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1.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 673-680, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The death of a child is a highly traumatic event and often leads to mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have focused on overall PTSD after the loss of an only child; however, little attention has been given to PTSD at the symptom level. This study aims to identify the network structure of PTSD symptoms in bereaved parents who have lost their only child, known as Shidu parents in Chinese society. METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolled 385 bereaved individuals who had lost an only child across 10 cities in China from November 2016 to July 2017. PTSD symptoms were measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Network analysis was implemented by using the R packages qgraph and bootnet. RESULTS: The PTSD network revealed that diminished interest, exaggerated startle, irritability/anger, and nightmares were the most central symptoms. The strongest connections emerged between the symptoms of recurrent thoughts and nightmares, irritability/anger and reckless/self-destructive behavior, and hypervigilance and exaggerated startle. LIMITATIONS: We utilized cross-sectional data, and it is therefore not possible to infer the evolution of the symptom network over time. In addition, participants were limited to parents who had lost an only child, and the findings of this study must be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides further clarity regarding how PTSD symptoms relate to each other in bereaved parents who have lost an only child. Symptoms with high centrality and connectedness may be viable targets for intervention in bereaved parents who have lost an only child.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 813, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) innovations in radiology offer a potential solution to the increasing demand for imaging tests and the ongoing workforce crisis. Crucial to their adoption is the involvement of different professional groups, namely radiologists and radiographers, who work interdependently but whose perceptions and responses towards AI may differ. We aim to explore the knowledge, awareness and attitudes towards AI amongst professional groups in radiology, and to analyse the implications for the future adoption of these technologies into practice. METHODS: We conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with 12 radiologists and 6 radiographers from four breast units in National Health Services (NHS) organisations and one focus group with 8 radiographers from a fifth NHS breast unit, between 2018 and 2020. RESULTS: We found that radiographers and radiologists vary with respect to their awareness and knowledge around AI. Through their professional networks, conference attendance, and contacts with industry developers, radiologists receive more information and acquire more knowledge of the potential applications of AI. Radiographers instead rely more on localized personal networks for information. Our results also show that although both groups believe AI innovations offer a potential solution to workforce shortages, they differ significantly regarding the impact they believe it will have on their professional roles. Radiologists believe AI has the potential to take on more repetitive tasks and allow them to focus on more interesting and challenging work. They are less concerned that AI technology might constrain their professional role and autonomy. Radiographers showed greater concern about the potential impact that AI technology could have on their roles and skills development. They were less confident of their ability to respond positively to the potential risks and opportunities posed by AI technology. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggest that professional responses to AI are linked to existing work roles, but are also mediated by differences in knowledge and attitudes attributable to inter-professional differences in status and identity. These findings question broad-brush assertions about the future deskilling impact of AI which neglect the need for AI innovations in healthcare to be integrated into existing work processes subject to high levels of professional autonomy.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Radiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Radiografia , Radiologistas
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4976, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404790

RESUMO

To construct a superior microbial cell factory for chemical synthesis, a major challenge is to fully exploit cellular potential by identifying and engineering beneficial gene targets in sophisticated metabolic networks. Here, we take advantage of CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and omics analyses to systematically identify beneficial genes that can be engineered to promote free fatty acids (FFAs) production in Escherichia coli. CRISPRi-mediated genetic perturbation enables the identification of 30 beneficial genes from 108 targets related to FFA metabolism. Then, omics analyses of the FFAs-overproducing strains and a control strain enable the identification of another 26 beneficial genes that are seemingly irrelevant to FFA metabolism. Combinatorial perturbation of four beneficial genes involving cellular stress responses results in a recombinant strain ihfAL--aidB+-ryfAM--gadAH-, producing 30.0 g L-1 FFAs in fed-batch fermentation, the maximum titer in E. coli reported to date. Our findings are of help in rewiring cellular metabolism and interwoven intracellular processes to facilitate high-titer production of biochemicals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/biossíntese , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Metabólica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440873

