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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825657

RESUMO

Background: We compared results from household data sources to medical record sources by using data from a vaccination coverage survey.Methods: Vaccination coverage (VC) was calculated based on parental recall, household vaccination booklet, and Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS). We evaluated the accuracy of VC based on household sources (vaccination booklet and recall) assuming the medical record was accurate. Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were estimated as well as the Kappa statistic was also used to evaluate the agreement between data sources.Results: Among the 1,800 children identified in the household survey, all were registered in ZJIIS. VC estimated using the vaccination booklet alone was substantially lower than that based on medical records (net bias 3.4-16.7% in different age groups). VC based on parental recall ranged from 2.5% below (among children aged 1 year) to 16.7% points above (among children aged 6 years) than those based on medical records. Concordance was lowest for card estimates (32.5-45.5%). Sensitivity was <60% for all household sources, except for recall source. Specificity was lowest for recall estimates (14.5-42.6%). Positive predictive value was >75%, while negative predictive value was <50%, for all household sources. Kappa statistics generally indicated poor agreement between household and medical record sources.Conclusions: Household-retained vaccination booklets and parental recall were insufficient sources for evaluating the VC. Our findings emphasized the importance of taking interventions to make the vaccination booklet more consistent with the records from medical resource.

3.
Biodegradation ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837872

RESUMO

P-nitrophenol (PNP or 4-NP) has been widely used as a biorefractory raw material in chemical industry, whereas been highly concerned for its characteristics of mutagenic/carcinogenic activity and food chain bioaccumulation. In this study, an anaerobic semi-fixed bed biofilm reactor (An-SFB-BR) was constructed and used to treat PNP wastewater which discharged from chemical industries. Experimental results revealed that the An-SFB-BR was successfully cultivated with the gradually increasing of influent PNP from 0 to 540 mg/L (gradually increased 10 mg/L every time in stage II and 30-50 mg/L for stage III), with the observation of an average removal efficiency of 98% for PNP and 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), also a biogas production and biogas production rate of 2.1 L/(L·d) and 0.57 m3/kg-COD, respectively. Finally, the conversion rate of P-aminophenol (PAP), the primary intermediate of PNP reached 80% after An-SFB-BR biodegradation. A relatively stable pH was maintained throughout the entire process, and insignificant VFA accumulation. The reactor exhibited a strong toxic shock resistance, and 16S rRNA sequencing results demonstrated that the dominant microbial community changed slightly with the gradually increasing of PNP concentration, which guaranteed the PNP removal efficiency.

4.
Nature ; 591(7849): 322-326, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658714

RESUMO

The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has critical roles in many biological processes1,2. However, the function of m6A in the early phase of mammalian development remains poorly understood. Here we show that the m6A reader YT521-B homology-domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1) is required for the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in an m6A-dependent manner, and that its deletion initiates cellular reprogramming to a 2C-like state. Mechanistically, YTHDC1 binds to the transcripts of retrotransposons (such as intracisternal A particles, ERVK and LINE1) in mouse ES cells and its depletion results in the reactivation of these silenced retrotransposons, accompanied by a global decrease in SETDB1-mediated trimethylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3). We further demonstrate that YTHDC1 and its target m6A RNAs act upstream of SETDB1 to repress retrotransposons and Dux, the master inducer of the two-cell stage (2C)-like program. This study reveals an essential role for m6A RNA and YTHDC1 in chromatin modification and retrotransposon repression.

5.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 320(5): G720-G728, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728992

RESUMO

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is correlated with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and liver fibrosis. Gli2 is a key transcription effector of Hh signaling. However, the role of Gli2 in HSC-mediated liver fibrosis progression is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Gli2 on liver fibrogenesis and its possible mechanism using conditional knockout (cKO) Gli2 mice and HSC models. Wild-type (WT) and GFAP-CreERT;Gli2flox/flox male mice were exposed to CCl4 for 1 mo to induce liver fibrosis. Primary HSCs were isolated from mice and the transition of HSCs into a myofibroblastic phenotype was evaluated. Livers from mice underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analyses. The expression levels of proteins and genes were evaluated by Western blot (WB) analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. RNA-seq was used to screen differentially expressed genes. Results showed that CCl4 treatment induced liver fibrosis, promoted HSCs activation and proliferation, and upregulated Hh signaling activity. The cKO of Gli2 in GFAP-CreERT;Gli2flox/flox mice decreased liver fibrosis as well as HSC activation and proliferation. In vitro studies showed that KO of Gli2 in HSCs blocked cell proliferation and activation by decrease of cyclin D1/D2 expression. The RNA-seq results revealed that the expression levels TGF-ß1 ligands were downregulated in Gli2 KO HSCs. Furthermore, overexpression of Gli2 rescued proliferation and activation of HSCs by upregulation of TGF-ß signaling activity. Our data demonstrated that Gli2 regulated HSC activation and liver fibrosis by TGF-ß signaling, thus providing support for future Gli2-based investigations of liver fibrosis therapy.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Gli2 is a key transcription effector of Hh signaling. We found that Hh/Gli2 signaling activity was upregulated in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Conditional deletion of the Gli2 gene in HSCs ameliorated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and HSCs activation. Moreover, Gli2 promoted activation of HSCs through upregulation of cyclin expression and TGF-ß signaling activity. Thus, our data provide strong support for future investigations on Gli2 inhibition to slow liver fibrosis progression in humans.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 634529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746973

