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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500721

RESUMO

Fish bones (FBs) are aquatic by-products that are sources of antioxidant-active peptides, calcium dietary supplements, and biomedical materials. Usually, fermentation of these by-products via microorganisms brings desirable changes, enhancing their value. This study investigates the value addition of FB when fermented with Monascus purpureus (MP) for different time intervals, such as 3 days (F3) and 6 days (F6). The results indicate that the soluble protein, peptide, amino acid and total phenol content, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, and relative reducing power), of F3 and F6 were significantly increased after fermentation. Furthermore, the ROS contents of F3 and F6 were reduced to a greater extent than that of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Clone-9 cells. The MMP integrity, as well as the SOD, CAT, and GPx activity, of F3 and F6 were also increased significantly compared to the H2O2 in Clone-9 cells. Notably, F3 and F6 displayed significant reductions in ROS content, as well as elevate, SOD activity and MMP integrity in Clone-9 cells, when compared with the native FB. These results indicate that the FBs fermented with MP for 3 days (F3), and 6 days (F6) have antioxidant capacity, with possible applications as natural food supplements.

2.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines among adolescents in the US including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal (ACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The extent to which these deficits could persist in 2021 and beyond is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study estimated the cumulative deficits of routine vaccine doses among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimated the time and effort needed to recover from those deficits. METHODS: Monthly reductions in Tdap, meningococcal, and HPV doses administered to US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic were quantified using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data. The time and effort required to reverse the vaccination deficit under various catch-up scenarios were estimated. RESULTS: Annual doses administered of Tdap, meningococcus, and HPV vaccines decreased by 21.2%, 20.8%, and 24.0%, respectively, in 2020 compared to 2019. For 2021, the reduction in doses administered is projected to be 6%-21% compared to 2019 under different scenarios. The projected deficit of missed doses is expected to be cleared between winter 2023 and fall 2031. CONCLUSIONS: Administration rates of routine vaccines decreased significantly among US adolescents during COVID-19. Reversing these deficits to mitigate long-term health and economic consequences will require a sustained increase in vaccination rates over multiple years.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465137

RESUMO

Yunnan is the first place where HIV-1 became prevalent in China, and it is also the place with the most complicated HIV-1 genetic diversity in China. On October 23, 2019, a patient newly diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from a hospital in Baosan, Yunnan, was recruited for genetic analysis. Near full-length genome of HIV-1 was amplified from the plasma sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence (BS6F24) has a close relationship with CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form (KY406739), which was formed by recombination of subtypes B and C. Bootscan analysis confirmed that the first part (HXB2:1022-5832) and last part (HXB2:5833-9120) genomes of BS6F24 had the same recombinant structures as KY406739 and CRF86_BC, respectively. A second-generation recombinant form that originated from CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form were reported for the first time. This indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Yunnan, China.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444969

