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from 163 sputum-negative suspected PTB patients. Furthermore, 12 paired BAL samples were obtained from 12 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive (MTB+) patients before and after negative conversion following a two-month anti-TB treatment. The V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was used to characterize the microbial composition of the lungs. The results showed that the prevalence of MTB in the BAL samples was 42.9% (70/163) among the sputum-negative patients. The α-diversity of lung microbiota was significantly less diverse in MTB+ patients compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-negative (MTB-) patients. There was a significant difference in ß-diversity between MTB+ and MTB- patients. MTB+ patients were enriched with Anoxybacillus, while MTB- patients were enriched with Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Veillonella, and Gemella. There was no significant difference between the Anoxybacillus detection rates of MTB+ and MTB- patients. The paired comparison between the BAL samples from MTB+ patients and their negative conversion showed that BAL negative-conversion microbiota had a higher α-diversity. In conclusion, distinct features of airway microbiota could be identified between samples from patients with and without MTB. Our results imply links between lung microbiota and different clinical groups of active PTB.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102686, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a critical global health problem, which killed millions of lives each year. Certain circulating cell subsets are thought to differentially modulate the host immune response towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, but the nature and function of these subsets is unclear. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from healthy controls (HC), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) and then subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) using 10 × Genomics platform. Unsupervised clustering of the cells based on the gene expression profiles using the Seurat package and passed to tSNE for clustering visualization. Flow cytometry was used to validate the subsets identified by scRNA-Seq. FINDINGS: Cluster analysis based on differential gene expression revealed both known and novel markers for all main PBMC cell types and delineated 29 cell subsets. By comparing the scRNA-seq datasets from HC, LTBI and TB, we found that infection changes the frequency of immune-cell subsets in TB. Specifically, we observed gradual depletion of a natural killer (NK) cell subset (CD3-CD7+GZMB+) from HC, to LTBI and TB. We further verified that the depletion of CD3-CD7+GZMB+ subset in TB and found an increase in this subset frequency after anti-TB treatment. Finally, we confirmed that changes in this subset frequency can distinguish patients with TB from LTBI and HC. INTERPRETATION: We propose that the frequency of CD3-CD7+GZMB+ in peripheral blood could be used as a novel biomarker for distinguishing TB from LTBI and HC. FUND: The study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (81770013, 81525016, 81772145, 81871255 and 91942315), National Science and Technology Major Project (2017ZX10201301), Science and Technology Project of Shenzhen (JCYJ20170412101048337) and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases (2019B030301009). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

19.
J Infect ; 80(6): e19-e26, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171871

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The host-directed therapy is a promising strategy for TB treatment that synergize with anti-TB treatment drugs. In this study, we found that the anti-chronic lymphocytic leukemia drug, ibrutinib, inhibited the growth of intracellular Mtb in human macrophages. Mechanisms studies showed that ibrutinib treatment significantly decreased p62 and increased LC3b proteins in Mtb infected macrophages. In addition, ibrutinib increased LC3b colocalization with intracellular Mtb and auto-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by using siRNA targeting ATG7 abolished the effect of ibrutinib-mediated suppression of intracellular Mtb. Next, we found that ibrutinib induced autophagy was through inhibition of BTK/Akt/mTOR pathway. Finally, we confirmed that ibrutinib treatment significantly reduced Mtb load in mediastinal node and spleen of Mtb infected mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that ibrutinib is a potential host-directed therapy candidate against TB.

20.
Glycobiology ; 30(9): 746-759, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149341

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, effective means for TB diagnosis, especially for bacillus-negative (Bn) TB laboratory diagnosis, are urgently needed. In the present study, serum IgG from each tuberculosis patients and healthy controls was purified using affinity chromatography. The samples were then analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) methods. We quantitatively assessed the changes of serum IgG galactosylation in 567 human serum samples including 377 pulmonary TB patients and 190 healthy donors (HDs). We found significantly more agalactosylated (G0) vs monogalactosylated (G1) and digalactosylated (G2) N-glycans of IgG in TB patients, including smear-negative TB patients, than in HDs. The detection rate of TB diagnostic performance by MS for IgG-Gal ratio G0/(G1 + G2 × 2) is 90.48% for bacillus-positive (Bp) and 73.16% for Bn TB patients. Further, combination of MS method with other routine laboratory TB diagnostic methods significantly increased the detection rate to 91.01%-98.39%. Similar results were observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection mouse models. The decrease in galactosylation of IgG in TB patients was also qualitatively confirmed using specific lectin blot assay. Using the above techniques, we can discriminate the content of IgG G0 with terminal N-acetylglucosamine and IgG-Gal ratio G0/(G1 + G2 × 2) between TB patients and HDs. Our data suggest that quantitative analysis of serum-based IgG-Gal ratio G0/(G1 + G2 × 2) could be used for TB auxiliary diagnosis with high effectiveness and feasibility and its combination with other routine laboratory TB diagnostic methods could remarkably improve the detection rate.

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