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal sepsis remains a healthcare crisis. PD1-/- neonatal mice endured experimental sepsis, in the form of cecal slurry (CS), and showed improved rates of survival compared to wildtype (WT) counterparts. End-organ injury, particularly of the lung, contributes to the devastation set forth by neonatal sepsis. PDL1-/- neonatal mice, in contrast to PD1-/- neonatal mice did not have a significant improvement in survival after CS. Because of this, we focused subsequent studies on the impact of PD1 gene deficiency on lung injury. Here, we observed that at 24 h post-CS (but not at 4 or 12 h) there was a marked increase in pulmonary edema (PE), neutrophil influx, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, and cytokine expression sham (Sh) WT mice. Regarding pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule expression, we observed that Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) within the cell shifted from a membranous location to a peri-nuclear location after CS in WT murine cultured ECs at 24hrs, but remained membranous among PD1-/- lungs. To expand the scope of this inquiry, we investigated human neonatal lung tissue. We observed that the lungs of human newborns exposed to intrauterine infection had significantly higher numbers of PD1+ cells compared to specimens who died from non-infectious causes. Together, these data suggest that PD1/PDL1, a pathway typically thought to govern adaptive immune processes in adult animals, can modulate the largely innate neonatal pulmonary immune response to experimental septic insult. The potential future significance of this area of study includes that PD1/PDL1 checkpoint proteins may be viable therapeutic targets in the septic neonate.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7100, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782513

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) is a sensitive measurement for detecting subtle LV systolic dysfunction and a powerful prognostic predictor. However, the clinical implication of LV GLS in lymphoma patients receiving cancer therapy remains unknown. We prospectively enrolled 74 lymphoma patients (57.9 ± 17.0 years old, 57% male). We performed echocardiographic studies after the 3rd and 6th cycles and 1 year after chemotherapy and a cardiopulmonary exercise test upon completion of 3 cycles of anticancer therapy. Cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) was defined as a ≥ 15% relative reduction in GLS value from baseline. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality and heart failure events. Thirty-six patients (49%) had CTRCD (LV GLS: baseline vs. after 3rd cycle of therapy: 20.1 ± 2.6 vs. 17.5 ± 2.3%, p < 0.001). CTRCD was detected after the 3rd cycle of anticancer therapy. CTRCD patients had impaired exercise capacity (minute oxygen consumption/kg, CTRCD vs. CTRCD (-): 13.9 ± 3.1 vs. 17.0 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min, p = 0.02). More primary outcome events occurred in the CTRCD group (hazard ratio 3.21; 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.97; p = 0.03). LV GLS could detect subtle but clinically significant cardiac dysfunction in lymphoma patients in the early stage of anticancer therapy. CTRCD may be associated with not only a reduced exercise capacity but also a worse prognosis.

8.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1589-1602, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525055

RESUMO

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is composed of neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in an inflammatory background. The neoplastic cells are derived from germinal center B cells that, in most cases, are infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which may play a role in tumorigenesis. Given that EBV-latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) regulates autophagy in B cells, we explored the role of autophagy mediated by EBV or LMP1 in HL. We found that EBV-LMP1 transfection in HL cells induced a modest increase in autophagy signals, attenuated starvation-induced autophagic stress, and alleviated autophagy inhibition- or doxorubicin-induced cell death. LMP1 knockdown leads to decreased autophagy LC3 signals. A xenograft mouse model further showed that EBV infection significantly increased expression of the autophagy marker LC3 in HL cells. Clinically, LC3 was expressed in 15% (19/127) of HL samples, but was absent in all cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant and lymphocyte-rich classic HL cases. Although expression of LC3 was not correlated with EBV status or clinical outcome, autophagic blockade effectively eradicated LMP1-positive HL xenografts with better efficacy than LMP1-negative HL xenografts. Collectively, these results suggest that EBV-LMP1 enhances autophagy and promotes the viability of HL cells. Autophagic inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating patients with HL, especially EBV-positive cases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Regulação para Cima/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Morte Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545020

