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1.
Food Chem ; 340: 127915, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889208

RESUMO

The interaction between cyanidin-3-O-glucoside with casein and casein hydrolysates and its effects on the antioxidant activity of complexes were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy results indicated that the interaction between cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and casein was primarily mediated by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonds and stronger than the interaction between cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and casein hydrolysates mainly via hydrophobic interaction. Circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the secondary structure of casein/casein hydrolysates had a slight change after binding with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. And larger particles formed due to the protein aggregation induced by the complexation of casein/casein hydrolysates with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The antioxidant activity assessments revealed that the synergistic effect was observed in FRAP assay, whereas an antagonistic effect in ABTS assay between casein/casein hydrolysates and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, which were produced due to the casein/casein hydrolysates-cyanidin-3-O-glucoside interaction. These results would be helpful in designing functional beverages containing anthocyanins and protein hydrolysates with enhanced antioxidant ability.

2.
Heart ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158933

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is recognised to be a potent risk factor for hypertension, coronary heart disease, strokes and heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. However, the association between OSA and heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is less well recognised. Both conditions are very common globally.It appears that there are many similarities between the pathological effects of OSA and other known aetiologies of HFpEF and its postulated pathophysiology. Intermittent hypoxia induced by OSA leads to widespread stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and more importantly a systemic inflammatory state associated with oxidative stress. This is similar to the consequences of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and ageing that are the common precursors to HFpEF. The final common pathway is probably via the development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes in collagen and myocardial titin that cause myocardial stiffening. Thus, considering the pathophysiology of OSA and HFpEF, OSA is likely to be a significant risk factor for HFpEF and further trials of preventive treatment should be considered.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The hypoxic microenvironments of solid tumours are complex and reduce the susceptibility of cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. Conventional radiosensitisers have poor specificity, unsatisfactory therapeutic effects, and significant side effects. Anaerobic bacteria colonise and destroy hypoxic areas of the tumour and consequently enhance the effects of radiation. METHODS: In this study, we treated a Lewis lung carcinoma transplant mouse model with Bifidobacterium infantis (Bi) combined with its specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) and radiotherapy (RT) to investigate its ability to radiosensitise the tumour. The tumour metabolism and hypoxia in the tumour tissue were monitored by micro-18F-FDG and 18F-FMISO PET/CT imaging. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX), proliferation (Ki-67), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CD31), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) levels. RESULTS: Tumour growth was slowed and survival time was markedly prolonged in mice subjected to the combination of B. infantis, specific antibody, and radiotherapy. Levels of HIF-1α, Glut-1, Ki-67, and CD31 expression, as well as uptake of FDG and FMISO, were the lowest in the combination-treated mice. In contrast, γ-H2AX and TNF-α expression levels were elevated and hypoxia in tumour tissue was reduced compared with controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicated that the curative effect of radiotherapy for lung cancer was enhanced by pre-treating mice with a combination of B. infantis and its specific monoclonal antibody.

4.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146160

RESUMO

Herein, we report a new bioprobe with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics by conjugation of a far-red/near-infrared emissive AIE luminogen and two polymyxinB peptides. Due to the strong binding effect between polymyxin B and the lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, the bioprobe can selectively visualize Gram-negative bacteria and effectively kill them via photodynamic treatment.

5.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146745

RESUMO

The floral transition is a critical developmental switch in plants, and has profound effects on the flower production and yield. Magnolia × soulangeana 'Changchun' is known as a woody ornamental plant, which can bloom in spring and summer, respectively. In this study, anatomical observation, physiological measurement, transcriptome, and small RNA sequencing were performed to investigate potential endogenous regulatory mechanisms underlying floral transition in 'Changchun'. Transition of the shoot apical meristem from vegetative to reproductive growth occurred between late April and early May. During this specific developmental process, a total of 161,645 unigenes were identified, of which 73,257 were significantly differentially expressed, while a number of these two categories of miRNAs were 299 and 148, respectively. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that gibberellin signaling could regulate floral transition in 'Changchun' in a DELLA-dependent manner. In addition, prediction and analysis of miRNA targeted genes suggested that another potential molecular regulatory module was mediated by the miR172 family and other several novel miRNAs (Ms-novel_miR139, Ms-novel_miR229, and Ms-novel_miR232), with the participation of up- or down-regulating genes, including MsSVP, MsAP2, MsTOE3, MsAP1, MsGATA6, MsE2FA, and MsMDS6. Through the integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA, our research results will facilitate the understanding of the potential molecular mechanism underlying floral transition in 'Changchun', and also provide basic experimental data for the plant germplasm resources innovation in Magnolia.