RESUMO

Lemon (Citrus limon) has antioxidant, immunoregulatory, and blood lipid-lowering properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of the lemon fermented product (LFP) which is lemon fermented with Lactobacillus OPC1 to prevent obesity. The inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is examined using a Wistar rat model fed a high-fat diet to verify the anti-obesity efficacy and mechanism of LFP. Here, it was observed that LFP reduced cell proliferation and inhibited the lipid accumulation (8.3%) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, LFP reduced body weight (9.7%) and fat tissue weight (25.7%) of rats; reduced serum TG (17.0%), FFA (17.9%), glucose (29.3%) and ketone body (6.8%); and increased serum HDL-C (17.6%) and lipase activity (17.8%). LFP regulated the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, HSL, ATGL, FAS, and AMPK). Therefore, LFP reduces body weight and lipid accumulation by regulating the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Overall, our results implicate LFP as a potential dietary supplement for the prevention of obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 2975-2982, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance mutation (DRM)-associated virological failure has become a critical issue for ART and the elimination of HIV. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution characteristics of DRMs of HIV CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, the predominant subtypes in China. METHODS: Patients receiving ART up to 31 August 2020 in Ganzhou in China were recruited. Full-length sequences of the HIV pol gene were amplified from patients with virological failure. DRMs and antiretroviral susceptibility were explored using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database HIVdb Program. RESULTS: Overall, 279 of 2204 patients under ART were found to have virological failure. Nine HIV subtypes were identified among 211 sequences that were amplified successfully and CRF08_BC (37.0%), CRF01_AE (26.1%) and CRF07_BC (25.6%) were the most prevalent, with mutation frequencies of 44.9% (35/78), 52.7% (29/55) and 35.2% (19/54), respectively. The most common DRMs of these three subtypes were K103N and M184V, while the mutation frequencies of M41L, D67N, K70R, K101E, V106M, Y181C, K219E, H221Y and N348I were obviously different among subtypes. The resistance levels and frequencies for antiretroviral drugs for these three subtypes were similar and resistances to nevirapine, efavirenz, lamivudine and emtricitabine were the most frequently observed. Compared with CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC had higher proportions of DRMs for NRTIs and lower frequencies of resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution characteristics of DRMs of HIV CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were inconsistent and should be considered when selecting antiretroviral strategies, developing new drugs and controlling HIV strains containing DRMs.

6.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0025221, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282939

RESUMO

"Candidatus Bathyarchaeia" is a phylogenetically diverse and widely distributed lineage often in high abundance in anoxic submarine sediments; however, their evolution and ecological roles in terrestrial geothermal habitats are poorly understood. In the present study, 35 Ca. Bathyarchaeia metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from hot spring sediments in Tibet and Yunnan, China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed all MAGs of Ca. Bathyarchaeia can be classified into 7 orders and 15 families. Among them, 4 families have been first discovered in the present study, significantly expanding the known diversity of Ca. Bathyarchaeia. Comparative genomics demonstrated Ca. Bathyarchaeia MAGs from thermal habitats to encode a large variety of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, which are likely a metabolic adaptation of these organisms to a lifestyle at high temperatures. At least two families are potential methanogens/alkanotrophs, indicating a potential for the catalysis of short-chain hydrocarbons. Three MAGs from Family-7.3 are identified as alkanotrophs due to the detection of an Mcr complex. Family-2 contains the largest number of genes relevant to alkyl-CoM transformation, indicating the potential for methylotrophic methanogenesis, although their evolutionary history suggests the ancestor of Ca. Bathyarchaeia was unable to metabolize alkanes. Subsequent lineages have acquired the ability via horizontal gene transfer. Overall, our study significantly expands our knowledge and understanding of the metabolic capabilities, habitat adaptations, and evolution of Ca. Bathyarchaeia in thermal environments. IMPORTANCE Ca. Bathyarchaeia MAGs from terrestrial hot spring habitats are poorly revealed, though they have been studied extensively in marine ecosystems. In this study, we uncovered the metabolic capabilities and ecological role of Ca. Bathyarchaeia in hot springs and give a comprehensive comparative analysis between thermal and nonthermal habitats to reveal the thermal adaptability of Ca. Bathyarchaeia. Also, we attempt to determine the evolutionary history of methane/alkane metabolism in Ca. Bathyarchaeia, since it appears to be the first archaea beyond Euryarchaeota which contains the mcrABG genes. The reclassification of Ca. Bathyarchaeia and significant genomic differences among different lineages largely expand our knowledge on these cosmopolitan archaea, which will be beneficial in guiding the future studies.

