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1.
Transgenic Res ; 29(1): 149-163, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927726

RESUMO

Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Disruption of the MSTN gene in various mammalian species markedly promotes muscle growth. Previous studies have mainly focused on the disruption of the MSTN peptide coding region in pigs but not on the modification of the signal peptide region. In this study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system was used to successfully introduce two mutations (PVD20H and GP19del) in the MSTN signal peptide region of the indigenous Chinese pig breed, Liang Guang Small Spotted pig. Both mutations in signal peptide increased the muscle mass without inhibiting the production of mature MSTN peptide in the cells. Histological analysis revealed that the enhanced muscle mass in MSTN+/PVD20H pig was mainly due to an increase in the number of muscle fibers. The expression of MSTN in the longissimus dorsi muscle of MSTN+/PVD20H and MSTNKO/PVD20H pigs was significantly downregulated, whereas that of myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD, Myogenin, and Myf-5, was significantly upregulated when compared to those in the longissimus dorsi muscle of wild-type pigs. Meanwhile, the mutations also activated the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of this study indicated that precise editing of the MSTN signal peptide can enhance porcine muscle development without markedly affecting the expression of mature MSTN peptide, which could exert other beneficial biological functions in the edited pigs.

2.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974864

RESUMO

Cytosine and adenine base editors are promising new tools for introducing precise genetic modifications that are required to generate disease models and to improve traits in pigs. Base editors can catalyze the conversion of C→T (C>T) or A→G (A>G) in the target site through a single guide RNA. Injection of base editors into the zygote cytoplasm can result in the production of offspring with precise point mutations, but most F0 are mosaic, and breeding of F1 heterozygous pigs is time-intensive. Here, we developed a method called germinal vesicle oocyte base editing (GVBE) to produce point mutant F0 porcine embryos by editing the maternal alleles during the GV to MII transition. Injection of cytosine base editor 3 (BE3) mRNA and X-linked Dmd-specific guide RNAs into GVoocytes efficiently edited maternal Dmd during in vitro maturation and did not affect the maturation potential of the oocytes. The edited MII oocytes developed into blastocysts after parthenogenetic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, BE3 may reduce the developmental potential of IVF blastocysts from 31.5%±0.8% to 20.4% ±2.1%. There 40%-78.3% diploid PA blastocysts had no more than two different alleles, including up to 10% embryos that had only C>T mutation alleles. Genotyping of IVF blastocysts indicated that over 70% of the edited embryos had one allele or two different alleles of Dmd. Since the male embryos had only a copy of Dmd allele, all five (5/19) F0 male embryos are homozygous and three of them were Dmd precise C>T mutation. Nine (9/19) female IVF embryos had two different alleles including a WT and a C>T mutation. DNA sequencing showed that some of them might be heterozygous embryos. In conclusion, the GVBE method is a valuable method for generating F0 embryos with maternal point mutated alleles in a single step.

3.
Cell Prolif ; : e12744, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mixed lineage leukaemia protein-1 (MLL1) mediates histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation (me3) and plays vital roles during early embryonic development and hematopoiesis. In our previous study, we found its expression was positively correlated with embryonic myogenic ability in pigs, indicating its potential roles in mammalian muscle development. The present work aimed to explore the roles and regulation mechanisms of MLL1 in myogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MLL1 in C2C12 cells was experimentally manipulated using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, cell cycle assay, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to assess myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was conducted to detect H3K4me3 enrichment on myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) promoter. A cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated muscle regeneration model was used to investigate the effects of MLL1 on myogenesis in vivo. RESULTS: MLL1 was highly expressed in proliferating C2C12 cells, and expression decreased after differentiation. Knocking down MLL1 suppressed myoblast proliferation and impaired myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of MLL1 resulted in the arrest of cell cycle in G1 phase, with decreased expressions of Myf5 and Cyclin D1. Mechanically, MLL1 transcriptionally regulated Myf5 by mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter. In vivo data implied that MLL1 was required for Pax7-positive satellite cell proliferation and muscle repair. CONCLUSION: MLL1 facilitates proliferation of myoblasts and Pax7-positive satellite cells by epigenetically regulating Myf5 via mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803742