6.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although human blood perfusion is largely redistributed into the mesenteric circulation after meals, the mechanisms by which postprandial nutrients induce mesenteric vasorelaxation, and whether this process is involved in the pathogenesis of colitis are not well understood. We aimed to study the direct actions of nutrients on mesenteric arterial tone and the underlying molecular mechanisms in healthy and colitis mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used wire myograph and DSS-induced colitis to investigate the roles and mechanisms of nutrient-induced vasorelaxation of mesenteric arterioles from humans and mice. Ca2+ and Na+ imaging were also performed in human VEC and VSMC pre-treated with selective pharmacological agents, and shRNA knockdown of TRPV1 channels. KEY RESULTS: Glucose, sodium, and mannitol induced the endothelium-dependent relaxation of human and mouse mesenteric arterioles via hyperosmotic action in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperosmosis-induced vasorelaxation was almost abolished by selective blockers for TRPV1, IKCa, and SKCa channels. Moreover, glucose markedly stimulated Ca2+ influx through endothelial TRPV1 channels, which was attenuated by selective blockers and the shRNA knockdown of TRPV1. Capsaicin synergised the glucose-induced vasorelaxation. The nutrient-induced hyperosmosis also activated NKA and NCX to further decrease [Ca2+ ]i in VSMC. Finally, the glucose-induced vasorelaxation was impaired in mouse colitis. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Nutrient-induced hyperosmosis evokes endothelium-dependent mesenteric vasorelaxation via the TRPV1/Ca2+ /EDH pathway to benefit normal mucosal perfusion, which is impaired in the pathogenesis of colitis. Our results suggest that the TRPV1/Ca2+ /EDH pathway could provide novel potential drug targets for gastrointestinal diseases with hypoperfusion, such as chronic colitis and mesenteric ischemia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19470, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173227

RESUMO

The microbiota profile of children changes with age. To investigate the differences in the gut microbiota profile of 1- and 4-year-old children, we collected fecal samples and sequenced the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene via high-throughput DNA sequencing. From phylum to species level, the microbiota underwent significant changes with age. The abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria declined with age, whereas phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes increased with age and dominated the gut microbiota of 4-year-olds. The intestinal environment of children at age four is closer to maturity. Hence, the abundance of Bifidobacterium significantly decreased in the gut of 4-year-olds, whereas Akkermansia muciniphila increased from 0.14% in 1-year-olds to 4.25% in 4-year-olds. The functional change in gut microbiota is consistent with changes in infant food, as microbiota participating in amino acid and vitamin metabolism were enriched in 1-year-olds, whereas microbiota involved in lipid metabolism increased with age.

8.
Peptides ; : 170446, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197510

RESUMO

Ghrelin, a novel gut hormone, has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on cardiac hypertrophy and explored the mechanisms involved. Ghrelin (30 µg kg-1·d-1) was systemically administered to rats with cardiac hypertrophy induced by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) by a mini-osmotic pump the next day after surgery continuously for 4 weeks. The AAC treated rats without ghrelin infusion showed decreased ghrelin content and expression of its receptors in the hearts. Exogenous ghrelin greatly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy as shown by heart weight to tibial length (HW/TL), hemodynamics, echocardiography, histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers induced by AAC. This corresponded with decreased cardiac fibrosis and inflammation in the hearts of AAC rats treated with ghrelin. Moreover, ghrelin significantly increased the myocardial expression of autophagy markers, which was further confirmed in cultured cardiomyocytes. Concurrently, cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro was ameliorated by ghrelin, which was reversed by inhibition of autophagy. The enhancement of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis by ghrelin were eliminated on pretreatment with compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream kinase of AMPK, made ghrelin fail to activate AMPK and simultaneously reversed ghrelin's promotion of autophagy. In conclusion, ghrelin could exert its cardioprotective effects on cardiac hypertrophy by promoting autophagy, possibly via CaMKK/AMPK signaling pathway.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210241

