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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(4): 045403, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604342

RESUMO

A high-performance supercapacitor electrode NiCo2S4 (NCS) nanosheet on SiO2@C core-shell nanospheres (SiO2@C-NCS nanocomposite) is prepared via simple an effective solution-based method. Benefiting from compositional and structural advantages, the as-prepared SiO2@C-NCS nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacitance (625 F g-1 at 1 mA cm-2) and a stable cycling performance. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) assembled with SiO2@C-NCS nanocomposite as a positive electrode and carbon nanotube paper as a negative electrode in aqueous KOH solution demonstrated a high energy density of 16 Wh kg-1 at an ultra-high specific power of 7200 W kg-1. These promising results suggest the possible application of mixed transition metal sulfides-based composites as advanced electrode materials for high-performance ASCs.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(6): 3424-3431, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748035

RESUMO

The AgBrO3/few-layer g-C3N4 composite photocatalyst has been developed via an in-situ synthetic method. The structure, morphology, light response range, separation and migration efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and element valence state of the as-obtained samples have been characterized. The tetracycline was used to discuss the photocatalytic activities of the samples. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of the as-obtained composites was also researched. The analysis results show that the photocatalytic degradation property of the asobtained composite photocatalyst appears to the tendency of first increasing and then decreasing with increasing the amount of AgBrO3 under visible light illumination. When the mass ratio of AgBrO3 to g-C3N4 is 4:3, in 60 min, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the as-obtained composites reaches the maximum of 79%. It is 37% and 45% higher than that of pure AgBrO3 and g-C3N4, respectively. Moreover, the separation and migration efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs of the as-prepared composites are also enhanced. In addition, superoxide radicals and holes are the dominant active species during the photocatalytic degradation process.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacist interventions in the cancer pain management of hospitalized patients, focusing on a clinically meaningful change in drug-related problems and pain score. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was performed at a single academic comprehensive cancer center. Hospitalized patients with moderate to severe pain who had already received analgesic medication for at least 3 consecutive days were included. For patients who met the criteria for admission, a pharmacist followed up daily during hospitalization and evaluated the patient during pre- (first) and postintervention (second, third, and fourth) visits. Medication problems, medication changes, and changes in pain scores were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 195 patients were included in the study. The pharmacist identified 12 types of pharmacotherapeutic drug-related problems. The top 3 problems were nonadherence or missed doses (27.69%), inappropriate opioid selection (22.56%), and inappropriate dosage (16.41%). After the intervention of pharmacists, these drug-related problems decreased by 74.54% on average. Across all visits, the changes in pain scores (mean ± SD: 2.80 ± 1.92 vs. 1.90 ± 1.58, P < 0.05) and the number of patients with mild (172 vs. 128, P < 0.05), moderate (58 vs. 21, P < 0.05), and severe pain (9 vs. 2, P < 0.05) indicated a marked decrease in patients' pain levels after the inclusion of pharmacist in the cancer pain multidisciplinary management team (CPMMT). CONCLUSION: Participation by the pharmacist in the CPMMT led to a marked reduction in most of the drug-related problems and a statistically significant change in pain score during the 4 visits, indicating that pharmacists play an active role in CPMMT.

4.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 83-92, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756407

RESUMO

Adult attachment is particularly known for the modulating role of caregiving motivation and behavior. Although most studies consider attachment style relatively stable, it may also be affected by various situational factors, and these temporary fluctuations are related to meaningful behaviors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study aims to examine whether neural responses to infant faces are moderated by participants' state attachment. The results indicated that state attachment security was positively associated with increased inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula activation to infant crying. State attachment anxiety was positively associated with increased insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation to infant crying as well as enhanced cuneus activation to infant joy. In contrast, state attachment avoidance was negatively associated with amygdala activity in response to both infant joy and crying as well as insula and ACC activation in response to infant joy. Moderation analysis found that the relationship between the prediction effect of state attachment avoidance on ACC activity was gradually weakened with the attenuation of participants' trait attachment avoidance. These results demonstrate that neural responses to infant faces are moderated by individual differences in state attachment, thereby demonstrating that state attachment is an effective measure to capture the variation in maternal ability.