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is strongly associated with animal reproduction and woman reproductive disease. As a multifunctional oocyte-specific secret factor, BMP15 controls female fertility and follicular development in both species-specific and dosage-sensitive manners. Previous studies found that BMP15 played a critical role in follicular development and ovulation rate in mono-ovulatory mammalian species, especially in sheep and human, but study on knockout mouse model implied that BMP15 possibly has minimal impact on female fertility of poly-ovulatory species. However, this needs to be validated in other poly-ovulatory species. To investigate the regulatory role of BMP15 on porcine female fertility, we generated a BMP15-knockdown pig model through somatic nuclear transfer technology. The BMP15-knockdown gilts showed markedly reduced fertility accompanied by phenotype of dysplastic ovaries containing significantly declined number of follicles, increased number of abnormal follicles, and abnormally enlarged antral follicles resulting in disordered ovulation, which is remarkably different from the unchanged fertility observed in BMP15 knockout mice. Molecular and transcriptome analysis revealed that the knockdown of BMP15 significantly affected both granulosa cells (GCs) and oocytes development, including suppression of cell proliferation, differentiation, and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) expression, leading to premature luteinization and reduced estradiol (E2) production in GCs, and simultaneously decreased quality and meiotic maturation of oocyte. Our results provide in vivo evidence of the essential role of BMP15 in porcine ovarian and follicular development, and new insight into the complicated regulatory function of BMP15 in female fertility of poly-ovulatory species.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 797, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the pig production industry, artificial insemination (AI) plays an important role in enlarging the beneficial impact of elite boars. Understanding the genetic architecture and detecting genetic markers associated with semen traits can help in improving genetic selection for such traits and accelerate genetic progress. In this study, we utilized a weighted single-step genome-wide association study (wssGWAS) procedure to detect genetic regions and further candidate genes associated with semen traits in a Duroc boar population. Overall, the full pedigree consists of 5284 pigs (12 generations), of which 2693 boars have semen data (143,113 ejaculations) and 1733 pigs were genotyped with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. RESULTS: Results show that the most significant genetic regions (0.4 Mb windows) explained approximately 2%~ 6% of the total genetic variances for the studied traits. Totally, the identified significant windows (windows explaining more than 1% of total genetic variances) explained 28.29, 35.31, 41.98, and 20.60% of genetic variances (not phenotypic variance) for number of sperm cells, sperm motility, sperm progressive motility, and total morphological abnormalities, respectively. Several genes that have been previously reported to be associated with mammal spermiogenesis, testes functioning, and male fertility were detected and treated as candidate genes for the traits of interest: Number of sperm cells, TDRD5, QSOX1, BLK, TIMP3, THRA, CSF3, and ZPBP1; Sperm motility, PPP2R2B, NEK2, NDRG, ADAM7, SKP2, and RNASET2; Sperm progressive motility, SH2B1, BLK, LAMB1, VPS4A, SPAG9, LCN2, and DNM1; Total morphological abnormalities, GHR, SELENOP, SLC16A5, SLC9A3R1, and DNAI2. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, candidate genes associated with Duroc boars' semen traits, including the number of sperm cells, sperm motility, sperm progressive motility, and total morphological abnormalities, were identified using wssGWAS. KEGG and GO enrichment analysis indicate that the identified candidate genes were enriched in biological processes and functional terms may be involved into spermiogenesis, testes functioning, and male fertility.

6.
Cell Death Differ ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685980

RESUMO

Zinc finger protein 422 (Zfp422) is a widely expressed zinc finger protein that serves as a transcriptional factor to regulate downstream gene expression, but until now, little is known about its roles in myogenesis. We found here that Zfp422 plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. It highly expresses in mouse skeletal muscle during embryonic development. Specific knockout of Zfp422 in skeletal muscle impaired embryonic muscle formation. Satellite cell-specific Zfp422 deletion severely inhibited muscle regeneration. Myoblast differentiation and myotube formation were suppressed in Zfp422-deleted C2C12 cells, isolated primary myoblasts, and satellite cells. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) revealed that Zfp422 regulated ephrin type-A receptor 7 (EphA7) expression by binding an upstream 169-bp DNA sequence, which was proved to be an enhancer of EphA7. Knocking EphA7 down in C2C12 cells or deleting Zfp422 in myoblasts will inhibit cell apoptosis which is required for myoblast differentiation. These results indicate that Zfp422 is essential for skeletal muscle differentiation and fusion, through regulating EphA7 expression to maintain proper apoptosis.