RESUMO

Systematic imaging can be broadly defined as the systematic identification and characterization of biological processes at multiple scales and levels. In contrast to "classical" diagnostic imaging, systematic imaging emphasizes on detecting the overall abnormalities including molecular, functional, and structural alterations occurring during disease course in a systematic manner, rather than just one aspect in a partial manner. Concomitant efforts including improvement of imaging instruments, development of novel imaging agents, and advancement of artificial intelligence are warranted for achievement of systematic imaging. It is undeniable that scientists and radiologists will play a predominant role in directing this burgeoning field. This article introduces several recent developments in imaging modalities and nanoparticles-based imaging agents, and discusses how systematic imaging can be achieved. In the near future, systematic imaging which combines multiple imaging modalities with multimodal imaging agents will pave a new avenue for comprehensive characterization of diseases, successful achievement of image-guided therapy, precise evaluation of therapeutic effects, and rapid development of novel pharmaceuticals, with the final goal of improving human health-related outcomes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210805

RESUMO

Attributed to the unique topological complexity and elegant beauty, Borromean systems are attracting intense attention. However, at present, the construction of Borromean linked organic polymers remains a challenge. To address this formidable challenge, we developed a supramolecular-synthon-driven approach to fabricate Borromean linked organic polymer. The solvothermal condensation reaction of a judiciously selected trigonal pyramidal building block, 1,3,5-Tris(4-aminophenyl)adamantane, with linear dialdehyde building blocks allowed the construction of two rare covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with high crystallinity and robustness. Structure refinement unveiled the successful formation of entangled 2D➙2D Borromean arrayed structures. Both the two COFs were of microporosity and thus demonstrated the potentials for gas separation. The successful synthesis of the first two Borromean linked organic polymers paves the avenue to expand the supramolecular-synthon-driven approach to other building blocks and topologies, and broadens the family and scope of COFs.

11.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214223

RESUMO

Chronic ER stress resulting from misfolding of the visual pigment rhodopsin (RHO) can lead to loss of rod photoreceptors, which initiates Retinitis Pigmentosa, characterized initially by diminished nighttime and peripheral vision.  Cone photoreceptors depend on rods for glucose transport, which the neurons use for assembly of visual pigment-rich structures; as such, loss of rods also leads to a secondary loss of cone function, diminishing high resolution color vision utilized for tasks including reading, driving and facial recognition.  If dysfunctional rods could be maintained to continue to serve this secondary cone preservation function, it might benefit to patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa, but the mechanisms by which rods are removed are not fully established. Using pigs expressing mutant RHO , we find that induction of a Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern (DAMP) "eat me" signal on the surface of mutant rods is correlated with targeting the live cells for programmed cell removal (PrCR) by retinal myeloid cells.  Glucocorticoid therapy leads to replacement of this DAMP with a "don't eat me" immune checkpoint on the rod surface and inhibition of PrCR.  Surviving rods then continue to promote glucose transport to cones, maintaining their viability.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161083