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to evaluate whether the density of vaccination workers was associated with the immunization coverage in Zhejiang province.Methods: The immunization coverage of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combined vaccine (DTP3), and the third dose of poliomyelitis vaccine (PV3) was selected as the dependent variables. Immunization coverage data of children aged 13-23 months were taken from the Zhejiang immunization information system (ZJIIS). The aggregate density of vaccination workers was an independent variable in one set of regressions, while the full-time and part-time vaccination workers were adopted separately in other sets.Results: The density of total vaccination workers was positively and significantly associated with the immunization coverage (MCV: AOR = 3.36; DTP3: AOR = 2.68; PV3: AOR = 2.37). However, when the effects of full-time vaccination workers and part-time vaccination workers were assessed separately, we only found that the density of full-time vaccination workers was positively and significantly associated with the immunization coverage (MCV: AOR = 5.59; DTP3: AOR = 4.13; PV3: AOR = 3.28). The proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant factors for immunization coverage.Conclusions: A higher density of vaccination workers could improve the availability of vaccination services and immunization coverage. We recommended that government or other non-government organization should, apart from vaccine-related assistance, focus their efforts on human resources for vaccination.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24076, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429771

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Breast cancer at a young age is associated with poor outcomes. However, few reports have compared the outcomes of breast cancer between extremely young patients and elderly patients.We retrospectively collected information on patients diagnosed with breast cancer before 30 years of age. This case-control study employed matched operative methods, stage, and subtypes with a case-to-control ratio of 1:3. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, and the secondary endpoint was overall survival. We analyzed potential prognostic factors in univariate and multivariate analyses.This analysis included 18 patients in the young group with a median age of 28.5 years and 54 patients in the control group with a median age of 71 years. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 68.8% in the former group and 84.6% in the latter group (P = .080). The 5-year overall survival was 87.1% and 91.2% in the young and old groups, respectively (P = .483). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and triple-negative breast cancer was major prognostic factors of poorer disease-free survival in the young group.Extremely young breast cancer patients had a trend to develop a poorer disease-free survival than old patients, but not a poorer overall survival. Aggressive treatment for young patients at early stages of disease would improve survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 21, 2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairment. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is most frequently used to assess cognitive function. However, the MCCB test is time consuming for the clinician. Virtual reality (VR) has emerged as an adjunctive tool to overcome this limitation and provides a new means to assess cognitive function. METHODS: The present study examined the validity and safety of using VR technology to assess cognitive function in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (SZs). The VR cognition training system (VRCTS) was used to simulate real-life supermarkets and assess cognitive function. Thirty-two SZs and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent VRCTS and MCCB assessments. An auxiliary diagnosis model was created based on the outcomes of the VRCTS to classify SZs and HCs by cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Significant differences in completion time between the SZs and HCs were detected using the VRCTS. SZs spent more time completing tasks than HCs. The outcome of VRCTS significantly correlated with the MCCB. The auxiliary diagnosis model had a sensitivity of 88.89% and a specificity of 88.89%. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of VR technology in the assessment of cognitive impairment in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: China Clinical Trial Registry, ChiVTR1800016121. Registered 13 May 2018, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=27233.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Realidade Virtual , China , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(4-5): 405-417, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387175