7.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 939-949, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624056

RESUMO

Mutations in Hypoxanthine-guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase1 (HPRT1) gene can lead to metabolic disorder of hypoxanthine and guanine metabolism, and other severe symptoms such as hypophrenia, gout, and kidney stones, called the Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Although the mutations are widely distributed throughout the HPRT1 gene, there are some isolated hot spots. In this study, we aim to introduce two previously reported hot spots, c.508 C>T and c.151 C>T, which could lead to premature translational termination in HPRT1 gene. Through CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) by using single-stranded oligo-deoxyribonucleotides (ssODN) as donor template, we obtained cell clones containing these two mutations in HEK293T or HeLa cells. Targeted mutation of c.508 C>T and c.151 C>T reached to 16.3% and 10%, respectively. We further detect HPRT1 protein levels with Western blot and enzyme activity with 6-TG in 5 different cell clones. HPRT1 protein and its enzymatic activity both was hardly detected in homozygous mutant cells, while reduced HPRT1 protein expression and enzymatic activity was detected in heterozygous mutant cells. Our study will be beneficial to those who working on generation of cell or animal models of HRPT1 mutations, and provides a basis for further investigations on the genetic mechanism of Lesch-Nyhan disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Mutação Puntual , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/genética
8.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 72, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MyoD) is a crucial master switch in regulating muscle-specific gene transcription. Forced expression of myoD is equipped to induce several cell lineages into myoblast, which then differentiate and fuse into myotube. Pig is one of the most significant livestock supplying meat, and has been classified into lean, fat and miniature pig breeds. However, the mechanisms underlying muscle mass variation among different pig breeds have remained unclear. Considering the important effect of MyoD on muscle development, it remains to be investigated whether the difference in muscle mass is caused by its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are the major differences among pig breeds at DNA level. RESULTS: In this study, we identified the locations of porcine myoD regulatory regions including proximal regulatory region (PRR), distal regulatory region (DRR), and core enhancer (CE) region. There are 8 SNPs in the regulatory regions and 6 SNPs in gene body region, which were identified from lean, fat and miniature pig populations. However, these SNPs have no effects on its temporal expression and transcriptional activity which might lead to the distinction in postnatal muscle mass. In addition, overexpression of myoD clones across from amphibious to mammals including xenopus tropicalis, chicken, mouse and pig whose gene identities vary from 68 to 84%, could promote myogenesis in NIH3T3 fibroblasts cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results proved that myoD nucleotide variations from different pig populations have no effect on muscle mass, suggesting that the function of myoD is highly conserved not only among different pig breeds, but also across different species. Thus, it would be futile to discover SNPs affecting muscle mass in pig populations with normal muscle development.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1846, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440241

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) 1 and 2 differ in their recognition of CD163. Substitution of porcine CD163 SRCR5 domain with a human CD163-like SRCR8 confers resistance to PRRSV 1 but not PRRSV 2. The deletion of CD163 SRCR5 has been shown to confer resistance to PRRSV 1 in vivo and both PRRSV 1 and 2 in vitro. However, the anti-PRRSV 2 activity of modifying the CD163 SRCR5 domain has not yet been reported. Here, we describe the highly efficient generation of two pig breeds (Liang Guang Small Spotted and Large White pigs) lacking a short region of CD163 SRCR5, including the ligand-binding pocket. We generated a large number of gene-edited Large White pigs of the F0 generation for use in viral challenge studies. The results of this study show that these pigs are completely resistant to infection by species 2 PRRSV, JXA1, and MY strains. There were no clinical symptoms, pathological abnormalities, viremia, or anti-PRRSV antibodies in the CD163 SRCR5-edited pigs compared to wild-type controls after viral challenge. Porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) isolated from CD163 SRCR5-edited Large White pigs also displayed resistance to PRRSV in vitro. In addition, CD163 SRCR5-edited PAMs still exhibited a cytokine response to PRRSV infection, and no significant difference was observed in cytokine expression compared to wild-type PAMs. Taken together, these data suggest that CD163 SRCR5-edited pigs are resistant to PRRSV 2, providing a basis for the establishment of PRRSV-resistant pig lines for commercial application and further investigation of the essential region of SRCR5 involved in virus infection.

