Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369779

RESUMO

Deposition of layers of graphene on silicon has the potential for a wide range of optoelectronic and mechanical applications. However, direct growth of graphene on silicon has been difficult due to the inert, oxidized silicon surfaces. Transferring graphene from metallic growth substrates to silicon is not a good solution either, because most transfer methods involve multiple steps that often lead to polymer residues or degradation of sample quality. Here we report a single-step method for large-area direct growth of continuous horizontal graphene sheets and vertical graphene nano-walls on silicon substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) without active heating. Comprehensive studies utilizing Raman spectroscopy, X-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical transmission are carried out to characterize the quality and properties of these samples. Data gathered by the residual gas analyzer (RGA) during the growth process further provide information about the synthesis mechanism. Additionally, ultra-low friction (with a frictional coefficient ~ 0.015) on multilayer graphene-covered silicon surface is achieved, which is approaching the superlubricity limit (for frictional coefficients < 0.01). Our growth method therefore opens up a new pathway towards scalable and direct integration of graphene into silicon technology for potential applications ranging from structural superlubricity to nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and even the next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20156, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384505

RESUMO

The effect of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) on short-term platelet improvement in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with thrombocytopenia is unclear.From December 2015 to March 2018, a total of 249 CHC patients receiving DAA treatment with baseline thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 × 10 /µL) at Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. Blood examinations were conducted at baseline (BL), week 4 (W4) after DAA initiation, end of treatment (EOT), and 12 weeks after EOT (P12).Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping revealed that 184 patients (73.9%) carried HCV genotype 1. Of the patients in the cohort, 87 (34.9%) were interferon (IFN)-experienced, and 213 (85.5%) had advanced fibrosis. All but 1 patient achieved SVR12 (sustained virologic response (SVR) rate, 99.6%; 248/249). The platelet count recovered significantly in 104 patients (41.7%; 104/249). The mean baseline platelet count was 102 × 10/µL before DAA, increasing to 116 × 10/µL, 114 × 10/µL, and 113 × 10/µL at W4, EOT, and P12, respectively. Comparison of the mean platelet count at baseline with that at W4, EOT, and P 12 showed statistically significant increases at all time points (W4 vs BL, P < .001; EOT vs BL, P < .001; P12 vs BL, P < .001). Multivariate analyses revealed moderate or severe fatty liver (P = .024) and lower baseline platelet count (P = .005) was significantly associated with platelet count improvement.In conclusion, thrombocytopenia associated with CHC rapidly improves with the administration of DAA. Moderate or severe fatty liver and lower baseline platelet count predict significant improvement of platelet count.

3.
Nucl Med Commun ; 41(4): 308-313, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073551

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate feasibility of establishing a clinically applicable reference value through those unaffected salivary gland on sialoscintigraphic data obtained from patients presented with obstructive sialadenitis affected a single gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients suffered from single salivary gland swelling, pain/tenderness and received sialoscintigraphic examinations were retrospectively enrolled. The quantitative data parameters, including the uptake ratio, maximal accumulation, maximal excretion, time to maximal (Tmax) and time to minimal (Tmin) activity of the affected and unaffected glands, were calculated for analysis. Data were also obtained and recorded for comparison from 50 patients who fulfill the American-European criteria for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome. RESULTS: The maximal excretion appeared to be the best indicator for distinguishing affected and unaffected glands of obstructive diseases, for parotid and submandibular glands (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.82 for submandibular glands. In patients with Sjogren's syndrome, the maximal excretion and Tmin were the best parameters, for parotid (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and submandibular glands (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Uptake ratio was a good parameter for submandibular gland (P < 0.0001). The AUC of maximal excretion and uptake ratio for submandibular glands is 0.81 and 0.77, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantitative data obtained from the unaffected glands of patients with obstructive sialadenitis could be used as reference values for the functional evaluation of salivary gland disorders with maximal excretion as one of the reliable parameters.

4.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559553

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) affect the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. AIMS: This study evaluated the function of Tregs in CHC patients receiving the standard direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) treatment. METHODS: CHC patients (n = 20) who received DAA treatment, clinical data, and function of Tregs were checked at baseline, Week 4, end of treatment (EOT), and 12 weeks after EOT (SVR 12). Treg-mediated inhibition was measured. The cytokine expression and fold change of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß with/without Treg inhibition were also detected. RESULTS: The cohort included 14 females with a mean age of 59.8 ± 11.5 years. Nineteen had HCV genotype 1. The HCV RNA level was 6.17 ± 0.70 log IU/mL. All patients reached the sustained virologic response. The frequency of CD4+Foxp3+T cells decreased from baseline to EOT and returned at SVR 12. The inhibitory function of Tregs decreased during treatment and then restored (baseline vs. EOT, P = 0.0393; EOT vs. SVR 12, P = 0.0052). The cytokine expression and fold change of IFN-γ and TNF-α were highest at EOT and then decreased at SVR 12. The fold change of IL-10 was lowest at EOT and then increased at SVR 12. The fold change of TGF-ß was significantly increased at Week 4 and SVR 12 compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and inhibitory function of Tregs declined gradually from baseline to EOT and then increased from EOT to SVR 12 in CHC patients receiving DAA therapy. The expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-ß parallelled Treg function.