7.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0060621, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313464

RESUMO

"Candidatus Aenigmarchaeota" ("Ca. Aenigmarchaeota") represents one of the earliest proposed evolutionary branches within the Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota (DPANN) superphylum. However, their ecological roles and potential host-symbiont interactions are still poorly understood. Here, eight metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from hot spring ecosystems, and further in-depth comparative and evolutionary genomic analyses were conducted on these MAGs and other genomes downloaded from public databases. Although with limited metabolic capacities, we reported that "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" in thermal environments harbor more genes related to carbohydrate metabolism than "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" in nonthermal environments. Evolutionary analyses suggested that members from the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Korarchaeota (TACK) superphylum and Euryarchaeota contribute substantially to the niche expansion of "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), especially genes related to virus defense and stress responses. Based on co-occurrence network results and recent genetic exchanges among community members, we conjectured that "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" may be symbionts associated with one MAG affiliated with the genus Pyrobaculum, though host specificity might be wide and variable across different "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" organisms. This study provides significant insight into possible DPANN-host interactions and ecological roles of "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota." IMPORTANCE Recent advances in sequencing technology promoted the blowout discovery of super tiny microbes in the Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota (DPANN) superphylum. However, the unculturable properties of the majority of microbes impeded our investigation of their behavior and symbiotic lifestyle in the corresponding community. By integrating horizontal gene transfer (HGT) detection and co-occurrence network analysis on "Candidatus Aenigmarchaeota" ("Ca. Aenigmarchaeota"), we made one of the first attempts to infer their putative interaction partners and further decipher the potential functional and genetic interactions between the symbionts. We revealed that HGTs contributed by members from the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Korarchaeota (TACK) superphylum and Euryarchaeota conferred "Ca. Aenigmarchaeota" with the ability to survive under different environmental stresses, such as virus infection, high temperature, and oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that the interaction partners might be inferable by applying informatics analyses on metagenomic sequencing data.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117800, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329062

RESUMO

There has been a significant increase in the microplastic (MP) polluting the ocean in recent time which is regarded as toxic for living organisms. In this study, Fluorescent red polyethylene microspheres (FRPE) were administered intramuscularly to Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the concentration of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1, and the survival rate was recorded. Analysis of the hepatopancreas for antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were done after seven days. Further tissue morphology and accumulation of FRPE was analysed. The results showed that FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 reduce the survival rate of L. vannamei. FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; FRPE at different concentrations reduced catalase (CAT) activity; FRPE at 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 increased the lipid peroxide thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) content. FRPE at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 µg (g shrimp)-1 significantly affect the performance of SOD and CAT genes; FRPE at 0.2 and 0.5 µg (g shrimp)-1 significantly improves GPx gene performance; FRPE at 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 significantly reduced the expression of GPx genes. Analysis of tissue morphology shows that FRPE cause muscle, midgut gland, and hepatopancreas, and gill damage at different concentrations. In the results of accumulation of microplastic, FRPE accumulated in gill tissue at 0.2 and 0.5 µg (g shrimp)-1; FRPE accumulated in gill, muscle and hepatopancreas tissue at 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1. Based on the above results, FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 can regulate the antioxidant enzymes of L. vannamei, increase lipid peroxide content, cause tissue damage by accumulating in the tissues. The rate of survival decreased in L. vannamei, and the impact of FRPE at 1.0 µg (g shrimp)-1 was significant.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Plásticos , Animais , Microplásticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Penaeidae/genética , Polietileno
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(9): 786, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268399

RESUMO

Background: Current diagnostic strategies for acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are nonspecific and limited. Previously, we demonstrated that circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients with valve heart disease (VHD) and congenital heart diseases (CHD) induce endothelial dysfunction and neutrophil chemotaxis, which may result in kidney injury. We also found that circulating MPs increase after cardiac surgery with CPB and are related to cardiac function. However, the relationship between circulating MPs and AKI after CPB is unknown. Methods: Eighty-five patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled. Patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups based on the serum creatinine levels at 12 h and 3 d post-CPB. Circulating MPs were isolated from plasma, and their levels including its subtypes were detected by flow cytometer. Independent risk factors for the CPB-associated AKI (CPB-AKI) were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to measure the prognostic potential of CPB-AKI. Results: The morbidity of AKI at 12 h and 3 d after cardiac surgery with CPB was 40% and 31.76%, respectively. The concentrations of total MPs and platelet-derived MPs (PMP) remained unchanged at 12 h and then increased at 3 d post-CPB, while that of endothelial-derived MPs (EMP) increased at both time points. In patients with AKI, PMP and EMP were elevated compared with the patients without AKI. However, no significant change was detected on monocyte-derived MPs (MMP) at 12 h and 3 d post-CPB. The logistic regression analysis showed that EMP was the independent risk factor for AKI both at 12 h and 3 d post-CPB. The area under ROC for the concentrations of EMP at 12 h and 3 d post-CPB was 0.86 and 0.91, with the specificity up to 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusions: Circulating EMP may serve as a potential biomarker of AKI after cardiac surgery with CPB.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320562

