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1.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823048

RESUMO

The scandent shrub plant form is a variant of liana that has upright and self-supporting stems when young but later becomes a climber. We aimed to explore the associations of stem and leaf traits among sympatric lianas, scandent shrubs and trees, and the effects of growth form and leaf habit on variation in stem or leaf traits. We measured 16 functional traits related to stem xylem anatomy, leaf morphology and nutrient stoichiometry in eight liana, eight scandent shrub and 21 tree species co-occurring in a subalpine cold temperate forest at an elevation of 2,600-3,200 m in Southwest China. Overall, lianas, scandent shrubs and trees were ordered along a fast-slow continuum of stem and leaf functional traits, with some traits overlapping. We found a consistent pattern of lianas > scandent shrubs > trees for hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, maximum vessel diameter and theoretical hydraulic conductivity. Vessel density and sapwood density showed a pattern of lianas = scandent shrubs < trees, and lianas < scandent shrubs = trees, respectively. Lianas had significantly higher specific leaf area and lower carbon concentration than co-occurring trees, with scandent shrubs showing intermediate values that overlapped with lianas and trees. The differentiation among lianas, scandent shrubs and trees was mainly explained by variation in stem traits. Additionally, deciduous lianas were positioned at the fast end of the trait spectrum, and evergreen trees at the slow end of the spectrum. Our results showed for the first time clear differentiation in stem and leaf traits among sympatric liana, scandent shrub and tree species in a subalpine cold temperate forest. This work will contribute to understanding the mechanisms responsible for variation in ecological strategies of different growth forms of woody plants.

2.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 164-170, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our goal was to evaluate the association between neonatal blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis later in life. METHODS: MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched from inception until September 16, 2020. Reference lists of all relevant articles also were reviewed. Mean blood BDNF concentrations, standard deviations, sample sizes, and other data needed for calculation of effect sizes were extracted by two independent investigators. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for case-control studies. Data were pooled using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Five case-control studies involving 1341 cases and 3395 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all included studies showed no significant difference in blood BDNF levels between neonates diagnosed with ASD later in life and healthy controls [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.261; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.052 to 0.573; P = 0.102], with high level of heterogeneity (Q = 64.346; I2 = 93.784; P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis by assay type showed decreased blood BDNF levels in ASDs compared to controls (SMD = - 0.070; 95% CI - 0.114 to - 0.026; P = 0.002), with high level of homogeneity (Q = 0.894; I2 = 0.000; P = 0.827). No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates diagnosed with ASD later in life have decreased blood levels of BDNF measured by double-antibody immunoassay. More studies are warranted to facilitate a more robust conclusion.

3.
Environ Int ; 148: 106383, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) rapidly increased over the past decades. However, little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on MetS in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between long-term ambient air pollution and the prevalence of MetS in a large population of Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: In 2013, a total of 9,897 children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were recruited from seven provinces/municipalities in China. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Satellite based spatio-temporal models were used to estimate exposure to ambient air pollution (including particles with diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)). Individual exposure was calculated according to 94 schools addresses. After adjustment for a range of covariates, generalized linear mixed-effects models were utilized to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS and its components. In addition, several stratified analyses were examined according to sex, weight status, outdoor physical activity time, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 2.8%. The odds ratio of MetS associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was 1.20 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.46), 1.31 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.64), 1.32 (95%CI: 1.08, 1.62), and 1.33 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.72), respectively. Regarding the MetS components, we observed associations between all pollutants and abdominal obesity. In addition, long-term PM1 and NO2 exposures were associated with the prevalence of elevated fasting blood glucose. Stratified analyses detected that the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS were stronger in boys (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were positively associated with the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents. Our findings may have certain public health implications for some comprehensive strategy of environment improvement and lifestyles changes in order to reduce the burden of non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Síndrome Metabólica , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Environ Res ; 192: 110289, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that exposure to green space may benefit human health. However, the available evidence concerning the effects of greenness, especially school-based greenness, on pediatric obesity is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between school-based greenness and adiposity in children and adolescents in China. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 56,620 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) in seven provinces/municipalities across China. School-based greenness was assessed using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) within 100-, 500-, and 1000-m circular buffers around each school's address. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to estimate associations of greenness with BMI z-scores (zBMI), waist circumference, and prevalent overweight/obesity. We also explored the potential mediating role of ambient air pollution and physical activity in the greenness-adiposity associations. RESULT: In the adjusted model, an IQR increase in NDVI-1000m was associated with lower zBMI (ß: -0.11, 95% confidence interval[CI]: -0.13,-0.09) and waist circumference (ß: -0.64, 95%CI: -0.78,-0.50). Consistently, an IQR increase in NDVI-100m, NDVI-500m, NDVI-1000m was associated with 7-20% lower odds of overweight/obesity in the adjusted models. Air pollutants mediated 6.5-29.1% of the association between greenness and zBMI. No significant mediation effect was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSION: Higher school-based greenness levels were associated with lower zBMI, waist circumference, and lower odds of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Ambient air pollutants may partially mediate the greenness-adiposity associations.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124750, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341569