5.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2019: 9820210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772623

RESUMO

Aims: GDF-15 is considered to be an important biomarker for cardiovascular events, but the differences in serum GDF-15 levels between acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and non-AMI patients warrant further investigation. Methods: A cohort of 409 subjects was enrolled in the current study. The Syntax score was calculated from the baseline coronary angiography results by using online methods. Blood samples were obtained at the start of the study for an assessment of GDF-15 by using ELISA methods. Results: Patients with AMI had significantly higher levels of serum GDF-15 (Wilcox test, P < 0.001), Syntax scores (Wilcox test, P = 0.006), and left ventricular ejection fractions (LEVF, Wilcox test, P< 0.001). However, no significant differences were present among the other clinical characteristics. The logistical regression analysis indicated that serum GDF-15 levels (P=0.01534) were independent predictors of non-AMI and AMI after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and LVEF. Conclusions: Elevated serum levels of GDF-15 are independently associated with the risk of MI, and GDF-15 may serve as a protective factor for MI in the cardiovascular system.

6.
Opt Lett ; 44(23): 5876-5879, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774802

RESUMO

By arranging two pairs of high-index dielectric disks into a unit cell, a novel, to the best of our knowledge, terahertz metamaterials sensor integrated with a microfluidic channel is proposed. With the introduction of a new way of symmetry breaking in the unit cell, the strong toroidal dipole response with ultrahigh-Q is excited and investigated, which is related to the existence of the trapped mode. The simulation results show that the calculated quality factor and the corresponding figure of merit (FoM) of this sensor can reach 3189 and 515, respectively. These advantages allow for the proposed structure to have potential applications in high-performance gases, liquids, and biological materials sensing.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(46): 43393-43408, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701733

RESUMO

Inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) that enhances the immunogenicity of dead cancer cells is a new strategy for tumor immunotherapy, but efficiently triggering ICD is the biggest obstacle to achieving this strategy, especially for distant and deep-seated tumors. Here, a new therapeutic system (Pd-Dox@TGMs NPs) that can effectively trigger ICD by combining chemotherapy and photothermal therapy was designed. The nanosystem was fabricated by integrating doxorubicin (Dox) and a photothermal reagent palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) into amphiphile triglycerol monostearates (TGMs), which showed specific accumulation, deep penetration, and activation in response to the tumoral enzymatic microenvironment. It was proved that codelivery of Dox and Pd NPs not only effectively killed CT26 cells through chemotherapy and photothermal therapy but also promoted the release of dangerous signaling molecules, such as high mobility group box 1, calreticulin, and adenosine triphosphate, improving the immunogenicity of dead tumor cells. The effective ICD induction mediated by Pd-Dox@TGMs NPs boosted the PD-L1 checkpoint blockade effect, which efficiently improved the infiltration of toxic T lymphocytes at the tumor site and showed excellent tumor treatment effects to both primary and abscopal tumors. Therefore, this work provides a simple and effective immunotherapeutic strategy by combining chemical-photothermal therapy to enhance immune response.

8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111653, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710929

RESUMO

Autophagy is an important process for maintaining intracellular homeostasis. Our previous study demonstrated that autophagy was down-regulated in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated keratinocytes. Raffinose is a natural oligosaccharide that serves as a novel activator of autophagy and as a balancing agent to regulate the diversity of environmental stress. However, whether raffinose balances ultraviolet stress through the autophagy activation pathway has yet to be established. In this study, we found that raffinose treatment inhibited the LDH release and trypan blue staining in UVB-challenged human keratinocytes cell line HaCaT but did not affect the cleavage of apoptotic markers Caspase-3 and PARP, as well as translocation into nucleus of other cell death markers Endonuclease G and AIF. Moreover, we confirmed that raffinose treatment enhanced autophagy flux in an MTOR-independent manner in HaCaT cells. Importantly, decrease of LC3-II turnover in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes could be rescued by raffinose treatment, indicating that raffinose treatment increased autophagy in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, the effect on cell death by raffinose was inhibited when autophagy was suppressed with either a small interfering RNA targeting ATG5 (siATG5) or autophagic inhibitor wortmannin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that raffinose increases MTOR-independent autophagy and reduces cell death in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Our study indicated that the natural agent raffinose presents the potential value in opposing photodamage.