5.
Int J Oncol ; 55(4): 938-948, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485600

RESUMO

Liposarcoma (LPS) is one of the most frequently reported type of soft­tissue sarcoma (STS). Well­differentiated (WD) LPS and dedifferentiated (DD) LPS are the two most common subtypes. Chemotherapy has been considered to be ineffective in LPS, and novel treatment agents are thus necessary. In this study, we reanalyzed two published microarray data sets of LPS. By comparing the top 50 upregulated genes in DD LPS in both sets of data, we identified 12 overlapping genes. Of note, the top five gene sets enriched in DD LPS in both sets of data were involved in cell cycle regulation. Among the 12 overlapping genes, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is a well­known gene involved in cell cycle regulation; we thus further investigated this gene. AURKA was significantly upregulated in DD LPS, compared with WD LPS. Among 40 cases of DD LPS in GSE30929, patients with high AURKA expression in tumors had significantly worse distant recurrence­free survival than those with low expression. In an in vitro model, MLN8237, an AURKA inhibitor, could inhibit AURKA in LPS cell lines with a resultant G2/M arrest. MLN8237 was also reported to exert a cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis in LPS cell lines. Furthermore, except for cisplatin, MLN8237 had a significantly synergistic effect with chemotherapy agents against LPS. MLN8237 induced cellular senescence in LPS cell lines with increased expression of DcR2, a senescence biomarker, and upregulated expression of cytokines associated with the senescence­associated secretory phenotype, including interleukin (IL)­1α, IL­6 and IL­8. Our study identified AURKA as a potential biomarker for predicting poor prognosis in LPS. The findings of the present study suggested the potential of AURKA as a therapeutic target in LPS cell line models, while the novel combination of AURKA inhibitors and chemotherapy requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase A/genética , Azepinas/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipossarcoma/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Aurora Quinase A/antagonistas & inibidores , Desdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early-life antibiotic use may be associated with asthma, yet whether this association also exists in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unknown. We investigated the association between antibiotic exposure and asthma development in AR children. METHODS: AR patients less than 18 year-old were enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database, which reported information from 2005 to 2010. The case group was defined as having newly developed asthma, and the control group was defined as never having an asthma diagnosis. The age of first exposure to antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic exposure records preceding 5 years before the first asthma diagnosis were obtained from drug prescription records. The odds ratio (OR) was examined after adjusting for age, gender, resident urbanization, underlying medical disorders and medications. RESULTS: A total of 3236 AR patients with newly developed asthma and 9708 AR patients without asthma were included in this study. Antibiotic exposure before the age of 3 years was not associated with asthma development. Preceding 5-year antibiotic exposure increased the risk of asthma development with a dose-response relationship, even for antibiotics with low cumulative defined daily doses (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75). Preceding 5-year exposure to penicillin and macrolide significantly increased the risk of asthma when diagnosed before age 12 in AR patients, but this was not statistically significant when asthma diagnosed after age 12. CONCLUSION: Preceding 5-year antibiotic exposure, particularly to penicillin group of amoxicillin and macrolides, is associated with the risk of asthma development before age 12 in AR children.

7.
Int J Oncol ; 55(2): 536-546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268158

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are gastrointestinal tract sarcomas that commonly contain a mutation in the tyrosine kinases, KIT and platelet­derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA). Imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib are all effective tyrosine kinase inhibitors; however, acquired resistance is inevitable. The E26 variant 1 (ETV1) pathway has been found to be a key downstream effector of KIT and is therefore a reasonable therapeutic target for this disease. In this study, we explored the potential agents targeting ETV1 in GISTs by uploading an ETV1 knockout gene signature of GIST cell lines to the pattern­matching software 'Connectivity Map'. The activity and mechanisms of identified agents were examined using an in vitro model. Four drugs were identified: Suberanilohydroxamic acid and trichostatin [two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs)] and trifluoperazine and thioridazine (two phenothiazine­class drugs). Western blot analysis demonstrated that all four drugs had ETV1­downregulating effects. As HDACIs have been previously studied in GISTs, we focused on phenothiazine. Phenothiazine was found to exert cytotoxicity and to induce apoptosis and autophagy in GISTs. Treatment with phenothiazine had little effect on the KIT/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, but instead upregulated extracellular­signal­regulated kinase (ERK) activity. A combination of phenothiazine and a MEK inhibitor had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on GISTs. Western blot analysis indicated that ELK1 and early growth response 1 (EGR1) were activated/upregulated following phenothiazine treatment, and the MEK inhibitor/phenothiazine combination downregulated the ERK/ELK1/EGR1 pathway, resulting in diminished autophagy, as well as enhanced apoptosis. On the whole, the findings of this study established phenothiazine as a novel class of therapeutic agents in GIST treatment and demonstrate that a combination of phenothiazine and MEK inhibitor has great potential for use in the treatment of GISTs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Conectoma , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16529, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348269