RESUMO

Evidence concerning exposure to air pollution and visual impairment is scarce. We evaluated the associations of ambient air pollution with visual impairment and visual acuity levels in Chinese schoolchildren. We recruited 61,995 children from 7 provinces/municipalities across China. Concentrations of air pollutants (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1.0 µm [PM1], ≤ 2.5 µm [PM2.5], and 10 µm [PM10] as well as nitrogen dioxides [NO2]) were measured using machine learning methods. Visual acuity levels were measured using standard protocols. We used SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC to assess the association between air pollution and visual impairment. An interquartile range increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was associated with a 1.133- (95% CI, 1.035-1.240), 1.267- (95% CI, 1.082-1.484), 1.142- (95% CI, 1.019-1.281), and 1.276-fold (95% CI, 1.173-1.388) increased odds of visual impairment, and the associations were stronger in children being boys, older, living in rural areas, and born to parents who had a lower educational level or smoked, compared to their counterparts. These results suggest that exposure to air pollution were positively associated with the odds of visual impairment, and the association may be modified by children's age, sex, and residential area as well as parental education level and cigarette smoking.

6.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(1): 45-47, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is a challenge for the primary hospitals to manage multiple trauma patients. In this article, we explored the advantage of establishing a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) predominant by cardiothoracic surgeons in the early management of multiple trauma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study and patients with multiple trauma in our hospital were collected and divided into two groups, based on time period and treat modes: group A (retrospective observation group) where patients were treated with the traditional treatment mode from January 2017 to December 2017 and group B (study group) where patients were treated in the SICU predominant by cardiothoracic surgeons from January 2018 to December 2018. Clinical data including demographics, injury severity score (ISS), causes of injury, time intervals from reception to entering SICU or operating room and mortality three days after injuries were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software. Categorical variables were presented as number and/or frequency and continuous variables as mean ± SD. RESULTS: Altogether 406 patients were included in this study, including 217 patients in group A and 189 patients in group B. General data between the two groups revealed no significant difference: mean age (years) (35.51 ± 12.97 vs. 33.62 ± 13.61, p = 0.631), gender distribution (mean/female, 130/87 vs. 116/73, p = 0.589) and ISS (15.92 ± 7.95 vs. 16.16 ± 6.89, p = 0.698). Fall from height were the dominant mechanism of injury, with 135 cases in group A (71.4%) and 121 cases in group B (55.8%), followed by traffic accidents. Injury mechanism showed no significant differences between two groups (p = 1.256). Introduction of the SICU significantly improved the care of trauma patients, regarding speed and mortality. Time intervals between reception and entering SICU or operating room was (108.23 ± 6.72) min and (45.67 ± 7.96) min in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.001). Mortality three days after injuries was 13.89% and 5.53% in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Establishing a SICU predominant by cardiothoracic surgeons can reduce the early mortality rates in multiple trauma patients.