10.
J Genet Genomics ; 46(7): 335-342, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378649

RESUMO

Genetically modified pigs represent a great promise for generating models of human diseases and producing new breeds. Generation of genetically edited pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or zygote cytoplasmic microinjection is a tedious process due to the low developmental rate or mosaicism of the founder (F0). Herein, we developed a method termed germinal vesicle oocyte gene editing (GVGE) to produce non-mosaic porcine embryos by editing maternal alleles during the GV to MⅡ transition. Injection of Cas9 mRNA and X-linked Dmd gene-specific gRNA into GV oocytes did not affect their developmental potential. The MⅡ oocytes edited during in vitro maturation (IVM) could develop into blastocysts after parthenogenetic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Genotyping results indicated that the maternal gene X-linked Dmd could be efficiently edited during oocyte maturation. Up to 81.3% of the edited IVF embryos were non-mosaic Dmd gene mutant embryos. In conclusion, GVGE might be a valuable method for the generation of non-mosaic maternal allele edited F0 embryos in a short simple step.

11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 1967-1978, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222274

RESUMO

Pig is one of the major dietary protein sources for human consumption, from which muscle is the largest protein origin. However, molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds are still unclear. In this study, an integrated analysis of transcriptome and miRNAome was conducted using longissimus dorsi muscle of 4 early embryonic stages around the primary myofiber formation time (18-, 21-, 28-, and 35-d post coitus) from 2 pig breeds (Landrace [LR] and Wuzhishan [WZS]) differing in meat mass. The global miRNA/mRNA expression profile showed that WZS prepared for myogenic developmental processes earlier than LR. After identifying and analyzing the interaction network of top 100 up-/down-regulated miRNA and their target genes, we were able to find 3 gene clusters: chromatin modification-related (Chd2, H3f3a, Chd6, and Mll1), myogenesis-related (Pax3, Pbx1, Mef2a, and Znf423), and myosin component-related (Mylk, Myo5a, Mylk4, Myh9, and Mylk2) gene clusters. These genes may involve in miRNA-gene myogenic regulatory network that plays vital role in regulating distinct early porcine embryonic myogenic processes between LR and WZS. In summary, our study reveals an epigenetic-mediated myogenic regulatory axial that will help us to decipher molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 20(1): 4, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041890

RESUMO

The white coat colour of Yorkshire and Landrace pig breeds is caused by the dominant white I allele of KIT, associated with 450-kb duplications and a splice mutation (G > A) at the first base in intron 17. To test whether genome editing can be employed to correct this structural mutation, and to investigate the role of KIT in the control of porcine coat colour, we designed sgRNAs targeting either intron 16 or intron 17 of KIT, and transfected Cas9/sgRNA co-expression plasmids into the kidney cells of Yorkshire pigs. The copy number of KIT was reduced by about 13%, suggesting the possibility of obtaining cells with corrected structural mutations of the KIT locus. Using single cell cloning, from 24 successfully expanded single cell clones derived from cells transfected with sgRNA targeting at intron 17, we obtained 3 clones with a single copy of KIT without the splice mutation. Taken together, the 12.5% (3/24) efficiency of correction of structural mutations of 450 kb fragments is highly efficient, providing a solid basis for the generation of genome edited Yorkshire pigs with a normal KIT locus. This provides an insight into the underlying genetic mechanisms of porcine coat colour.

13.
J Inorg Biochem ; 196: 110691, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063931

RESUMO

In this study, we describe efforts to clarify the role of the copper cofactors associated with subunit B (PmoB) of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (M. capsulatus). This subunit exhibits strong affinity toward CuI ions. To elucidate the high copper affinity of the subunit, the full-length PmoB, and the N-terminal truncated mutants PmoB33-414 and PmoB55-414, each fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP), are cloned and over-expressed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 TB1 cells. The Y374F, Y374S and M300L mutants of these protein constructs are also studied. When this E. coli is grown with the pmoB gene in 1.0 mM CuII, it behaves like M. capsulatus (Bath) cultured under high copper stress with abundant membrane accumulation and high CuI content. The recombinant PmoB proteins are verified by Western blotting of antibodies directed against the MBP sub-domain in each of the copper-enriched PmoB proteins. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) of the copper ions confirms that all the PmoB recombinants are CuI proteins. All the PmoB proteins show evidence of a "dicopper site" according to analysis of the Cu extended X-ray absorption edge fine structure (EXAFS) of the membranes. No specific activities toward methane and propene oxidation are observed with the recombinant membrane-bound PmoB proteins. However, significant production of hydrogen peroxide is observed in the case of the PmoB33-414 mutant. Reaction of the dicopper site with dioxygen produces hydrogen peroxide and leads to oxidation of the CuI ions residing in the C-terminal sub-domain of the PmoB subunit.