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We reported that DGS1 plays a positive role in regulating grain size in rice and was regulated by OsBZR1. Grain size is an important agronomic trait that contributes to grain yield. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine final grain size are still largely unknown. We isolated a rice mutant showing reduced grain size in a 60Co-irradiated variety Nanjing 35 population. We named the mutant decreased grain size1 (dgs1). Map-based cloning and subsequent transgenic CRISPR and complementation assays indicated that a mutation had occurred in LOC_Os03g49900 and that the DGS1 allele regulated grain size. DGS1 encodes a protein with a 7-transmembrane domain and C3HC4 type RING domain. It was widely expressed, especially in young tissues. DGS1 is a membrane-located protein. OsBZR1 (BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1), a core transcription activator of BR signaling, also plays a positive role in grain size. We provided preliminary evidence that OsBZR1 can bind to the DGS1 promoter to activate expression of DGS1.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mutação , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 2, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. As the sixth largest angiosperm family, Lamiaceae, or the mint family, consitutes a major source of aromatic oil, wood, ornamentals, and culinary and medicinal herbs, making it an exceptionally important group ecologically, ethnobotanically, and floristically. The lack of a reliable phylogenetic framework for this family has thus far hindered broad-scale biogeographic studies and our comprehension of diversification. Although significant progress has been made towards clarifying Lamiaceae relationships during the past three decades, the resolution of a phylogenetic backbone at the tribal level has remained one of the greatest challenges due to limited availability of genetic data. RESULTS: We performed phylogenetic analyses of Lamiaceae to infer relationships at the tribal level using 79 protein-coding plastid genes from 175 accessions representing 170 taxa, 79 genera, and all 12 subfamilies. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded a more robust phylogenetic hypothesis relative to previous studies and supported the monophyly of all 12 subfamilies, and a classification for 22 tribes, three of which are newly recognized in this study. As a consequence, we propose an updated phylogenetically informed tribal classification for Lamiaceae that is supplemented with a detailed summary of taxonomic history, generic and species diversity, morphology, synapomorphies, and distribution for each subfamily and tribe. CONCLUSIONS: Increased taxon sampling conjoined with phylogenetic analyses based on plastome sequences has provided robust support at both deep and shallow nodes and offers new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among tribes and subfamilies of Lamiaceae. This robust phylogenetic backbone of Lamiaceae will serve as a framework for future studies on mint classification, biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21342, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288848

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may present initially in bone marrow, liver and spleen without any lymphadenopathy (referred to as BLS-type DLBCL), which is aggressive and frequently associated with hemophagocytic syndrome. Its tumorigenesis and molecular mechanisms warrant clarification. By gene microarray profiling with bioinformatics analysis, we found higher expression of the stem cell markers HOXA9 and NANOG, as well as BMP8B, CCR6 and S100A8 in BLS-type than conventional DLBCL. We further validated expression of these markers in a large cohort of DLBCL including BLS-type cases and found that expression of HOXA9 and NANOG correlated with inferior outcome and poor prognostic parameters. Functional studies with gene-overexpressed and gene-silenced DLBCL cell lines showed that expression of NANOG and HOXA9 promoted cell viability and inhibited apoptosis through suppression of G2 arrest in vitro and enhanced tumor formation and hepatosplenic infiltration in a tail-vein-injected mouse model. Additionally, HOXA9-transfected tumor cells showed significantly increased soft-agar clonogenic ability and tumor sphere formation. Interestingly, B cells with higher CCR6 expression revealed a higher chemotactic migration for CCL20. Taken together, our findings support the concept that tumor or precursor cells of BLS-type DLBCL are attracted by chemotaxis and home to the bone marrow, where the microenvironment promotes the expression of stem cell characteristics and aggressiveness of tumor cells.

16.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 586826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251267

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are widespread in nature and infect humans, mammals and poultry. They cause harm to humans and animals. Virus-mediated cell cycle arrest is an essential strategy for viral survival and proliferation in the host cells. A clarification system of the mechanisms of virus-induced cell cycle arrest is highly desirable to promote the development of antiviral therapies. In this review, molecular mechanisms of coronavirus-induced cell cycle arrest were systematically summarized. Moreover, the common features of coronavirus-mediated cell cycle arrest were discussed. This review will provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the infection mechanisms and prevention of coronaviruses.

17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216446

RESUMO

The expansion of shrubs across the Arctic tundra may fundamentally modify land-atmosphere interactions. However, it remains unclear how shrub expansion pattern is linked with key environmental drivers, such as climate change and fire disturbance. Here we used 40+ years of high-resolution (~1.0 m) aerial and satellite imagery to estimate shrub-cover change in 114 study sites across four burned and unburned upland (ice-poor) and lowland (ice-rich) tundra ecosystems in northern Alaska. Validated with data from four additional upland and lowland tundra fires, our results reveal that summer precipitation was the most important climatic driver (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), responsible for 30.8% of shrub expansion in the upland tundra between 1971 and 2016. Shrub expansion in the uplands was largely enhanced by wildfire (p < 0.001) and it exhibited positive correlation with fire severity (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Three decades after fire disturbance, the upland shrub cover increased by 1077.2 ± 83.6 m2  ha-1 , ~7 times the amount identified in adjacent unburned upland tundra (155.1 ± 55.4 m2  ha-1 ). In contrast, shrub cover markedly decreased in lowland tundra after fire disturbance, which triggered thermokarst-associated water impounding and resulted in 52.4% loss of shrub cover over three decades. No correlation was found between lowland shrub cover with fire severity (r = 0.01). Mean summer air temperature (MSAT) was the principal factor driving lowland shrub-cover dynamics between 1951 and 2007. Warmer MSAT facilitated shrub expansion in unburned lowlands (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), but accelerated shrub-cover losses in burned lowlands (r = -0.82, p < 0.001). These results highlight divergent pathways of shrub-cover responses to fire disturbance and climate change, depending on near-surface permafrost and drainage conditions. Our study offers new insights into the land-atmosphere interactions as climate warming and burning intensify in high latitudes.

