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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 231: 123250, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639086

RESUMO

Lignin precursor labeled with 13C (coniferin-13Cα), carbohydrate precursor labeled with D (6,6-D2-glucose) were put into cambium tissue stripped from a growing poplar. The tissue was further cultured in vitro for 18d. Then, the isotopic abundance was determined. The results showed that the labeled precursors could be normally involved in the formation of new xylem. The labeled new xylem tissue was fractionated by ionic liquid DMSO/TBAH system to obtain two components: glucan-lignin complex (GL) and xylan-lignin complex (XL). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the crystalline form of cellulose in the GL component was transformed from type I to type II after the ionic liquid separation. Then the GL and XL were purified and modified by enzymatic and chemical methods, and their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that lignin subunits in the cultured tissues were mainly connected by ß-5 and ß-O-4 linkages, of which the ß-O-4 substructure unit predominated. Lignin and carbohydrates were mainly connected by acetal bonds, ether bonds, and ester bonds. Combined with the carbohydrate composition and XRD analysis results, the GL components also confirmed the existence of acetal bonds, ester bonds and ether bonds between lignin and cellulose.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(1): 2237-2245, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539259

RESUMO

Photoswitchable fluorescent materials are desirable for many applications because their emission signals can be easily modulated on demand. In this study, novel photoswitchable multistate fluorescent supramolecular polymers (PMFSPs) were prepared via host-guest interactions under a facile ultrasonication strategy. In the system, photochromic fluorescent diarylethylene monomer (SDTE, donor) and adamantane-containing monomer (BAC) were covalently combined into the backbone of the guest polymer (P1) via radical copolymerization. Meanwhile, the host moiety (CDSP, acceptor) was synthesized by covalent incorporation of photochromic spiropyran dye (SPCOOH) with ß-cyclodextrin. By adjusting the stimulation wavelength and utilizing photoinduced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the supramolecular polymers can undergo reversible tristate fluorescence switching among none, red, and green. In addition, due to the high contrast, rapid photoresponsiveness and prominent photoreversibility of the prepared PMFSPs, we demonstrated that they have great potential in advanced anti-counterfeiting and multilevel information encryption.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia up-regulated 1 (HYOU1) was identified as a proto-oncogene and involved in tumorigenesis and progression in several cancer. Nonetheless, the biological function and mechanism of HYOU1 in bladder cancer (BCa) remian unclear. METHODS: The HYOU1 level in BCa tissues and cells was examined using RT-qPCR and western blot methods. The relationship between HYOU1 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of BCa was analyzed. The biological role of HYOU1 on BCa cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed via counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. The association between HYOU1 and the PI3K/AKT/Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) signalling was assessed via western blot assay, meanwhile the the association of FOXO1 with HYOU1 was also investigated. RESULTS: HYOU1 was up-regulated in BCa tissues and cell lines, and the high level of HYOU1 was associated with bladder cancer histological grade and pathologic stage. Moreover, patients with high expression of HYOU1 showed poor overall survival from Kaplan-Meier Plotter. HYOU1 depletion impeded cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis, while HYOU1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Mechanically, our results showed that HYOU1 knockdown repressed PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 pathway and HYOU1 was negative regulated by FOXO1 in BCa. Significantly, we confirmed that the HYOU1/PI3K-AKT/FOXO1 negative feedback loop was involved in BCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSION: These findings revealed that HYOU1 acted as a pro-oncogene on BCa progression, and it will be a possible target for BCa treatment.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2143698, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369829

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading malignancies that causes death worldwide. Cancer vaccines and oncolytic immunotherapy bring new hope for patients with advanced CRC. The capability of vaccinia virus (VV) in carrying foreign genes as antigens or immunostimulatory factors has been demonstrated in animal models. VV of Wyeth, Western Reserve, Lister, Tian Tan, and Copenhagen strains have been engineered for the induction of antitumor response in multiple cancers. This paper summarized the preclinical and clinical application and development of VV serving as cancer vaccines and oncolytic vectors in CRC treatment. Additionally, the remaining challenges and future direction are also discussed.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 1063489, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440424