7.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 31(11): 819-824, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the data of 24 cases of multiple perforation or obstruction of the digestive tract caused by accidental ingestion of magnetic beads, to improve the understanding of its harmfulness to children and explore the best treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 24 cases were collected and retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups: perforation group and non-perforation group. The medical history, number of magnetic beads, white blood cell (WBC) count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age, gender, medical history, number of magnetic beads, and WBC count between the perforation group and non-perforation group, but there was a significant difference in CRP. After the diagnosis, 70% of the cases underwent laparotomy and perforation repair. All cases recovered smoothly after the operation, and no complications occurred during the follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study offers diagnosis and treatment methods for the perforation or obstruction of the digestive tract caused by accidental ingestion of magnetic beads and raises the awareness regarding the harmfulness of the presence of foreign bodies in the digestive tract.

9.
New Phytol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929748

RESUMO

Vulnerability curves (VCs) describe the loss of hydraulic conductance against increasing xylem tension, providing valuable insights about the response of plant water transport to water stress. Techniques to construct VCs have been developed and modified continuously, but controversies continue. We compared VCs constructed using the bench-top dehydration (BD), air-injection-flow (AI), pneumatic-air-discharge (PAD), optical (OP) and X-ray-computed microtomography (MicroCT) methods for tropical trees and lianas with contrasting vessel lengths. The PAD method generated highly vulnerable VCs, the AI method intermediate VCs, whereas the BD, OP and MicroCT methods produced comparable and more resistant VCs. Vessel-length and diameter accounted for the overestimation ratio of vulnerability estimated using the AI but not the PAD method. Compared with directly measured midday embolism levels, the PAD and AI methods substantially overestimated embolism, whereas the BD, MicroCT and OP methods provided more reasonable estimations. Cut-open vessels, uncertainties in maximum air volume estimations, sample-length effects, tissue cracks and shrinkage together may impede the reliability of the PAD method. In conclusion, we validate the BD, OP and MicroCT methods for tropical plants, whereas the PAD and AI need further mechanistic testing. Therefore, applications of VCs in estimating plant responses to drought need to be cautious.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 15% of male infertility is due to genital tract infection and inflammation, some of them have no clinical symptoms, but manifested as leukocytospermia (LCS). Leukopenia will lead to functional impairment of male sperm and integrity damage of sperm morphology. A large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by leukocytes can damage sperm nuclear DNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between leukocyte subsets and sperm DNA fragmentation rate in semen of infertile men with asymptomatic infection of genital tract. METHODS: One hundred and eight cases of infertile men were enrolled, who were admitted to our hospital from May 2016 to September 2018, and all had genital tract infections. After routine sperm analysis, realtime PCR was performed for detecting the infection of chlamydia trachoma (CT) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU). Furthermore, total leukocyte count in semen was evaluated by detection of CD45 molecules using immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry was used for subset analysis, monocyte/macrophages were evaluated by CD14, and activated macrophages were evaluated by HLA-DR antigen. Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were evaluated by SCD method and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression were evaluated by chromatin diffusion method and TUNEL method; the correlation analysis was conducted between semen leukocyte subsets, sperm DNA fragment rate and conventional semen parameters. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation among the concentrations of cells expressing HLA-DR antigen and those expressing CD14 (P<0.01), but the concentrations of differential leukocyte subsets all had no significant correlation with sperm DFI, the percentage of 8-OHdG-expressing cells and routine semen parameters. The percentage of 8-OHdG-expressing sperm was positively correlated with the percentage of sperm fragments (r=0.42, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r=-0.32, P<0.01). After adjustment for possible confounders including age, abstinence time and smoking, the percentage of 8-OHdG-expressing sperms independently associated with sperm concentration (ß=-0.30; P=0.006) and DFI (ß=0.180, P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Among infertile men with genital tract infection, the sperm DFI is associated with decreased semen quality and not the concentration of differential leukocyte subsets.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115422, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829032