9.
Mar Genomics ; : 100719, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680055

RESUMO

The Acinetobacter baumanni J1 isolated from surface water of the Eastern Pacific Ocean, demonstrated significant algicidal activity on the algae Alexandrium tamarense. Interestingly, this strain showed the ability to produce an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing molecule. To better understand its AHL producing mechanism and its ecological functions, the genome of A. baumanni strain J1 was completely sequenced. The genome contained a circular chromosome of 3,948,465 bp with an average GC content of 39.9 mol%. A total of 3707 protein coding genes, 41 tRNA genes and 16 rRNA genes were obtained. In silico genome annotation identified a LuxI putative gene located on contig 4. Subsequent thin-layer chromatography analysis indicated that C8-AHL could be produced by A. baumanni J1, which confirmed the authenticity of the LuxI gene. Taken together, this work describes an algicidal bacterium that is capable of producing an AHL molecule, which may represent a valuable tool for developing microbial methods to control harmful algae.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681258

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02047.].

11.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of inflammatory factors pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) during pregnancy and their relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: The nested case-control study method was used. Eighty non-obese single-pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were included into the case group (GDM, n = 80), together with another eighty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were matched in the same period and divided into the control group (CON, n = 80), for detecting multiple biochemical indicators in different pregnancy stages by ELISA. RESULTS: The serum levels of PTX3 and hs-CRP in pregnant women increased with the increase of gestational age (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). The levels of PTX3 and hs-CRP in group GDM were significantly higher in the middle and late pregnancy stages than group CON (p < 0.01, p < 0.05; p < 0.05, p < 0.05). PTX3 was positively correlated with hs-CRP, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR). CONCLUSIONS: PTX3 and hs-CRP may be related to the pathogenesis of GDM, and they are significantly increased in the second trimester, which provides a new idea for early prevention and treatment of GDM and risk prediction of long-term cardiovascular diseases.

12.
Comput Biol Chem ; 83: 107135, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751880

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disorder, and its pathogenesis in males and in cases without accompanying lupus nephritis (LN-) is not fully understood. In this study, we identified 90 (82 up- and 8 downregulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) common to female LN-, female LN+ and male LN+ using the GSE65391 and GSE49454 gene expression datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of 70 DEGs was constructed using STRING and cytoscape, and the Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PPI network was significantly enriched in defense response to virus, cytosol, protein binding and measles. Sixteen hubgenes were identified from this PPI network, and Literature Mining Gene Networks molecular of GenCLiP 2.0 showed strong interaction between STAT1, DDX58 and IFIT1. Enrichment analysis of hubgenes in published literature showed the involvement of immune response and interferon-related genes in the pathogenesis of SLE. In addition, the transcription factors STAT1 & 2 and IRF6 & 9 had high Normalized Enrichment Score (NES). The 70 DEGs with PPI network and 16 hubgenes are potential biomarkers of SLE, and can help improve diagnosis and develop individualized therapies.

13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760755

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are closely associated with various chronic diseases, are formed through the Maillard reaction when aldehydes react with amines in heated foods or in living organisms. The fate of dietary AGEs after oral intake plays a crucial role in regulating the association between dietary AGEs and their biological effects. However, the complexity and diversity of dietary AGEs make their fate ambiguous. Glycated modifications can impair the digestion, transport and uptake of dietary AGEs. High and low molecular weight AGEs may exhibit individual differences in their distribution, metabolism and excretion. Approximately 50-60% of free AGEs are excreted after dietary intake, whereas protein-bound AGEs exhibit a limited excretion rate. In this article, we summarize several AGE classification criteria and their abundance in foods, and in the body. A standardized static in vitro digestion method is strongly recommended to obtain comparable results of AGE digestibility. Sophisticated hypotheses regarding the intestinal transportation and absorption of drugs, as well as calculated physicochemical parameters, are expected to alleviate the difficulties determining the digestion, transport and uptake of dietary AGEs. Orally supplied AGEs with low or high molecular weights must be supported by well-defined amounts in investigations of excretion. Furthermore, unequivocal evidence should be obtained regarding the degradation and metabolism products of dietary AGEs.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762286