14.
FASEB J ; 33(8): 9638-9655, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145867

RESUMO

Here, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of longissimus dorsi muscle from Landrace and Wuzhishan (WZS) miniature pigs during 18, 21, and 28 d postcoitum. It was uncovered that in regulatory regions only around transcription start sites (TSSs), gene expression and methylation showed negative correlation, whereas in gene bodies, positive correlation occurred. Furthermore, earlier myogenic gene demethylation around TSSs and earlier hypermethylation of myogenic genes in gene bodies were considered to trigger their earlier expression in miniature pigs. Furthermore, by analyzing the methylation pattern of the myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD) promoter and distal enhancer, we found that earlier demethylation of the MyoD distal enhancer in WZSs contributes to its earlier expression. Moreover, DNA demethylase Tet1 was found to be involved in the demethylation of the myogenin promoter and promoted immortalized mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) and porcine embryonic myogenic cell differentiation. This study reveals that earlier demethylation of myogenic genes contributes to precocious terminal differentiation of myoblasts in miniature pigs.-Zhang, X., Nie, Y., Cai, S., Ding, S., Fu, B., Wei, H., Chen, L., Liu, X., Liu, M., Yuan, R., Qiu, B., He, Z., Cong, P., Chen, Y., Mo, D. Earlier demethylation of myogenic genes contributes to embryonic precocious terminal differentiation of myoblasts in miniature pigs.

15.
Theriogenology ; 132: 95-105, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004879

RESUMO

The EZH2 protein endows the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) with histone lysine methyltransferase activity that is associated with transcriptional repression. Recent investigations have documented crucial roles for EZH2 in mediating X-inactivation, stem cell pluripotency and cancer metastasis. However, there is little evidence demonstrating the maternal effect of EZH2 on porcine preimplantation development. Here, we took parthenogenetic activation embryos to eliminate the confounding paternal influence. We showed that the dynamic expression of EZH2 during early development was accompanied by changes in H3K27me3 levels. Depletion of EZH2 in MII oocytes by small interfering RNA not only impaired embryonic development at the blastocyst stage (P < 0.05), but also disrupted the equilibrium of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in the embryo. Interestingly, the expression of TET1, a member of Ten-Eleven Translocation gene family for converting 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), was decreased after EZH2 knockdown, in contrast to the increase of the other two members, TET2 and TET3 (P < 0.05). These results indicate a correlation between histone methylation and DNA methylation, and between EZH2 and TET1. Along with the downregulation of TET1, the expression of the pluripotency gene NANOG was decreased (P < 0.05), which is consistent with a previous finding in mouse ES cells. Meanwhile, the abundance of OCT4 and SOX2 were also down-regulated. Moreover, EZH2 knockdown reduced the capacity of cells in the blastocysts to resist apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that EZH2 is integral to the developmental program of porcine parthenogenetic embryos and exerts its function by regulating pluripotency, differentiation and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/veterinária , Partenogênese , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(16): 4700-4708, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929441

RESUMO

Fat-related traits have great influences on pork quality. As different fat tissues have different biochemical profiles depending on their location, intramuscular fat contributes to gustatory qualities, while subcutaneous fat is considered as a negative factor associated with growth performance. In this study, both primary intramuscular and subcutaneous vascular stem cells (IVSCs and SVSCs) could be differentiated into mature adipocytes, though the IVSC differentiation efficiency was lower. By comparative analysis of transcriptomes, 2524 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found between two VSCs before differentiation, while only 551 DEGs were found and enriched in two pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids after differentiation. This result indicated that differentiated VSCs were more similar. During differentiation, more DEGs existed in IVSCs than that in SVSCs, suggesting that adipogenesis of IVSCs might be more complex. Additionally, the expression level of DEGs involved in the adipogenic process helps to explain the difference of differentiation efficiency between IVSCs and SVSCs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/irrigação sanguínea , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Suínos , Transcriptoma
17.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 136(3): 183-189, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895664