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of depression has been increasing globally, which has brought a serious burden to society. Sinisan Formula (SNSF), a well-known formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been found to demonstrate an antidepressant effect. However, the therapeutic mechanism of this formula remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the mechanism of SNSF in depression through network pharmacology combined with molecular docking methods. Materials and methods: Bioactive compounds, potential targets of SNSF, and related genes of depression were obtained from public databases. Essential ingredients, potential targets, and signaling pathways were identified using bioinformatics analysis, including protein-protein interaction (PPI), the Gene Ontology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Subsequently, Autodock software was further performed for conducting molecular docking to verify the binding ability of active ingredients to targets. Results: A total of 91 active compounds were successfully identified in SNSF with the use of the comprehensive network pharmacology approach, and they were found to be closely connected to 112 depression-related targets, among which CREB1, NOS3, CASP3, TP53, ESR1, and SLC6A4 might be the main potential targets for the treatment of depression. GO analysis revealed 801 biological processes, 123 molecular functions, and 67 cellular components. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis indicated that neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse pathways, dopaminergic synapse pathways, and GABAergic synapse pathways might have played a role in treating depression. Molecular docking suggested that beta-sitosterol, nobiletin, and 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone bound well to the main potential targets. Conclusion: This study comprehensively illuminated the active ingredients, potential targets, primary pharmacological effects, and relevant mechanism of the SNSF in the treatment of depression. SNSF might exert its antidepressant effects by regulating the signaling pathway of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, GABA, and neuroactive ligand receptor interactions. Still, more pharmacological experiments are needed for verification.

6.
Chemistry ; 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437508

RESUMO

To meet the need of high energy density, long durability, safe and cost-efficient energy conversion and storage devices, metal-air batteries like Li-O 2  and Zn-O 2  batteries have received enormous attentions and made exciting developments in the past decade. Photo-assisted strategies that enable the effective combination of photo/electric energy conversion/storage render a new dimension for the conventional metal-air batteries techniques with mere electric energy utilization. Therefor, tremendous research is ongoing in search for more efficient and durable devices with photo-assisted strategies. This review provides an overview of photo-assisted Li-O 2  batteries, Zn-O 2  batteries, and batteries with various metal/air components. The working mechanism, the basic device architecture and practical performances of various photo-assisted systems are summarized and discussed. Furthermore, certain technical challenges and future opportunities for the photo-assisted metal air batteries are emphasized and discussed with the hope of stimulating further researches.

7.
Cell Rep ; 41(2): 111483, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223737

RESUMO

The critical role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking in long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission is now well established, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still uncertain. Recent research suggests that PSD-95 captures AMPARs via an interaction with the AMPAR auxiliary subunits-transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). To determine if such interaction is a core minimal component of the AMPAR trafficking and LTP mechanism, we engineered artificial binding partners, which individually were biochemically and functionally dead but which, when expressed together, rescue binding and both basal synaptic transmission and LTP. These findings establish the TARP/PSD-95 complex as an essential interaction underlying AMPAR trafficking and LTP.


Assuntos
Potenciação de Longa Duração , Receptores de AMPA , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
8.
Schizophrenia (Heidelb) ; 8(1): 88, 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309534

RESUMO

The aberration in cortical gyrification seen in schizophrenia likely originates in the earliest phase of life, as gyrification begins in utero and reaches its peak in infancy. However, emerging observations have indicated a later reduction in gyrification, especially in early adulthood, may also occur in schizophrenia. At present, it is unclear whether the baseline and later gyrification reduction has any prognostic importance in schizophrenia. We address this question in a longitudinal design in patients minimally medicated at inception. About 108 minimally medicated (duration of medication = <14 days of antipsychotics) patients and 106 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, with 34 patients being selectively re-scanned when clinically stable following antipsychotic treatment. The cortical surface from each structural image was reconstructed, and the local gyrification index and cortical thickness were computed for each vertex on the surface. We found minimally medicated schizophrenia patients during the first episode had a relatively higher gyrification in bilateral supramarginal, left superior temporal, and right posterior cingulate and paracentral regions. However, poor prognostic features were more likely in patients with lower baseline gyrification. Longitudinal reductions in left superior parietal and right precentral gyrification were associated with lower improvements in both positive and negative symptoms over time. The spatial pattern of longitudinal changes in gyrification was distinct from the changes in cortical thickness. These results indicated that schizophrenia is characterized by a relative hypergyrification in parieto-temporal and medial cortical areas at a group level at first presentation, but poor outcomes relate to lower-gyrification elsewhere both at the onset and during the early course. The early post-onset reduction of gyrification is rather limited in space and magnitude, but occurs unrelated to the progressive thinning, representing a distinct, prognostically important structural trajectory.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(41): 46665-46672, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194838