RESUMO

The success of female reproduction relies on high quality oocytes, which is determined by well-organized cooperation between granulosa cells (GCs) and oocytes during folliculogenesis. GC growth plays a crucial role in maintaining follicle development. Herein, miR-135a was identified as a differentially expressed microRNA in pre-ovulatory ovarian follicles between Large White and Chinese Taihu sows detected by Solexa deep sequencing. We found that miR-135a could significantly facilitate the accumulation of cells arrested at the G1/S phase boundary and increase apoptosis. Mechanically, miR-135a suppressed transforming growth factor, beta receptor I (Tgfbr1) and cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) expression by targeting their 3'UTR in GCs. Furthermore, subcellular localization analysis and a chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative real-time PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assay demonstrated that the TGFBR1-SMAD3 pathway could enhance Ccnd2 promoter activity and thus upregulate Ccnd2 expression. Finally, estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) functioned as a transcription factor by directly binding to the miR-135a promoter region and decreasing the transcriptional activity of miR-135a. Taken together, our study reveals a pro-survival mechanism of ESR2/miR-135a/Tgfbr1/Ccnd2 axis for GC growth, and also provides a novel target for the improvement of female fertility.

6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the effects of avoidant coping on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and job burnout among firefighters, and to examine the mediating role of perceived social support on the relationship between avoidant coping and PTSS and job burnout. METHOD: Assessments including the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Coping Style Inventory (CSI), and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) were conducted among 431 firefighters studying in a school specializing in training firemen in Nanjing, China. RESULT: The results show that: (1) Avoidant coping was positively related to PTSS and job burnout among firefighters; and (2) avoidant coping was positively related to PTSS and job burnout through the mediating effect of perceived social support. CONCLUSION: These findings not only provide guiding information for relevant departments to prevent mental health issues of firefighters in the future, but also enlighten the psychological intervention for firefighters, that is, to encourage firefighters to actively face and solve problems and adopt positive coping styles, as well as offer them more care and support whenever possible.

8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 80, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 5 million people around the world and killed more than 300,000 people; thus, it has become a global public health emergency. Our objective was to investigate the mental health of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Trauma Exposure Scale, abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Demographic Questionnaire were used to examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, trauma exposure, resilience and perceived social support among 898 patients who were hospitalized after being diagnosed with COVID-19 in China. The data were analyzed with t tests, one-way ANOVA and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the prevalence of PTSD, depression and anxiety was 13.2, 21.0 and 16.4%, respectively. Hospitalized patients who were more impacted by negative news reports, had greater exposure to traumatic experiences, and had lower levels of perceived social support reported higher PTSD, depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Effective professional mental health services should be designed to support the psychological wellbeing of hospitalized patients, especially those who have severe disease, are strongly affected by negative news and have high levels of exposure to trauma.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
9.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 836-839, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601725

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has become a global public health event. Medical staff around the world are nervously responding to the crisis, and their mental health problems deserve attention. To better know the differences in the mental health status between frontier-line and non-frontier-line medical staff. This study used the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to examine the PTSD, depression, anxiety and resilience among 162 frontier-line medical workers and 163 non-frontier-line medical workers in China. The results showed that all negative factor scores of non-frontier-line medical staff seemed to be worse than those of frontier-line medical staff, and the positive factor scores were the opposite through descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test and Chi-square test. Some psychological effects and theories were used to explain this phenomenon. Intervention suggestions for medical staff and future research directions were discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Ansiedade , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 1533033821989711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596784

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is one of the most malignant tumors in women, particularly those in rural and remote areas. Its underlying molecular mechanisms, including the functions of non-coding RNA (ncRNAs), require more extensive investigation. In this study, high throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer tissues from Uyghur women in western China. Dysregulated lncRNAs were found to extensively participate in cervical cancer development, including viral carcinogenesis, cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling. Two miRNA-host lncRNAs, LINC00925 and MIR155HG, showed elevated expression in cervical cancer samples, but prolonged the survival time of cervical cancer patients. The 2 mature miRNAs of the above 2 lncRNAs, miR-9 and miR-155, also showed similar features in cervical cancer. In addition, we identified 545 lncRNAs with potential functions in regulating these 2 miRNAs as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In summary, our study demonstrated the dysregulated lncRNAs/miRNAs, particularly LINC00925/miR-9 and MIR155HG/miR-155, regulate the development of cervical cancer by forming a interaction network with mRNAs, highlighting the importance of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of ncRNAs in cervical cancer development.