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the links of air pollution and childhood lipid profiles and dyslipidemias. We aimed to explore this topic in Chinese children and adolescents. This study included 12,814 children aged 7-18 years who participated in a national survey in 2013. Satellite-based spatial-temporal model was used to predict 3-y (2011-2013) average particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to evaluate the relationships of air pollution and total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and dyslipidemias. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was related to increases of 6.20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 10.10], 5.31% (95%CI: 0.41, 10.44), 3.49% (95%CI: 0.97, 6.08), and 5.25% (95%CI: 1.56, 9.07) in TC, respectively. The odds ratio of hypercholesterolemia associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, and NO2 was 2.15 (95%CI: 1.27, 3.65), 1.70 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.60), and 1.43 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.93), respectively. No associations were found for air pollution and other blood lipids. Long-term PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were positively associated with TC levels and risk of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Adolescente , Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(5): 1124-1129, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), involves multiple organs. Testicular involvement is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathological changes and whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the testes of deceased COVID-19 patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Postmortem examination of the testes from 12 COVID-19 patients was performed using light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for lymphocytic and histiocytic markers. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the virus in testicular tissue. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Seminiferous tubular injury was assessed as none, mild, moderate, or severe according to the extent of tubular damage. Leydig cells in the interstitium were counted in ten 400× microscopy fields. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Microscopically, Sertoli cells showed swelling, vacuolation and cytoplasmic rarefaction, detachment from tubular basement membranes, and loss and sloughing into lumens of the intratubular cell mass. Two, five, and four of 11 cases showed mild, moderate, and severe injury, respectively. The mean number of Leydig cells in COVID-19 testes was significantly lower than in the control group (2.2 vs 7.8, p < 0.001). In the interstitium there was edema and mild inflammatory infiltrates composed of T lymphocytes and histiocytes. Transmission EM did not identify viral particles in three cases. RT-PCR detected the virus in one of 12 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Testes from COVID-19 patients exhibited significant seminiferous tubular injury, reduced Leydig cells, and mild lymphocytic inflammation. We found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the testes in the majority (90%) of the cases by RT-PCR, and in none by electron microscopy. These findings can provide evidence-based guidance for sperm donation and inform management strategies to mitigate the risk of testicular injury during the COVID-19 disease course. PATIENT SUMMARY: We examined the testes of deceased COVID-19 patients. We found significant damage to the testicular parenchyma. However, virus was not detected in testes in the majority of cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Túbulos Seminíferos/patologia , Testículo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Contagem de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Túbulos Seminíferos/ultraestrutura , Células de Sertoli/patologia , Células de Sertoli/ultraestrutura , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/ultraestrutura , Testículo/virologia
13.
J Cancer ; 11(12): 3446-3453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284740

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal malignancy in the female reproductive system. Platinum drugs, represented by cisplatin, are the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of various malignancies including ovarian cancer, but drug resistance leads to chemotherapy failure. MicroRNAs emerged as promising molecules in reversal of cisplatin resistance. MiR-186 was reported to be downregulated in the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell lines and miR-186 expression increased cisplatin sensitivity. However, we found the bidirectional regulatory effects of miR-186 on cisplatin sensitivity for the first time that overexpression of miR-186 at low concentration increased the cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells A2780/DDP, while high concentration of miR-186 decreased the cisplatin sensitivity. The survival assay in other types of cancer cell lines verified the bidirectional regulatory function of miR-186 on cisplatin sensitivity in dose and cell type dependent manners. MiR-186 suppressed the protein levels of PTEN and PIK3R3 dose-dependently, which are opposite regulatory molecules of the oncogenic AKT pathway. MiR-186 also enhanced the protein levels of apoptotic gene APAF1 dose-dependently. We proposed the final effects of PTEN and APAF1 outweighed PIK3R3 when miR-186 at low concentration so as to increase the cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells, while the final effects of PIK3R3 outweighed PTEN and APAF1 when miR-186 at high concentration so as to decrease the cisplatin sensitivity. We concluded the outcome of regulation of these opposite functional molecules contributed to the bidirectional regulatory effects of miR-186 in ovarian cancer cisplatin sensitivity. It deserves more attentions when developing therapeutic strategies based on the bidirectional functional miRNAs.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12752-12760, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642668