RESUMO

Aqueous Zn (zinc) metal batteries have gotten a lot of interest and research because of their great volumetric capacity, low production cost, and high use safety. However, the coulombic efficiency of the Zn metal anode is low due to Zn dendrites formed during the charging and discharging processes of the battery, and the corrosion problem of the Zn anode in the electrolyte also reduces the battery's cycling stability and hinders its practical application. In this paper, InF3 has been used to decorate the surface of Zn foil, and In (indium) and ZnF2 coatings have been introduced to the surface of metal Zn simultaneously. After 1400 h of plating and stripping cycles, a symmetrical battery assembled from the modified Zn foil can still maintain a low voltage hysteresis of 30 mV. The Zn-ion capacitor assembled by the InF3-modified Zn foil (Zn@In&ZnF2) and activated carbon delivers an energy density of 33.5 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 1608 W kg-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 and can still maintain almost 100% capacity after 10,000 cycles. This work is helpful to improve the cycling stability and the corrosion problem of aqueous Zn-based batteries.

10.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116360, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191505

RESUMO

Under the strict control measures, China has achieved phased victory in combating with the COVID-19, production activities have gradually returned to normal. This paper examined whether air pollution was rebounded or realized green recovery in the post-COVID-19 era with a dataset of weather normalized pollutant concentrations using difference-in-differences models. Results showed that air pollution experienced a significant decline due to the wide range of control measures. With entering the post-epidemic period, air pollution raised due to the orderly production resumption. Specifically, production resumption increased the PM2.5 concentrations of lockdown cities and non-lockdown cities by 43.2% (22.3 µg/m3) and 35.9% (17.3 µg/m3) compared with that in the period of COVID-19 breakout. Although the economic activities of China have been gradually recovered, PM2.5 concentrations were 8.8-11.2 µg/m3 lower than the level of pre-epidemic period. In addition, the environmental effects varied across cities. With the process of production resumption, the PM2.5 concentrations of cities with higher GDP, higher secondary industry output, more private cars and higher export volume rebounded less. Most developed cities realized green recovery by economy growth and air quality improvement, such as Beijing and Shanghai. While cities with heavy industry reflected pollution rebound with slow economy recovery, such as Shenyang and Harbin. Understanding the environmental effects of control measure and production resumption can provide crucial information for developing epidemic recovery policies and dealing with pollution issues for both China and other countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades
11.
Int J Mol Med ; 50(5)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069216

RESUMO

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to the Editors' attention by a concerned reader that certain of the flow cytometric assay data shown for the cell invasion assays in Figs. 2C, 4C and 5D, and the tumour images shown in Fig. 6A, were strikingly similar to data appearing in different form in other articles by different authors. Moreover, it appeared as if certain of the same data may have reappeared on more than one occasion in the flow cytometric plots shown in Figs. 2, 4 and 5. Owing to the fact that the contentious data in the above article had already been published elsewhere, or were already under consideration for publication, prior to its submission to International Journal of Molecular Medicine, the Editor has decided that this paper should be retracted from the Journal. The authors were asked for an explanation to account for these concerns, but the Editorial Office did not receive a reply. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [International Journal of Molecular Medicine 45: 597­606, 2020; DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4429].