RESUMO

In recent years, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has gradually gained worldwide interests as a novel target for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, two pharmacophore models were generated using Schrödinger suite and used to virtually screen ChemDiv database, from which three hits were obtained. Among them, 2513-4169 displayed the highest inhibitory activity and selectivity against BChE (eeAChE IC50 > 10 µM, eqBChE IC50 = 3.73 ± 1.90 µM). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation validated the binding pattern of 2513-4169 in BChE, and it could form a various of receptor-ligand interactions with adjacent residues. In vitro cytotoxicity assay proved the safety of 2513-4169 on diverse neural cell lines. Moreover, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay performed on SH-SY5Y cells proved the neuroprotective effect of 2513-4169 against toxic Aß1-42. In vivo behavioral study further confirmed the great efficacy of 2513-4169 on reversing Aß1-42-induced cognitive impairment of mice and clearing the toxic Aß1-42 in brains. Moreover, 2513-4169 was proved to be able to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) through a parallel artificial membrane permeation assay of BBB (PAMPA-BBB). Taken together, 2513-4169 is a promising lead compound for future optimization to discover anti-AD treating agents.

13.
Environ Pollut ; : 115752, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190984

RESUMO

Isoflavones (ISOs) are naturally occurring endocrine-disrupting compounds. Few human studies have evaluated the effects of ISO exposure on neonatal anthropometry. This study aimed to examine the associations of maternal soy product consumption and urinary ISO concentrations, including genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and equol, with neonatal anthropometry, based on a Chinese cohort study. In Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study, pregnant women at 12-16 weeks of gestation were recruited, and they completed a structured questionnaire to assess soy product consumption during pregnancy. They also provided a single spot urine sample for the ISO assay. Neonatal anthropometric indices (birth weight; arm, waist, and head circumference; and triceps, back, and abdominal skinfold thickness) were measured at birth. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed among the 1188 mother-infant pairs to examine the associations between maternal soy product consumption and neonatal anthropometry. The same statistical model was applied to examine the associations between maternal ISO exposure and neonatal anthropometry among 480 mother-infant pairs. Neonate girls born to mothers who "sometimes" and "frequent" consumed soy products had 169.1 g (95% confidence interval [CI], -68.9-407.1) and 256.5 g (95% CI, 17.1-495.8) higher birth weight, respectively, than those born to mothers who "never" consumed soy products during pregnancy. We observed consistent associations between higher maternal urine ISO concentrations and increased anthropometric indices (birth weight, arm and waist circumference, and triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness) in neonate girls, while no association was observed among boys. The findings suggested that maternal dietary ISO intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal development in a sex-specific pattern. In addition, follow-up studies are required to evaluate whether the observed changes in anthropometric indices at birth are associated with health conditions later in life.

14.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 127, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of associations between prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and fetal thyroid hormones (THs) is controversial, and few studies have estimated the associations, while addressing the high correlations among multiple PFASs. We aimed to examine the associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and thyroid hormone concentrations in cord blood. METHODS: A total of 300 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study were included. We measured the concentrations of eight PFASs in maternal plasma samples collected at 12-16 gestational weeks, as well as those of total thyroxine (T4), free T4 (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in cord plasma. We estimated the associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and TH concentrations using linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models. RESULTS: In BKMR models, higher PFAS mixture concentrations were associated with increased T3 concentrations, and there were suggestive associations with increased FT3 concentrations. For single-exposure effects in BKMR models, a change in PFDA, PFUdA, and PFOA concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with a 0.04 (95%CrI: - 0.01, 0.09), 0.02 (95%CrI: - 0.03, 0.07), and 0.03 (95%CrI: - 0.001, 0.06) nmol/L increase in T3 concentrations, respectively. PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were the predominant compounds in PFASs-FT3 associations, and the corresponding estimates were 0.11 (95% CrI: 0.02, 0.19), - 0.17 (95% CrI: - 0.28, - 0.07), and 0.12 (95% CrI: - 0.004, 0.24) pmol/L, respectively. A change in PFNA and PFOA concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with a - 1.69 (95% CrI: - 2.98, - 0.41) µIU/mL decrease and a 1.51 (95% CrI: 0.48, 2.55) µIU/mL increase in TSH concentrations. The associations of PFOA and PFNA with T3/FT3 were more pronounced in boys, while those with TSH were more pronounced in girls. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to multiple PFASs was associated with thyroid hormones in cord blood. However, individual PFAS had varied effects-differing in magnitude and direction-on fetal thyroid hormones.