11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 142, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solving inequality of health human resource (HHR) is one of the motives of Pakistan health policies, however, there is still exists a massive quantity of HHR inequality in almost every district of Pakistan. The main goal of this research is to scrutinize the disparity in allocation of human health resources among 114 regions of Pakistan from the year 2012 to 2016 and to expose the foundations and aspects of HHR inequality. METHODS: The data regarding this research has been obtained from Pakistan Statistical Bureau from the year 2012 to 2016. The statistics had also been collected from United Nation Development Program (UNDP) Pakistan 2017, Pakistan economic surveys, Ministry of finance Islamabad, Pakistan, Pakistan Social and Living standards Measurement (PSLM) Surveys from 2012 to 2016. The information incorporates district wise; the number of specialists and medical caretakers those are doctors and nurses, number of hospitals, number of beds, number of dispensaries, number of beds in dispensaries, urbanization, total estimated GNI per capita, infant mortality rate, geographical area, and population size. The concentration index is used to compute the extent of disparity in allocation of human health resources and decomposition analysis is also carried out to enumerate the contribution of each variable towards total inequality. Furthermore, the horizontal concentration was used to measure the participation of the need variable. RESULTS: 7. The consequent Concentration Indexes (CI) of the doctors and nurses for the year 2016 are 0.60 (95% CI= 0.42, 0.78) and 0.67 (95% CI= 0.42, 0.92) respectively. Decomposition of the concentration indexes exposed that the monetary status accounts are the leading percentage contributor in doctors disparity (77.5, 44.9, 30.6, - 11.6% and 13%) and population size (- 20.7,-10.5%, 4.6, 49.8, 19.7%). Furthermore, the monetary status formulates the superior contribution HHR disparity from nurses inequality (104.5, 75.1, 59.2, - 54.3%, - 40.1%), and population size (- 53.7, - 53.6%, - 36.3, 83.8, 65.3%). Moreover, after the identification of the need variable the Horizontal Concentration Index (HCI) values of doctors from the year 2012 to 2016 are 0.62, 0.64, 0.63, 0.62 and 0.61 and HCI of the nurses are 0.69, 0.70, 0.69, 0.68 and 0.67. CONCLUSION: The pro-rich disparity in allocation of HHR has been scrutinized from the year 2012 to 2016 among 114 districts of Pakistan. The hard concern of HHR disparity should be concentrated by the complete procedures from a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde , Renda , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Recursos Humanos
12.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 42: 101279, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dental anxiety is particularly problematic for individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD), resulting in a greater reluctance to undergo dental procedures and exacerbating poor oral health. Drugs commonly used for dental anxiety have undesirable side effects and may not be preferred by patients and guardians. Alternative methods for managing dental anxiety are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of music listening on anxiety levels of patients with IDD awaiting dental procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 15 patients with IDD listened to piano music for 10 min before scheduled outpatient dental procedures. Preprocedural dental anxiety levels as measured by Revised ADAMS scores, pulse rates, and blood pressures were compared pre and post music listening. Participants' premedication requirements for the procedure with music listening was compared to their respective previously scheduled procedure with no music listening. RESULTS: Post music listening, patients demonstrated reduced anxiety levels as evidenced by lower Revised ADAMS scores (p = 0.001), mean arterial pressures (p = 0.09), pulse rates (p = 0.02), and reduced premedication requirements. CONCLUSION: Study results suggest that music listening offers an effective, nonpharmacologic alternative to reducing preprocedural dental anxiety in patients with IDD.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia , Música , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(12): 15043-15054, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230790

RESUMO

Excess trace metals may cause damage to human health due to the consumption of food grain grown in contaminated soils. This study was designed to understand the genetic mechanisms of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in wheat grain under stressed environments. The differences of Cu/Zn contents in the grain among 246 wheat varieties were analyzed, and the wheat varieties with low or high accumulation of Cu and Zn in the safe range were also screened out. The accumulation of Cu and Zn in grains of "Chushanbao" was lowest, which could be used as a novel germplasm for wheat breeding under heavy metal stress. We found that Cu contents of wheat grain were significantly and positively correlated with Zn. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain Cu content (GCuC) and grain Zn content (GZnC) were detected by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Twenty-three loci affecting GCuC were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B 4D, 5A, 6D, 7A, and 7B, explaining 2.6-5.8% of the phenotypic variation. Sixteen loci associated with the GZnC on 11 different chromosomes 1B, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3D, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5D, 6B, and 7D were detected, which could explain 2.7~6.6% of phenotypic variance. We also determined five associated loci on chromosomes 2B, 2D, 3A, 4B, and 5A were in pleiotropic regions affecting both GCuC and GZnC. This study would help in better understanding the molecular basis of Cu/Zn accumulation in wheat grain, and the associated markers may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding program.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cobre , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Zinco
14.
J Mol Neurosci ; 71(4): 810-820, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984935