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134713

RESUMO

As the most prevalent internal modification in eukaryotic RNAs, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been discovered to play an essential role in cellular proliferation, metabolic homeostasis, embryonic development, etc. With the rapid accumulation of research interest in m6A, its crucial roles in the regulations of disease development and drug response are gaining more and more attention. Thus, a database offering such valuable data on m6A-centered regulation is greatly needed; however, no such database is as yet available. Herein, a new database named 'M6AREG' is developed to (i) systematically cover, for the first time, data on the effects of m6A-centered regulation on both disease development and drug response, (ii) explicitly describe the molecular mechanism underlying each type of regulation and (iii) fully reference the collected data by cross-linking to existing databases. Since the accumulated data are valuable for researchers in diverse disciplines (such as pathology and pathophysiology, clinical laboratory diagnostics, medicinal biochemistry and drug design), M6AREG is expected to have many implications for the future conduct of m6A-based regulation studies. It is currently accessible by all users at: https://idrblab.org/m6areg/.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(32): e2204141, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106360

RESUMO

From the point of view of the ecological environment, contaminants such as heavy metal ions or toxic gases have caused harmful impacts on the environment and human health, and overcoming these adverse effects remains a serious and important task. Very recent, highly crystalline porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with tailorable chemistry and excellent chemical stability, have shown promising properties in the field of removing various hazardous pollutants. This review concentrates on the recent progress of MOFs and MOF-based materials and their exploit in environmental applications, mainly including water treatment and gas storage and separation. Finally, challenges and trends of MOFs and MOF-based materials for future developments are discussed and explored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Adsorção , Metais Pesados/química , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Íons , Gases
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100789

RESUMO

Increasing water demand is exacerbating water shortages in water-scarce regions (such as India, China, and Iran). Effective water demand forecasting is essential for the sustainable management of water supply systems in watersheds. To alleviate the contradiction between water supply and demand in the basin, with water demand for economic growth as the main target, a hybrid moving autoregressive and deep neural network model (ARMA-DNN) was developed in this study, and four commonly used statistical indicators (MAE, RMSE, MSE, and R2) were selected to evaluate the performance of the model. Finally, the validity and practicality of the model were verified by taking the Minjiang River basin in China as an example. The results show that (a) the model can predict future water demand more accurately under the conditions of actual water consumption changes, (b) the ideal agricultural production in the Minjiang River Basin is predicted to be reached 2.26 × 109t in 2021, and (c) the highest industrial economic efficiency in Chengdu is 1.51 × 109yuan, while water satisfaction reaches 102%. This means that effective water demand forecasting can alleviate water demand conflicts under climate change conditions to a certain extent. At the same time, watershed managers can develop different water allocation schemes based on the prediction results of the hybrid ARMA-DNN model.

15.
Opt Lett ; 47(15): 3748-3751, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913305

RESUMO

A highly sensitive strain sensor based on a helical-core long-period fiber grating (HC-LPFG) is proposed and experimentally investigated. The helical core is fabricated in the common single-mode fiber by using a high-frequency CO2 laser and hydrogen-oxygen flame. This helical shape core of the structure experienced the highly centralized refractive index modulation, which enhances the strain sensitivity and shortens the length of the sensing area to 2 mm. Experimental results indicate that the maximum strain sensitivity of the HC-LPFG reaches -97 pm/µÉ› within the measuring range of 0-400 µÉ›.

16.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 45: 119269, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression level of EMX2 plays an important role in the development of nervous system and cancers. CNE2.04, a conserved enhancer downstream of emx2, drives fluorescent protein expression in the similar pattern of emx2. METHODS: CNE2.04 truncated or motif-mutated transgenic reporter plasmids were constructed and injected into the zebrafish fertilized egg with Tol2 mRNA at the unicellular stage of zebrafish eggs. The green fluorescence expression patterns were observed at 24, 48, and 72 hpf, and the fluorescence rates of different tissues were counted at 48 hpf. RESULTS: Compared to CNE2.04, CNE2.04-R400 had comparable enhancer activity, while the tissue specificity of CNE2.04-L400 was obviously changed. Motif CCCCTC mutation obviously changed the enhancer activity, while motif CCGCTC mutations also changed it. CONCLUSION: Due to their correlation with tissue specificity, CNE2.04-R400 is associated with the tissue-specificity of CNE2.04, and motif CCCCTC plays an important role in the enhancer activity of CNE2.04.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4591, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933437