15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113639, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is assumed to be a biomarker of prenatal sex steroid exposure, correlating negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estrogen. The ratio has been suggested to be influenced by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, evidence regarding effects of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on 2D:4D of children was sparse. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and 2D:4D of children aged 4 years. METHODS: Participants were mother-child pairs from the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study (S-MBCS) which enrolled pregnant women at 12-16 weeks of gestation from April to December 2012. Nine PBDE congeners in venous umbilical cord plasma of 340 children were measured. Digit lengths were measured using a vernier caliper in children aged 4 years and 2D:4D for left and right hands and average 2D:4D value of both hands were calculated. A total of 281 children (160 boys and 121 girls) who had data on both 2D:4D and PBDE concentrations were included in the final analysis. Associations between prenatal PBDE exposures and 2D:4D were investigated using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Among the nine congeners, BDE-47 had the highest detection rate of 86.12% with the highest median concentration of 0.20 ng/ml lipid. Five PBDE congeners with detection rates greater than or close to 50% (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100 and -153) and Σ5PBDEs (the sum of them) were included in final analysis. For girls, a consistent pattern for the positive associations between prenatal PBDE exposures and 2D:4D of children was observed mainly for the left hand, where those in the highest exposure groups had higher 2D:4D compared to the lowest exposure groups (a feminizing effect), with statistically significant associations observed for BDE-47 (ß = 0.0247, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0017, 0.0477), -100 (ß = 0.0264, 95% CI: 0.0087, 0.0441) and Σ5PBDEs (ß = 0.0201, 95% CI: 0.0027, 0.0374). For boys, compared with the lowest exposure groups, statistically significantly higher (feminized) 2D:4D for both hands was observed in those with the highest exposure levels of BDE-100 (ß = 0.0147, 95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0289 for the left hand; ß = 0.0182, 95% CI: 0.0046, 0.0318 for the right hand) and those with the middle and the highest exposure levels of BDE-153 (middle vs. undetected, ß = 0.0215, 95% CI: 0.0072, 0.0358 for the left hand; ß = 0.0155, 95% CI: 0.0015, 0.0295 for the right hand; highest vs. undetected, ß = 0.0162, 95% CI: 0.0017, 0.0307 for the left hand; ß = 0.0152, 95% CI: 0.0011, 0.0294 for the right hand). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preliminary evidence that prenatal exposure to PBDEs might be associated with higher 2D:4D in boys and girls.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(41): 6378-6390, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The expression of macrophage inhibitory factor-1 (MIC-1) is increased in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. However, whether MIC-1 gene polymorphism is correlated with relevant diseases is not yet reported. AIM: To explore the correlation between gene polymorphism in MIC-1 exon region and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 178 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in the case group, and 82 healthy subjects from the same region who had passed the screening examination comprised the control group. The genotypes of rs1059369 and rs1059519 loci in the MIC-1 gene exon were detected by DNA sequencing. Also, the MIC-1 level, liver function metrics, liver fibrosis metrics, and HCV RNA load were determined. Univariate analysis was used to compare the differences and correlations between the two groups with respect to these parameters. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent relevant factors of CHC. RESULTS: The plasma MIC-1 level in the CHC group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and it was significantly positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), type III procollagen N-terminal peptide (known as PIIINP), type IV collagen, and HCV RNA (P < 0.05), whereas negatively correlated with total protein and albumin (P < 0.05). The genotype and allele frequency distribution at the rs1059519 locus differed between the two groups (P < 0.05). The allele frequency maintained significant difference after Bonferroni correction (Pc < 0.05). Logistic multiple regression showed that AST, PIIINP, MIC-1, and genotype GG at the rs1059519 locus were independent relevant factors of CHC (P < 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was found between rs1059369 and rs1059519 loci, and significant difference was detected in the distribution of haplotype A-C between the CHC and control groups (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, we found the MIC-1 level trend to increase among rs1059519 genotypes (P = 0.006) and the level of MIC-1 in GG genotype to be significantly higher than CC genotype (P = 0.009, after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSION: Plasma MIC-1 level was increased in CHC patients and correlated with liver cell damage, liver fibrosis metrics, and viral load. The polymorphism at the MIC-1 gene rs1059519 locus was correlated with HCV infection, and associated with the plasma MIC-1 level. G allele and GG genotype may be an important susceptible factor for CHC.