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, the major risk of cardiovascular events, is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring dimethylated analogue of resveratrol and has recently been demonstrated to be beneficial against cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of pterostilbene on atherosclerosis remain elusive. Experimental atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. Pterostilbene was administered intragastrically for 16 weeks. We found that pterostilbene significantly attenuated thoracic and abdominal atherosclerotic plaque formation in HFD-fed ApoE-/-mice, accompanied by modulated lipid profiles and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). In addition, pterostilbene restored vascular redox balance in thoracic and abdominal aorta, evidenced by enhanced catalase (CAT) expression and activities, and decreased malondialdehyde and H2O2 production. Notably, pterostilbene specifically induced CAT expression and activities in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic and abdominal aorta. In vitro, pterostilbene markedly promoted the expression and activity of CAT and decreased ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated VSMC proliferation and intracellular H2O2 production, which was abolished by CAT siRNA knockdown or inhibition. Pterostilbene-induced CAT expression was associated with inhibition of Akt, PRAS40, and GSK-3ß signaling activation and upregulation of PTEN. Our data clearly demonstrated that pterostilbene exerted an antiatherosclerotic effect by inducing CAT and modulating the VSMC function.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Catalase/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Oxirredução
15.
Nucleic Acid Ther ; 29(6): 359-366, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513457

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) plaque deposits in the brain are considered to be one of the main pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the aspartyl proteases ß-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase produces Aß. Therefore, BACE1 inhibition is a very attractive target for the treatment of AD. Our previous work identified a DNA aptamer named A1 that can bind to BACE1 with high affinity and specificity and exhibits a distinct inhibitory effect on BACE1 activity in an AD cell model. The purpose of this research was to test the effect of aptamer A1 in Tg6799 mice. Four-month-old Tg6799 mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated with aptamer A1 and ineffective aptamer A1scr, respectively, by intracerebroventricular injection. Subsequent behavioral experiments showed that treatment with the aptamer A1 improved the cognitive abilities of the AD mice. Western blot indicated that BACE1 and soluble amyloid precursor protein ß (sAPPß) expression significantly decreased in the A1-treated mice. Moreover, aptamer A1 reduced the content of Aß42 and the number and density of senile plaques in AD mice. Therefore, our results indicate that aptamer A1 is a novel specific and potent BACE1 inhibitor and is a promising potential target for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/farmacologia , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
16.
Tree Physiol ; 39(10): 1783-1791, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209479

RESUMO

Xylem vessels are used by most angiosperm plants for long-distance water and nutrient transport. Vessel length is one of the key functional traits determining plant water-transport efficiency. Additionally, determination of maximum vessel length is necessary for correct sample collection and measurements in hydraulic studies to avoid open-vessel and cutting-under-tension artifacts. Air injection and silicone injection (BLUESIL RTV141A and B mixtures) are two widely used methods for maximum vessel length determination. However, the validity of both methods needs to be carefully tested for species with different vessel lengths. In this study, we tested the air-injection and silicone-injection methods using eight species with different vessel lengths: short (<0.5 m), medium (0.5-1 m) and long (>1 m). We employed a novel approach using RTV141A injection without the RTV141B hardener as a reference method because RTV141A cannot penetrate inter-vessel pit membranes and is not prone to hardening/solidification effects during the injection process. The results revealed that the silicone-injection method substantially underestimated the maximum vessel length of all eight species. However, the air-injection method tended to overestimate the maximum vessel length in five out of eight species. The ratio of underestimation of the silicone-injection method was higher for species with longer vessels, but the overestimation of the air-injection method was independent of the vessel length. Moreover, air injection with different pressures-ranging from 40 to 300 kPa-resulted in comparable results. We conclude that the conventional silicone-injection method can underestimate the vessel length, whereas the air-injection method can overestimate the maximum vessel length, particularly for long-vessel led species. We recommend RTV141A-only injection for determining the maximum vessel length, and it can also be used to validate the use of the air-injection and conventional silicone-injection methods for a given species.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Magnoliopsida , Silicones , Água , Xilema
18.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(1): 1-15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787966