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old female equestrian presented after two weeks of left medial thigh pain which developed suddenly while exiting a car. She denied any history of recent trauma or falls. On examination she was found to have tenderness at the left distal medial thigh with a palpable region of decreased tissue volume at the gracilis myotendinous junction. Point-of-care ultrasound and MRI confirmed a high-grade partial thickness tear of the left distal gracilis at the myotendinous junction, as well as pes anserine bursal distention. She received physical therapy and underwent a one-time ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection to the left pes anserine bursa. At follow-up, her symptoms had significantly improved, and she had returned to horseback riding after 12 weeks. Isolated gracilis myotendinous tear is a rare condition and this is a unique case with an atypical mechanism of injury as gracilis injuries have only been reported during vigorous exercise-related activities rather than transitional movements. This case illustrates the potential increased risk of distal gracilis injury after repetitive corticosteroid injections (genicular nerve blocks and radiofrequency lesioning) in a patient who was also likely predisposed to gracilis microtrauma due to her equestrian activities. Gracilis injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis of distal medial thigh pain, especially in cases with similar interventional and recreational profiles.

11.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 83-91, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide D-4F, among its anti-atherosclerotic effects, improves vasodilation through mechanisms not fully elucidated yet. METHODS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor null (LDLr-/-) mice were fed Western diet with or without D-4F. We then measured atherosclerotic lesion formation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and its association with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2•-) production, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-1) concentration in the aorta. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aortas were treated with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) with or without D-4F; subsequently, BH4 and GCH-1 concentration, NO and O2•- production, eNOS association with HSP90, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation were measured. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, eNOS phosphorylation, eNOS-HSP90 association, and O2•- production were increased, whereas BH4 and GCH-1 concentration and NO production were reduced in atherosclerosis. D-4F significantly inhibited atherosclerosis, eNOS phosphorylation, eNOS-HSP90 association, and O2•- generation but increased NO production and BH4 and GCH-1 concentration. OxLDL reduced NO production and BH4 and GCH-1 concentration but enhanced O2•- generation and eNOS association with HSP90, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. D-4F inhibited the overall effects of oxLDL. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia enhanced uncoupled eNOS activity by decreasing GCH-1 concentration, thereby reducing BH4 levels. D-4F reduced uncoupled eNOS activity by increasing BH4 levels through GCH-1 expression and decreasing eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS-HSP90 association. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism by which hypercholesterolemia induces atherosclerosis and D-4F inhibits it, providing a potential therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Animais , Apolipoproteína A-I , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Células Endoteliais , Endotélio Vascular , GTP Cicloidrolase , Guanosina Trifosfato , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico , Peptídeos , Superóxidos
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917109

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to use agar as a multifunctional encapsulating material to allow drug and ferromagnetism to be jointly delivered in one nanoparticle. We successfully encapsulated both Fe3O4 and doxorubicin (DOX) with agar as the drug carrier to obtain DOX-Fe3O4@agar. The iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the carrier maintained good saturation of magnetization (41.9 emu/g) and had superparamagnetism. The heating capacity test showed that the specific absorption rate (SAR) value was 18.9 ± 0.5 W/g, indicating that the ferromagnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in the gel still maintained good heating capacity. Moreover, the magnetocaloric temperature could reach 43 °C in a short period of five minutes. In addition, DOX-Fe3O4@agar reached a maximum release rate of 85% ± 3% in 56 min under a neutral pH 7.0 to simulate the intestinal environment. We found using fluorescent microscopy that DOX entered HT-29 human colon cancer cells and reduced cell viability by 66%. When hyperthermia was induced with an auxiliary external magnetic field, cancer cells could be further killed, with a viability of only 15.4%. These results show that agar is an efficient multiple-drug carrier, and allows controlled drug release. Thus, this synergic treatment has potential application value for biopharmaceutical carrier materials.