17.
Immunity ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096040

RESUMO

Polyreactivity is the ability of a single antibody to bind to multiple molecularly distinct antigens and is a common feature of antibodies induced upon pathogen exposure. However, little is known about the role of polyreactivity during anti-influenza virus antibody responses. By analyzing more than 500 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells induced by numerous influenza virus vaccines and infections, we found mAbs targeting conserved neutralizing influenza virus hemagglutinin epitopes were polyreactive. Polyreactive mAbs were preferentially induced by novel viral exposures due to their broad viral binding breadth. Polyreactivity augmented mAb viral binding strength by increasing antibody flexibility, allowing for adaption to imperfectly conserved epitopes. Lastly, we found affinity-matured polyreactive B cells were typically derived from germline polyreactive B cells that were preferentially selected to participate in B cell responses over time. Together, our data reveal that polyreactivity is a beneficial feature of antibodies targeting conserved epitopes.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086332

RESUMO

The prevalence of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia (ACA) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals has been observed to be elevated. The prevalence of ACA ranges from 1.3% to 13%, with different rates of prevalence in various regions of the world. We reviewed studies conducted internationally, and also referred to two established expert consensus guideline documents published in China, and we have concluded that Chinese HIV-infected patients should undergo cryptococcal antigen screening when CD4 T-cell counts fall below 200 cells/µL and that the recommended treatment regimen for these patients follow current World Health Organization guidelines, although it is likely that this recommendation may change in the future. Early screening and optimized preemptive treatment for ACA is likely to help decrease the incidence of cryptococcosis, and is lifesaving. Further studies are warranted to explore issues related to the optimal management of ACA.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090603

RESUMO

Crystalline porous materials (CPMs) have been widely studied over the past few decades due to their well-defined, customizable, and porous structures. However, the limited stability and machinability restrict their particle applications. Recently, a new trend to use hybrid strategies to bridge the gap between CPMs and flexible polymers has emerged as an effective solution to tackle the above issues. Polymers can be either cross-linked within the framework or anchored to the outer surface of the materials, that endow CPMs with polymer features, such as flexibility, ductility, and machinability. Such resulting polymer-tethered CPMs (named as polyCPMs) have demonstrated improved performances in many application scopes such as membrane separation, heterogeneous catalysis and smart response. This minireview highlights state of the art for the hybridization strategies of CPMs with flexible polymers, and provide a perspective on their potential applications and future directions.

20.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(8): 1643-1652, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107858

RESUMO

The sewage sludge production has been increasing along with the ever-growing populations and wastewater treatment rate. Lanthanum-doped activated carbon (AC-La) was derived from municipal sludge via chemical activation and utilized for fluoride removal. Batch experiments were conducted to discuss the effect of lanthanum dosage, time and pH on the adsorption process. The results showed that 4 g/L AC-La exhibited a fluoride removal rate of 80.9% with 10 mg/L initial fluoride concentration, and the optimal pH range for adsorption was 3-10. X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were conducted to analyze the microstructure and chemical properties of sludge, unmodified activated carbon (AC) and AC-La. The results showed that with initial lanthanum dosage of 15 wt%, the final loading amount of La in AC-La was 13.8 wt%. After modification, the specific surface area of AC-La increased from 1.8 m2/g (sludge) to 133.0 m2/g. The removal mechanism of fluoride onto AC-La was mainly the inner-sphere complexation between lanthanum and fluoride, facilitated by exchange interaction with hydroxyls. A stability study showed that AC-La maintained a quite small dissolution and was safe in waters (La dissolution rate < 0.2‰).


Assuntos
Lantânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Esgotos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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