RESUMO

Visible-light driven photoreactions using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as catalysts are promising with regard to their environmental friendly features such as the use of renewable and sustainable energy of visible light and potential catalyst recyclability. To develop potential heterogeneous photocatalysts, a family of three copper(II) coordination polymers bearing different Cu-O assemblies have been synthesized with the ligand 4,4'-disulfo-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2,2'-dicarboxylate acid (H4DSDC), namely, {[Cu7(DSDC)2(OH)6(H2O)10]·xH2O}n (1), {[Cu4(DSDC)(4,4'-bpy)2(OH)4]·2H2O}n (2), and {Cu2(DSDC)(phen)2(H2O)2}n (3) (4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Complex 1 represents a metal-organic framework featuring a NbO type topology constructed from the infinite linkage of heptanuclear [Cu7(µ3-OH)6(H2O)10]8+ clusters by deprotonated DSDC4- ligands, comprising one-dimensional hexagonal channels of a diameter around 11 Å that are filled with water molecules. The infinite waving {[Cu2(OH)2]2+}n ladderlike chains in complex 2 are bridged by DSDC4- and 4,4'-bpy ligands into a three-dimensional framework. A two-dimensional layered structure is formed in complex 3 due to the existence of terminal phenanthroline ligands. All of the coordination polymers 1-3 are able to catalyze the visible-light driven oxidation of alcohols at mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant, in which complex 1 demonstrates satisfactory efficiency. Significantly for this photoreaction catalyzed by 1, the extent of oxidation over aryl primary alcohols is fully controllable with time-resolved product selectivity, giving either corresponding aldehydes or carboxylate acids in good yields. It is also remarkable that the photocatalyst could be recovered almost quantitatively on completion of the catalytic cycle without any structure change, and could be recycled for catalytic use for at least five cycles with constant efficiency. This photocatalyst with time-resolved selectivity for different products may provide new insight into the design and development of novel catalytic systems.

15.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730327

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are a severe threat to public health owing to their high risk of fatality. Noticeably, the premature degradation and undeveloped imaging ability of antibiotics still remain challenging. Herein, a selenium nanosystem in response to a bacteria-infected microenvironment is proposed as an antibiotic substitute to detect and inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a combined strategy. Using natural red blood cell membrane (RBCM) and bacteria-responsive gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs), the Ru-Se@GNP-RBCM nanosystem was constructed for effective delivery of Ru-complex-modified selenium nanoparticles (Ru-Se NPs). Taking advantage of natural RBCM, the immune system clearance was reduced and exotoxins were neutralized efficiently. GNPs could be degraded by gelatinase in pathogen-infected areas in situ; therefore, Ru-Se NPs were released to destroy the bacteria cells. Ru-Se NPs with intense fluorescence imaging capability could accurately monitor the infection treatment process. Moreover, excellent in vivo bacteria elimination and a facilitated wound healing process were confirmed by two kinds of MRSA-infected mice models. Overall, the above advantages proved that the prepared nanosystem is a promising antibiotic alternative to combat the ever-threatening multidrug-resistant bacteria.

16.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122410, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757616

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate how the initial C/N ratio during composting of chicken manure/corn stover mix affected the succession of dominant bacteria in the mix which led to the reduction of the total losses of N and C in the composting process. 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that the succession of predominant bacteria was significantly affected by the temperature and the initial C/N ratio during composting. Redundancy analysis showed that higher C/N appeared to promote the relative abundance of nitrogen fixing bacteria Thermoactinomyces, Planifilum, Flavobacterium, Bacillaceae, Pseudomonas,Sphingobacterium, Paenibacillus, Bacillus and Thermobifida, while compressing the denitrifying bacteria Pusillimonas, Ignatzschineria, Alcanivorax, Cerasibacillus, Truepera and Erysipelothrix. C/N ratio of 30:1 yielded the least C/N losses in the composting process, indicating that adjustment to the initial C/N ratio could affect nitrogen transforming bacteria to reduce the total losses of N and C and improve compost quality.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730976