13.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100066, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711324

RESUMO

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), the process by which an endothelial cell (EC) undergoes a series of molecular events that result in a mesenchymal cell phenotype, plays an important role in atherosclerosis. 1-Palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), derived from the oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, is a proinflammatory lipid found in atherosclerotic lesions. Whether POVPC promotes EndMT and how simvastatin influences POVPC-mediated EndMT remains unclear. Here, we treated human umbilical vein ECs with POVPC, simvastatin, or both, and determined their effect on EC viability, morphology, tube formation, proliferation, and generation of NO and superoxide anion (O2•-). Expression of specific endothelial and mesenchymal markers was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. POVPC did not affect EC viability but altered cellular morphology from cobblestone-like ECs to a spindle-like mesenchymal cell morphology. POVPC increased O2- generation and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, Snail-1, Twist-1, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), TGF-ß receptor II, p-Smad2/3, and Smad2/3. POVPC also decreased NO production and expression of CD31 and endothelial NO synthase. Simvastatin inhibited POVPC-mediated effects on cellular morphology, production of O2•- and NO, and expression of specific endothelial and mesenchymal markers. These data demonstrate that POVPC induces EndMT by increasing oxidative stress, which stimulates TGF-ß/Smad signaling, leading to Snail-1 and Twist-1 activation. Simvastatin inhibited POVPC-induced EndMT by decreasing oxidative stress, suppressing TGF-ß/Smad signaling, and inactivating Snail-1 and Twist-1. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of atherosclerosis that can be inhibited by simvastatin.

14.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1201-1204, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders have caused an unprecedented decrease in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines. However, the impact of this decrease on overall vaccination coverage in a specific birth cohort is not known. METHODS: We projected measles vaccination coverage for the cohort of children becoming one year old in 2020 in the United States, for different durations of stay-at-home orders, along with varying catch-up vaccination efforts. RESULTS: A 15% sustained catch-up rate outside stay-at-home orders (compared to what would be expected via natality information) may be necessary to achieve projected vaccination coverage similar to previous years. Permanent decreases in vaccine administration could lead to projected vaccination coverage levels below 80%. CONCLUSION: Modeling measles vaccination coverage under a range of scenarios provides useful information about the potential magnitude and impact of under-immunization. Sustained catch-up efforts are needed to assure that measles vaccination coverage remains high.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Cobertura Vacinal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
15.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 3(1): 100100, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363279

RESUMO

Objective: To describe and evaluate a secure video call system combined with a suite of iPad vision testing apps to improve access to vision rehabilitation assessment for inpatients. Design: Retrospective. Setting: Two acute care inpatient rehabilitation hospitals and 1 long-term acute care (LTAC) hospital. Participants: Records of inpatients seen by the vision service. Interventions: Records from a 1-year telemedicine pilot performed at acute rehabilitation (AR) hospital 1 and then expanded to AR hospital 2 and LTAC hospital during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reviewed. In the virtual visits, an occupational therapist measured the patients' vision with the iPad applications and forwarded results to the off-site Doctor of Optometry (OD) for review prior to a video visit. The OD provided diagnosis and education, press-on prism application supervision, strategies and modifications, and follow-up recommendations. Providers completed the telehealth usability questionnaire (10-point scale). Main Outcome Measures: Vision examinations per month at AR hospital 1 before and with telemedicine. Results: With telemedicine at AR hospital 1, mean visits per month significantly increased from 10.7±5 to 14.9±5 (P=.002). Prism was trialed in 40% of cases of which 83% were successful, similar to previously reported in-person success rates. COVID-19 caused only a marginal decrease in visits per month (P=.08) at AR1, whereas the site without an established program (AR hospital 2) had a 3-4 week gap in care while the program was initiated. Cases at the LTAC hospital tended to be more complex and difficult to manage virtually. The telehealth usability questionnaire median category scores were 7 for Ease of Use, 8 for Interface Quality, 6 for Reliability, and 9 for Satisfaction and Future Use. Conclusions: The virtual vision clinic process improved inpatient access to eye and visual neurorehabilitation assessment before and during the COVID-19 quarantine and was well accepted by providers and patients.