RESUMO

In this study, we explored the effects of propofol on oxidative stress response, cytokine secretion, and autophagy in rats with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-stimulated primary microglia and analyzed the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in this process. Rat models of I/R injury and OGD models of primary microglia were established. Neurobehavioral scores were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion, and oxidative stress indicators, cytokine levels, and autophagy-related markers of rats and OGD-activated primary microglia were evaluated. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was also assessed. The results showed that propofol pretreatment can improve nerve function in rats with I/R injury, inhibit oxidative stress response and inflammatory cytokine secretion, and promote autophagy in rats with I/R injury and OGD-activated primary microglia, and that the PI3K-Akt pathway was activated in this process. Following the addition of a PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, the effects of propofol on autophagy in rats with I/R injury and primary microglia were inhibited significantly. The results indicate that propofol promotes autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway in cerebral I/R injury.

15.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(1): 104-113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342236

RESUMO

Despite considerable studies focused on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is understood about how symptoms of PTSD naturalistically change over time. Using network analyses approaches, the current study aimed to understand the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms at different time points among adolescents who experienced an earthquake. This study enrolled 900 youth survivors who completed 3 assessments with the Child PTSD Symptom Scale at 1 year, 1.5 years, and 2 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. A graphical Gaussian model (GGM) was used to investigate how symptom networks changed across these time points and to identify the symptoms that were the most central within the network. Results from GGM indicated that different symptoms were observed to have highest centrality at different time points. Feeling distant or cut off from others, avoid thoughts and feelings about the trauma, and feeling irritable or having angry outbursts appeared as the node with highest centrality at 1 year (T1), 1.5 years (T2), and 2 years (T3) post-earthquake, respectively.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(1): 23-27, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075018

RESUMO

To investigate the prevalence and comorbidity rate of potential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in frontline firefighters in China, as well as to analyze the related predictive factors for PTSD and depression, our study included 261 firefighters who completed assessments including the Demographic Data Forum, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Chinese version of Perceived Stress Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Among the participants, 1.9% and 11.9% were identified as having potential PTSD and depression, respectively. There was a 9.1% chance of comorbid PTSD among the depressed firefighters and a 60% chance of comorbid depression among the firefighters with PTSD. Perceived stress positively predicted both PTSD and depression; perceived social support negatively predicted both PTSD and depression. Whereas family exogenous support predicted both PTSD and depression, family endogenous support only predicted depression. In addition, PTSD was predicted by rank. Soldiers and sergeants demonstrated higher level of PTSD than officers. Future studies on mental health of firefighters should take factors like perceived stress, social support, and rank into consideration.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Bombeiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Bombeiros/psicologia , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 7903140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831640

RESUMO

Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic peptide known to cause hyperphagia, has been involved in the occurrence and development of obesity. However, differences in the distribution of serum NPY levels in obese phenotypes (including metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) phenotype and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype) and the association of NPY with MUO phenotype have not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of serum NPY levels with MUO phenotype in obese Chinese adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 400 obese adults in Hunan province, who underwent a health examination in the Second Xiangya Hospital, and 164 participants were finally enrolled in the study and divided into MHO and MUO groups. Serum NPY levels were examined; univariate and multivariate analyses as well as smooth curve fitting analyses were conducted to measure the association of NPY serum levels with the MUO phenotype. Results: Serum NPY levels were significantly elevated in the MUO group compared with the MHO group ((667.69 ± 292.90) pg/mL vs. (478.89 ± 145.53) pg/mL, p < 0.001). A threshold and nonlinear association between serum NPY levels and MUO was found (p = 0.001). When serum NPY levels exceeded the turning point (471.5 pg/mL), each 10 pg/mL increment in the NPY serum level was significantly associated with an 18% increased odds ratio of MUO phenotype (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29, p = 0.0007) after adjusted for confounders. Conclusions: Higher NPY serum levels were positively correlated with MUO phenotype in obese Chinese adults.