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of non coding endogenous RNAs in eukaryotic that are formed through 3'-5' ligation of a single RNA molecule. According to the different sources of the sequences, circRNA can be divided into three types: exon circRNA (ecRNA), intron circRNA (ciRNA), and exon-intron circRNA. Accumulating studies have shown that circRNAs are abundant, diverse, stable, and cell or tissue specific expression, etc. CircRNA plays a regulating role in gene expression, and an essential role in the process of biological development, such as miRNA sponges, endogenous RNAs and biomarkers, as well as critical role in the diagnosis of diseases. Studies have verified the interplay between circRNAs and the development of embryos, sperms, ovarian epithelial tumors, endometrial cancer and preeclampsia, suggesting the potential of circRNAs to become biomarkers or therapeutical targets for human diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the researches on circRNAs' characteristics, databases of circRNA, high-throughput sequencing of circRNA, and effect on reproductive and gynecological diseases.

19.
Food Chem ; 285: 414-422, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797365

RESUMO

Buckwheat constitutes a good source of bioactive components. A dry fractionation of surface abrasion for polyphenol-enriched protein combined with hydrothermal treatment was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). The protein contents and the total polyphenol contents of both free and bound polyphenol gradually decreased in the order from the outer to the inner fractions. Polyphenol-enriched buckwheat protein flour was successfully enrichment with a maximum polyphenol content of 55 mg/g. Moreover, starch digestibility and polyphenols bioaccessibility of the buckwheat protein were increased with hydrothermal treatment time, while protein digestibility decreased slightly. Besides, most of the aroma compounds increased during the hydrothermal treatment. The assessment results demonstrate that the sustainability dry surface abrasion process in combination with hydrothermal treatment should be encouraged in processing functional protein fractions and improving both qualities of end use products and health benefits.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fagopyrum/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/química , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Alimentos Fortificados , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Amido
20.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 20(3): 231-235, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholangitis is the most common complication after the Kasai procedure. It can be life-threatening and may affect long- and short-term outcomes of children with biliary atresia. We summarize our experiences in the prevention of early-onset cholangitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to March 2013, children with biliary atresia (BA) who underwent the Kasai procedure in the General Surgical Department were included in a retrospective cohort study. These patients were divided into group A (therapy 1) and group B (therapy 2) depending on the infection prevention protocol and occurrences of cholangitis within the six months after surgery were recorded. Two hundred eighteen children were included in this cohort study. Seventy-six children (35 females and 41 males) were included in group A. One hundred forty-two children (65 females and 77 males) were included in group B. Therapy 1 was our primary protocol and included a third-generation cephalosporin, metronidazole, and human immunoglobulin. Therapy 2 was a modification of therapy 1 that involved imipenem-cilastatin and human immunoglobulin. Statistical analyses were performed. A p value below 0.05 was regarded as significant. RESULTS: In group A, 45 children developed cholangitis within the six months after the Kasai procedure. In group B, 14 of these children experienced post-operative cholangitis. A χ2 analysis was used to examine the difference in the incidence of cholangitis between groups A and B. There was a substantial difference in the morbidity of post-operative cholangitis between groups A and B (59.2% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Cholangitis in the early period after a Kasai procedure can be prevented effectively with an advanced prophylactic protocol.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Colangite/epidemiologia , Colangite/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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