RESUMO

The explosion in demand for massive data processing and storage requires revolutionary memory technologies featuring ultrahigh speed, ultralong retention, ultrahigh capacity and ultralow energy consumption. Although a breakthrough in ultrafast floating-gate memory has been achieved very recently, it still suffers a high operation voltage (tens of volts) due to the Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling mechanism. It is still a great challenge to realize ultrafast nonvolatile storage with low operation voltage. Here we propose a floating-gate memory with a structure of MoS2/hBN/MoS2/graphdiyne oxide/WSe2, in which a threshold switching layer, graphdiyne oxide, instead of a dielectric blocking layer in conventional floating-gate memories, is used to connect the floating gate and control gate. The volatile threshold switching characteristic of graphdiyne oxide allows the direct charge injection from control gate to floating gate by applying a nanosecond voltage pulse (20 ns) with low magnitude (2 V), and restricts the injected charges in floating gate for a long-term retention (10 years) after the pulse. The high operation speed and low voltage endow the device with an ultralow energy consumption of 10 fJ. These results demonstrate a new strategy to develop next-generation high-speed low-energy nonvolatile memory.

18.
Cell Res ; 32(10): 914-930, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856091

RESUMO

In response to stimuli, the immediate early gene product Arc can acutely down-regulate synaptic strength by removing AMPA receptors (AMPARs) from synapses and thus regulate synaptic plasticity. How Arc, a scaffold protein, can specifically facilitate synaptic removal of AMPARs is unknown. We found that Arc directly antagonizes with PSD-95 in binding to TARPs, which are the auxiliary subunits of AMPARs. Arc, in a highly concentration-sensitive manner, acutely disperses TARPs from the postsynaptic density (PSD) condensate formed via phase separation. TARPs with the Ser residue in the "P-S-Y"-motif of its tail phosphorylated are completely refractory from being dispersed by Arc, suggesting that Arc cannot displace AMPARs from PSDs in active synapses. Conversely, strengthening the interaction between Arc and TARPs enhances Arc's capacity in weakening synapses. Thus, Arc can specifically and effectively modulate synaptic AMPAR clustering via modulating PSD phase separation. Our study further suggests that activity-dependent, bi-directional modulation of PSD condensate formation/dispersion represents a general regulatory mechanism for synaptic plasticity.


Assuntos
Densidade Pós-Sináptica , Receptores de AMPA , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal , Densidade Pós-Sináptica/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica
19.
Cells Dev ; 171: 203801, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787465

RESUMO

Troponin I type 1b (Tnni1b) is thought to be a novel isoform that is expressed only in the zebrafish heart. Knocking down of tnni1b can lead to cardiac defects in zebrafish. Although both the zebrafish tnni1b and human troponin I1 (TNNI1) genes are thought to be closely associated with fatal cardiac development, the regulatory molecular mechanisms of these genes are poorly understood. Analyzing the functionally conserved sequence, especially in the noncoding regulatory region involved in gene expression, clarified these mechanisms. In this study, we isolated a 3 kb fragment upstream of Fugu tnni1a that can regulate green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression in a heart-specific manner, similar to the pattern of zebrafish homologue expression. Three evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs) in the 5'-flanking sequence of Fugu tnni1a were identified by sequence alignment. Deletion analysis led to the identification of ECR2 as a core sequence that affects the heart-specific expression function of the Fugu tnni1a promoter. Interestingly, both the Fugu tnni1a promoter and ECR2 sequence were functionally conserved in zebrafish, although they shared no sequence similarity. Together, the findings of our study provided further evidence for the important role of tnni1a homologous in cardiac development and demonstrated that two functionally conserved sequences in the zebrafish and Fugu genomes may be ECRs, despite their lack of similarity.


Assuntos
Takifugu , Peixe-Zebra , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Coração , Humanos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Takifugu/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849606

RESUMO

China has witnessed the trend of corporate financialization (CF) with some potential risks as the economy slows down its pace in the past decade. In this paper, we explore whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) could work as an information channel to restrain CF or as reputation insurance to promote CF. We find a significant positive relation between CSR and CF, especially for non-SOEs and enterprises with low ownership concentration and high CSR scores. It verifies that the reputation insurance effect by CSR outweighs the information effect and denies the opposite. The results prove robust in tests including sensitivity and endogeneity test. By expanding the scale and adding new aspects to the discussion about how CSR affects CF, this paper provides valuable empirical support to both theorists and practitioners.


Assuntos
Seguro , Responsabilidade Social , China , Organizações , Propriedade
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