18.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(3): 646-658, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676327

RESUMO

Background: Germline variations may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility besides environmental factors. The influence of germline mutations on lung cancer susceptibility and their correlation with somatic mutations has not been systematically investigated. Methods: In this study, germline mutations from 1,026 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were analyzed with a 58-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel containing known hereditary cancer-related genes, and were categorized based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines in pathogenicity, and the corresponding somatic mutations were analyzed using a 605-gene NGS panel containing known cancer-related genes. Results: Plausible genetic susceptibility was found in 4.7% of lung cancer patients, in which 14 patients with pathogenic mutations (P group) and 34 patients with likely-pathogenic mutations (LP group) were identified. The ratio of the first degree relatives with lung cancer history of the P groups was significantly higher than the Non-P group (P=0.009). The ratio of lung cancer patients with history of other cancers was higher in P (P=0.0007) or LP (P=0.017) group than the Non-P group. Pathogenic mutations fell most commonly in BRCA2, followed by CHEK2 and ATM. Likely-pathogenic mutations fell most commonly in NTRK1 and EXT2, followed by BRIP1 and PALB2. These genes are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and tumor suppression. By comparing the germline mutation frequency from this study with that from the whole population or East Asian population (gnomAD database), we found that the overall odds ratio (OR) for P or LP group was 17.93 and 15.86, respectively, when compared with the whole population, and was 2.88 and 3.80, respectively, when compared with the East Asian population, suggesting the germline mutations of the P and LP groups were risk factors for lung cancer. Somatic mutation analysis revealed no significant difference in tumor mutation burden (TMB) among the groups, although a trend of lower TMB in the pathogenic group was found. The SNV/INDEL mutation frequency of TP53 in the P group was significantly lower than the other two groups, and the copy number variation (CNV) mutation frequency of PIK3CA and MET was significantly higher than the Non-P group. Pathway enrichment analysis found no significant difference in aberrant pathways among the three groups. Conclusions: A proportion of 4.7% of patients carrying germline variants may be potentially linked to increased susceptibility to lung cancer. Patients with pathogenic germline mutations exhibited stronger family history and higher lung cancer risk.

19.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 99, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government proposed the "XIAO BING BU CHU CUN, DA BING BU CHU XIAN" initiative in 2016, which states the rate of health care service provided by county hospitals should reach 90% of overall health care service provision. The prerequisite for achieving this goal is that citizens should be able to access county hospitals' services conveniently and impartially. However, little research has been done on the actual levels of the spatial accessibility of citizens to county hospitals in Western China. Therefore, we aimed to measure the spatial accessibility to county hospitals for county residents and to identify any regional disparities in Shaanxi Province in Western China. METHODS: We implemented a novel method - involving utilizing navigation data from the AutoNavi web mapping system (knows as Gaode map in Chinese) - to assess the time and distance from villages and neighborhoods to the county hospitals. The navigation data were collected by request through an application-programming-interface using a web crawler (web data extraction tool) in Python. The shortest driving time and distance were extracted from the navigation data. The travel impedance to the nearest provider (TINP) indicator was used to measure spatial accessibility. RESULTS: The results show that county residents in Western China's Shaanxi Province have poor spatial accessibility to county hospitals. Only 68.8% of villages and neighborhoods are within 60 min travel time (based on driving mode) to a county hospital, while 13.4% of such villages and neighborhoods are beyond 90 min travel time. Moreover, a significant within-province disparity exists, with residents in the central area enjoying the best accessibility to county hospitals, while the northern and southern areas still need improvements in accessibility. CONCLUSIONS: Focused health resource planning is required to improve the spatial accessibility to county hospitals and to eliminate regional disparities. Further studies are called for to integrate the navigation data of web mapping systems with GIS methods to the measure spatial accessibility of health facilities in more complex contexts.


Assuntos
Geografia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Condado/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(1): e21666, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112466

RESUMO

Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is a hydrolytic enzyme that modifies chitin into chitosan in the body of insects. In this study, we obtained a full-length complementary DNA sequence (MsCDA1) from the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata by high-throughput sequencing. MsCDA1 is 1,952 bp long and includes 1,620 bp open reading frame encoding 539 amino acids. Analysis by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that MsCDA1 expression was higher at the adult stage than at earlier developmental stages. MsCDA1 was expressed in all larval tissues examined, in which the highest expression level was found in the midgut. The RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed MsCDA1 expression levels at 12, 24, and 48 hr after injection of double-stranded RNA (1-4 µg per larva) specific to MsCDA1. Under RNAi condition, CDA enzyme activity was significantly reduced and changes an ultramicroscopic structure of M. separata peritrophic matrix especially in its microfibrillar organization exhibiting loose network. In contrast, the surface of the peritrophic matrix was relatively smooth and well organized at control or low RNAi conditions. Moreover, RNAi of MsCDA1 expression impaired larval growth and development, occasionally leading to larval death. These results demonstrate that MsCDA1 plays a crucial role in maintaining peritrophic matrix integrity in M. separata.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/genética , Mariposas/enzimologia , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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