16.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101642, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863238

RESUMO

Normal high-density lipoprotein (nHDL) in normal, healthy subjects is able to promote angiogenesis, but the mechanism remains incompletely understood. HDL from patients with coronary artery disease may undergo a variety of oxidative modifications, rendering it dysfunctional; whether the angiogenic effect is mitigated by such dysfunctional HDL (dHDL) is unknown. We hypothesized that dHDL compromises angiogenesis. The angiogenic effects of nHDL and dHDL were assessed using endothelial cell culture, endothelial sprouts from cardiac tissue from C57BL/6 mice, zebrafish model for vascular growth and a model of impaired vascular growth in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor null(LDLr-/-)mice. MiRNA microarray and proteomic analyses were used to determine the mechanisms. Lipid hydroperoxides were greater in dHDL than in nHDL. While nHDL stimulated angiogenesis, dHDL attenuated these responses. Protein and miRNA profiles in endothelial cells differed between nHDL and dHDL treatments. Moreover, nHDL suppressed miR-24-3p expression to increase vinculin expression resulting in nitric oxide (NO) production, whereas dHDL delivered miR-24-3p to inhibit vinculin expression leading to superoxide anion (O2•-) generation via scavenger receptor class B type 1. Vinculin was required for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation and modulated the PI3K/AKT/eNOS and ERK1/2 signaling pathways to regulate nHDL- and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Vinculin overexpression or miR-24-3p inhibition reversed dHDL-impaired angiogenesis. The expressions of vinculin and eNOS and angiogenesis were decreased, but the expression of miR-24-3p and lipid hydroperoxides in HDL were increased in the ischemic lower limbs of hypercholesterolemic LDLr-/- mice. Overexpression of vinculin or miR-24-3p antagomir restored the impaired-angiogenesis in ischemic hypercholesterolemic LDLr-/- mice. Collectively, nHDL stimulated vinculin and eNOS expression to increase NO production by suppressing miR-24-3p to induce angiogenesis, whereas dHDL inhibited vinculin and eNOS expression to enhance O2•- generation by delivering miR-24-3p to impair angiogenesis, and that vinculin and miR-24-3p may be therapeutic targets for dHDL-impaired angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , MicroRNAs , Animais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Células Endoteliais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteômica , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(15): 9618-9628, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667198

RESUMO

Isovalerate is an important intermediate in anaerobic degradation of proteins/amino acids. Little is known about how this compound is degraded due to challenges in cultivation and characterization of isovalerate-degrading bacteria, which are thought to symbiotically depend on methanogenic archaea. In this study, we successfully enriched novel syntrophic isovalerate degraders (uncultivated Clostridiales and Syntrophaceae members) through operation of mesophilic and thermophilic isovalerate-fed anaerobic reactors. Metagenomics- and metatranscriptomics-based metabolic reconstruction of novel putative syntrophic isovalerate metabolizers uncovered the catabolic pathway and byproducts (i.e., acetate, H2, and formate) of isovalerate degradation, mechanisms for electron transduction from isovalerate degradation to H2 and formate generation (via electron transfer flavoprotein; ETF), and biosynthetic metabolism. The identified organisms tended to prefer formate-based interspecies electron transfer with methanogenic partners. The byproduct acetate was further converted to CH4 and CO2 by either Methanothrix (mesophilic) and Methanosarcina (thermophilic), which employed different approaches for acetate degradation. This study presents insights into novel mesophilic and thermophilic isovalerate degraders and their interactions with methanogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Deltaproteobacteria , Archaea , Deltaproteobacteria/genética , Metagenômica , Metano , Methanosarcina
18.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E217-E231, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516026