18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in Zhejiang province by using the global methodology from World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: Based on the WHO Planning Guide to Reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV) and Methodology for the Assessment of MOV, 33 health facilities from 11 cities in Zhejiang province were selected. For each health facility, exit investigations for 20 caregivers of children aged 0-23 months and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) surveys for 10 health workers was implemented. A MOV was determined based on the child's age on the date of investigation, eligibility for various vaccines. The prevalence of MOV was calculated and the risk factors of MOV were explored. RESULTS: There were 660 completed exit investigations of caregivers of children aged 0-23 months and 330 health worker KAP investigations. Of the 658 children with documented vaccination records, 12.6% were still under-vaccinated. Among these under-vaccinated children, 54.2% still had a MOV. Children's age and their previous vaccination behavior, as well as caregivers' relationship to children and education level had a significant impact on the incidence of MOV. CONCLUSION: The high proportions of visits with MOV in Zhejiang province suggested that interventions to reduce MOV in health service settings may be a potential quick win for improving coverage and equity. National immunization programs should explore the tailored efforts to improve health worker practices by making better use of existing health service contacts.

19.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246344

RESUMO

The changes of metabolite profiles in preterm birth have been demonstrated using newborn screening data. However, little is known about the holistic metabolic model in preterm neonates. The aim was to investigate the holistic metabolic model in preterm neonates. All metabolite values were obtained from a cohort data of routine newborn screening. A total of 261 758 newborns were recruited and randomly divided into a training subset and a testing subset. Using the training subset, 949 variates were considered to establish a logistic regression model for identifying preterm birth (<37 weeks) from term birth (≥37 weeks). Sventy-two variates (age at collection, TSH, 17α-OHP, proline, tyrosine, C16:1-OH, C18:2, and 65 ratios) entered into the final metabolic model for identifying preterm birth from term birth. Among the variates entering into the final model of PTB [Leucine+Isoleucine+Proline-OH)/Valine (OR=38.36], (C3DC+C4-OH)/C12 (OR=15.58), Valine/C5 (OR=6.32), [Leucine+isoleucine+Proline-OH)/Ornithine (OR=2.509)], and Proline/C18:1 (OR=2.465) have the top five OR values, and [Leucine+Isoleucine+Proline-OH)/C5 (OR=0.05)], [Leucine+Isoleucine+Proline-OH)/Phenylalanine (OR=0.214)], proline/valine (OR=0.230), C16/C18 (OR=0.259), and Alanine/free carnitine (OR=0.279) have the five lowest OR values. The final metabolic model had a capacity of identifying preterm infants with >80% accuracy in both the training and testing subsets. When identifying neonates ≤32 weeks from those >32 weeks, it had a robust performance with nearly 95% accuracy in both subsets. In summary, we have established an excellent metabolic model in preterm neonates. These findings could provide new insights for more efficient nutrient supplements and etiology of preterm birth.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145927

RESUMO

AIM: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been found to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure; however, its effects in preeclampsia (PE) and the potential underlying mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between ghrelin and PE and reveal the possible mechanism underlying any relationship. METHODS: The levels of ghrelin and VEGF in the plasma of 6 early-onset PE (EOPE), 6 late-onset PE (LOPE) and 12 healthy pregnant (HP) women were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The recombinant plasmid, pCDH-ghrelin, was designed to overexpress ghrelin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We analyzed angiogenesis in vitro and investigated the mechanism using MTT assay, colony formation assay, transwell migration assay, Matrigel-induced tube formation assay and western blotting. RESULTS: Ghrelin was significantly decreased in EOPE patients (P < 0.05) but elevated in LOPE patients compared to HP groups (P > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in plasma level of VEGF in EOPE and LOPE patients compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The proliferation, migration and tube formation ability of HUVECs were enhanced after transfection with pCDH-ghrelin. Ghrelin increased VEGF by activating the Jagged1/Notch2 pathway. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered that ghrelin has the potential to improve endothelial function by promoting angiogenesis through Jagged1/Notch2/VEGF pathway.

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