RESUMO

The economic profitability of a boar station largely depends on semen quantity and quality traits. However, genetic analysis of semen traits has not yet been done in the boar population in China. In this study, we aimed to estimate genetic parameters for semen traits and the influence of seasons on these traits by using data of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars in South China. The following four semen traits were analysed: semen volume (ml; VOL), sperm concentration (106 /ml; DEN), sperm motility (MOT) and percentage of abnormal sperm (ABN). Genetic parameters and season effects were estimated simultaneously for each breed by using a multiple-trait (4 × 4) repeatability animal model. The four traits had a moderate heritability with average estimates of 0.23, 0.28, 0.26 and 0.17 across the three breeds, respectively. The estimates of genetic correlations among four traits differed in the three breeds. In particular, in Yorkshire, the four traits were nearly genetically independent. The season of collecting semen had a significant impact on these four semen traits except ABN in Duroc (Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05/6). The moderate heritabilities indicate the possibility of effective selection of boars for semen traits. Different genetic correlations for the three breeds suggest that the selection strategy for the four traits should be investigated separately for each breed. Some necessary actions should be taken to reduce the influence of seasons on semen traits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Sêmen/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Suínos/genética
18.
Antivir Ther ; 24(4): 261-270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide each year. Current vaccination strategies do not effectively prevent and control the virus. Consequently, it is necessary to develop novel antiviral strategies. Carrageenan, extracted from marine red algae, exhibits anti-coagulant, anti-tumour, anti-virus and immunomodulatory activities. METHODS: We investigate the inhibitory effect of iota-carrageenan (CG) on PRRSV strain CH-1a via antiviral assay and viral binding, entry and release assays. RESULTS: We found that CG effectively inhibited CH-1a replication at mRNA and protein levels in both Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The antiviral activity of CG occurred during viral attachment and entry in virus life cycle. In addition, CG suppressed viral release in Marc-145 cells, as well as blocked CH-1a-induced apoptosis during the late period of infection. Furthermore, CG inhibited CH-1a-induced NF-κB activation, thus interfering with cytokine production in Marc-145 cells and PAMs, which contributes to its anti-PRRSV activity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data imply that CG might be an ideal candidate that is worthwhile developing into a new anti-PRRSV prophylactic and therapeutic drug.

19.
Virol J ; 16(1): 13, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between viral infection and autophagy. METHODS: LC3 turnover and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway were investigated using western blot analysis. The formation and degradation of autophagosomes were detected using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Autophagy was activated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NSP3, NSP5 and NSP9, which are two transmembrane proteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. The formation of autophagosomes was induced by NSP3 and NSP5 and developed from the ER; the fusion of these autophagosomes with lysosomes was limited. Although NSP3 and NSP5 are ER transmembrane proteins, these proteins did not activate the ER stress signaling pathways. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of NSP3 plays a pivotal role in activating autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study reveal an important relationship between PRRSV NSPs and autophagy and provide new insights that improve our understanding of the involvement of PRRSV NSPs in the autophagy process.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/virologia , Autofagia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
20.
Transgenic Res ; 28(1): 141-150, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488155

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) plays an important role in the development of the foetus and in post-natal growth and development. A SNP within intron 3 of porcine IGF2 disrupts a binding site for the repressor, zinc finger BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), leading to up-regulation of IGF2 in skeletal muscle and major effects on muscle growth, heart size, and fat deposition. This favourable mutation is common in Western commercial pig populations, but is not present in most indigenous Chinese pig breeds. Here, we described the efficient disruption of the ZBED6 binding site motif in intron 3 of IGF2 by CRISPR/Cas9 in porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) from the indigenous Chinese pig breed, Liang Guang Small Spotted pig. Disruption of the binding motif led to a drastic up-regulation of IGF2 expression in PEFs and enhanced myogenic potential and cell proliferation of PEFs. IGF2-edited pigs were then generated using somatic cell nuclear transfer. Enhanced muscle development was evident in one pig with biallelic deletion of the ZBED6 binding site motif, implying that the release of ZBED6 repression has a major effect on porcine muscle development. Our study confirmed the important effect of a mutation in the ZBED6 binding site motif on IGF2 expression and myogenesis, thus providing the basis for breeding a new line of Liang Guang Small Spotted pigs with improved lean meat percentage, a trait of great commercial value to pig producers.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Dedos de Zinco , Alelos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sítios de Ligação , Cruzamento , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Íntrons/genética , Carne , Suínos
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