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) from patients with valvular heart disease (VHD; vEVs) contain inflammatory components and inhibit endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Neutrophil chemotaxis plays a key role in renal dysfunction, and dexmedetomidine (DEX) can reduce renal dysfunction in cardiac surgery. However, the roles of vEVs in neutrophil chemotaxis and effects of DEX on vEVs are unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of vEVs on neutrophil chemotaxis in kidneys and the influence of DEX on vEVs. Circulating EVs were isolated from healthy subjects and patients with VHD. The effects of EVs on chemokine generation, forkhead box protein O3a (FOXO3a) pathway activation and neutrophil chemotaxis on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and kidneys in mice and the influence of DEX on EVs were detected. vEVs increased FOXO3a expression, decreased phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, promoted FOXO3a nuclear translocation, and activated the FOXO3a signaling pathway in vitro. DEX pretreatment reduced vEV-induced CXCL4 and CCL5 expression and neutrophil chemotaxis in cultured HUVECs via the FOXO3a signaling pathway. vEVs were also found to suppress Akt phosphorylation and activate FOXO3a signaling to increase plasma levels of CXCL4 and CCL5 and neutrophil accumulation in kidney. The overall mechanism was inhibited in vivo with DEX pretreatment. Our data demonstrated that vEVs induced CXCL4-CCL5 to stimulate neutrophil infiltration in kidney, which can be inhibited by DEX via the FOXO3a signaling. Our findings reveal a unique mechanism involving vEVs in inducing neutrophils chemotaxis and may provide a novel basis for using DEX in reducing renal dysfunction in valvular heart surgery.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/imunologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/imunologia , Rim/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal/imunologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL5/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/imunologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Fator Plaquetário 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Plaquetário 4/imunologia , Fator Plaquetário 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Vasodilatação
19.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(6): 23, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468443

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the effects of microparticles and exosomes in the progression of atherosclerosis and the prospect for their diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. RECENT FINDINGS: Microparticles and exosomes can induce endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, and calcification via their components of proteins and noncoding RNAs, which may promote the progression of atherosclerosis. The applications of microparticles and exosomes become the spotlight of clinical diagnosis and therapy. Microparticles and exosomes are members of extracellular vesicles, which are generated in various cell types by different mechanisms of cell membrane budding and multivesicular body secretion, respectively. They are important physiologic pathways of cell-to-cell communication in vivo and act as messengers accelerating or alleviating the process of atherosclerosis. Microparticles and exosomes may become diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic approaches of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 191(1): 397-411, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016903

RESUMO

This study evaluated the performance of an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactor in the thermophilic methane fermentation of hypersaline molasses wastewater. The high salinity (~ 45 mS/cm) of the undiluted wastewater completely inhibited the biogas production. An acclimation strategy involving gradient dilution of the molasses wastewater was implemented to gradually increase the salt stress. Consequently, the biogas production was recovered, inhibited only slightly by the high salinity of the undiluted wastewater. The reactor steadily achieved a high total organic carbon (TOC) loading rate of 5 g/L/day, with approximately 60% TOC removal efficiency. Acclimation to the gradually increased salt stress leads to a relative abundance of some halotolerant microbes, such as bacteria from Arcobacter, Tissierella, and Ruminococcaceae, which increased as their hydrolytic and acidogenic abilities adjusted to the incremental increase in salinity. Additionally, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, especially Methanoculleus, showed greater resistance to hypersalinity than aceticlastic methanogens. These results suggest that acclimation of the fermentation microbial community to hypersalinity is an effective strategy to improve methane production from hypersaline molasses wastewater in thermophilic UAF reactors.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos , Metano/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Melaço , Salinidade , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
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