RESUMO

Amino acids (AAs) are increasingly applied as nutrient supplements and played a crucial role in human nutrition and health maintenance. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of different AAs on the physicochemical and digestive properties of potato starch (PS); and investigate whether heat moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing (ANN) had different impacts on the complexes between starch and AAs. PS mixed with different AAs, represented by Lys, Ser, Ala, and Asp, were modified by HMT and ANN. Both different AAs addition and hydrothermal treatments significantly increased the pasting and gelatinization temperatures, and decreased swelling power, peak viscosity and enthalpy change for physically mixed samples. In general, different AAs retarded the recrystallization of PS, while hydrothermal treatments promoted retrogradation of PS. The addition of different AAs decreased the RDS and increased RS contents for all cooked samples. Electrostatic interactions between PS with phosphate-monoester derivatives and different charge-carrying AAs formed during hydrothermal treatments, resulting in modify physicochemical and digestive properties of PS. HMT showed greater influence on physicochemical and digestive properties of PS-AA complexes than ANN. This study will enrich interaction theory between starch and AAs, and improve the nutritional values of PS-based products during food thermal processing.

18.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717655

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are present in heat-processed foods, have been associated with several chronic diseases. Sodium chloride (NaCl) modulates the formation of furfurals and acrylamide in the Maillard reaction; however, the effects of NaCl on AGE formation are inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaCl on pyrraline formation using glucose-lysine model systems. NaCl, especially at 0.50%, promoted Maillard browning and pyrraline formation, with a simultaneous increase in the 3-deoxyglucosone concentration. To reduce the rate of pyrraline formation, NaCl coated with different gums and starches were used. The results showed that NaCl encapsulation is an effective approach to mitigate pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone formation. The content of NaCl in the microparticles were 284 ± 12, 269 ± 6, 258 ± 8, 247 ± 10, 273 ± 16, and 288 ± 15 mg/g (coated with waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, HYLON VII high amylose maize starch, gelatinized resistant starch, xanthan gum, and gum arabic, respectively). The heat resistance of the coating material was negatively correlated with the pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone formation, whereas the solubility of the coating material had the opposite results. Coating the material with gum had little effects on the reduction of pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712130

RESUMO

This study evaluates the effects of different dietary sources of non-protein energy on growth performance, histological structure, antioxidant status and immune response of barramundi Lates calcarifer. Fish were fed with isoenergetic diets (18 kJ/g) with two types of non-protein energy in the experimental groups and a regular diet was used as the control for 56 days. The specific growth rate and survival of fish were not significantly different between experimental diets. Hepatic histology did not reveal significant differences between dietary treatments at cellular level. The activity of most antioxidant enzymes in the lipid group significantly increased, and the antioxidant capacity in the carbohydrate group was significantly higher than that in other treatments. In the TOR pathway, LST8 homolog (mLST8) expression in the high lipid group was downregulated, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression in the high carbohydrate group was downregulated and eIF4E expression was upregulated. The C-reactive protein (CRP) expression in the high lipid and high carbohydrate groups was upregulated. The expression levels of heat shock protein genes in the high lipid group and the high carbohydrate group were significantly downregulated. This study indicates that the lipid diet have less effect in fish immunity but is more suitable as a non-protein ingredient for energy supply for barramundi.

20.
Nanoscale ; 11(42): 19742-19750, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626257

RESUMO

Thermal radiation with narrow bandwidth and well-defined emission directions is highly sought after for a variety of applications, ranging from infrared sensing and thermal imaging to thermophotovoltaics. Here, a large-area (4-inch-diameter) long-wavelength infrared thermal emitter is presented, which is spectrally selective, highly directional, and easily fabricated. The basic structure of the proposed thermal emitter is composed of a truncated one-dimensional photonic crystal and a continuous metallic film separated by a dielectric spacer. Experimental results show that the emitter exhibits a narrowband thermal emittance peak of 92% in the normal direction at the wavenumber of 943.4 cm-1 with a bandwidth of 12.5 cm-1 and a narrow angular emission lobe with a limited solid angle of 0.325 sr (0.115 sr) for s (p) polarization. Numerical simulation analyses are performed to corroborate the experimental observations. Temporal coupled-mode theory combined with transfer matrix method is employed to analytically investigate the emission properties of the structure, which not only can be used to understand the experimental results, but also plays a certain guidance role in designing a thermal emitter with the desired properties. The present thermal emitter can be implemented for thermal photonics management, allowing applications in thermal imaging and medical systems, etc.

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