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Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357


California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.

Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
Eur J Pharmacol ; 830: 76-86, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704496


Salusin-α is an endogenous bioactive peptide and likely to prevent atherosclerosis. But its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential effects of salusin-α on atherosclerosis and its associated metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD)-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice, and also explore the possible underlying mechanisms involved. Our data showed that after 12 weeks treatment, salusin-α ameliorated HFD-induced weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Salusin-α suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and regulated gene expression of fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, camitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and CYP7A1 in liver. Salusin-α reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and macrophage foam cell formation. Salusin-α prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced macrophage recruitment and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in both liver and aorta. Salusin-α also reduced hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and protein expressions of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 in both liver and aorta. Our present data suggest that salusin-α could reduce hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including amelioration of lipid profiles, regulation of some key molecules involved in lipid metabolism in liver, anti-oxidative effect and anti-inflammatory action.

Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico , Acetilcoenzima A/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , PPAR alfa/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
Atherosclerosis ; 262: 39-50, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500865


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dihydromyricetin, the most abundant flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and lipid regulatory activities; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dihydromyricetin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice. METHODS: Blood samples were collected for determination of serum lipid profiles, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histology, hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation were performed on liver and aorta samples by molecular biology methods. The effects of dihydromyricetin on ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction and foam cell formation were further studied. RESULTS: (1) Dihydromyricetin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, reduced serum ox-LDL, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed LDLr-/- mice. Moreover, (2) dihydromyricetin suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and increased protein expressions of PPARα, LXRα and ABCA1. (3) It inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and favoured features of plaque stability. (4) Dihydromyricetin prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression; (5) it prevented hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and NOX2 protein expression in both liver and aorta; (6) it inhibited oxLDL-induced injury, monocytes adhesion and oxidative stress in HUVECs and (7) inhibited macrophage foam cell formation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dihydromyricetin could reduce atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation, amelioration of lipid profiles, anti-inflammatory action and anti-oxidative effect.

Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Espumosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores de LDL/genética