RESUMO

Although endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) seems to cause fewer instances of bleeding, there are insufficient data to determine the optimal methods for decreasing the risk of bleeding in cirrhotic patients.In this study, we compared the bleeding risks following endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EST) vs EPBD in cirrhotic patients and identified clinical factors associated with bleeding and 30-day mortality.Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database was used to identify 3201 cirrhotic patients who underwent EST or EPBD between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013.We enrolled 2620 patients receiving EST and 581 patients receiving EPBD. The mean age was 63.1 ±â€Š13.9 years, and 70.4% (2252/3201) were men. The incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) bleeding was higher among patients treated with EST than those treated with EPBD (EST vs EPBD: 3.5% vs 1.9%). Independent predisposing factors for bleeding included EST, renal function impairment, and antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. The overall 30-day mortality was 4.0% (127/3201). Older age, renal function impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding esophageal varices, ascites, hepatocellular carcinoma, biliary malignancy, and pancreatic malignancy were associated with higher risks for 30-day mortality.To decrease post-ERCP hemorrhage, EPBD is the preferred method in patients with cirrhosis, especially for those who have renal function impairment or are receiving antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Esfinterotomia Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Cateterismo/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dilatação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esfinterotomia Endoscópica/métodos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(11): 1270-1281, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a documented risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, to date there are no reports on the long-term hard endpoints (ESRD and death) of anti-HCV therapy [interferon-based therapy (IBT) or new direct-acting antivirals] in CKD patients. Direct-acting antivirals are not available in Taiwan's single-payer national health insurance database currently released for research. Therefore, we hypothesized that a retrospective analysis of the long-term outcomes of IBT in CKD patients will serve as a proxy for direct-acting antivirals to increase our understanding of progression to ESRD following HCV infection. AIM: To evaluate the long-term outcomes (ESRD and death) of anti-HCV therapy, especially IBT, in HCV-infected patients with stage 1-5 CKD. METHODS: We analyzed 93894 Taiwanese adults diagnosed with CKD and without HBV infection. Of these, 4.9% were infected with HCV. Of the 4582 HCV-infected CKD patients, 482 (10.5%) received IBT (treated cohort). They were matched 1:4 with 1928 untreated HCV-infected CKD patients (untreated cohort) by propensity scores and year, which further matched 1:2 by propensity scores with 3856 CKD patients without HCV infection (uninfected cohort). All participants were followed until the occurrence of ESRD, death, or the end of 2012. The association between HCV infection, IBT use, and risks of ESRD and death was analyzed using competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Taking the uninfected cohort as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for ESRD, after adjusting for competing mortality, were 0.34 (0.14-0.84, P = 0.019) and 1.28 (1.03-1.60, P = 0.029) in the treated and untreated cohorts, respectively. The treated cohort had a 29% (0.54-0.92, P = 0.011) decrease in mortality compared to the untreated cohort, in which the mortality was 31% (1.18-1.45, P < 0.001) higher than in the uninfected cohort. The reduced risks of ESRD (0.14, 0.03-0.58, P = 0.007) and death (0.57, 0.41-0.79, P = 0.001) were greatest in HCV-infected CKD patients who received at least 4 mo of IBT, which accounted for 74% of the treated cohort. CONCLUSION: Adequate anti-HCV therapy in CKD patients improves long-term renal and patient survival.

10.
Hormones (Athens) ; 18(2): 179-187, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is postulated to be involved in insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, is an oral antidiabetic drug for T2DM. Acarbose suppresses inflammatory cytokine production in patients with T2DM, though the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the exact mechanisms of acarbose in human monocytic THP-1 cells. METHODS: THP-1 cells were pretreated with acarbose and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of Th1-related chemokines, including interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular signaling pathways were explored by Western blot analysis and using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Acarbose suppressed the levels of IP-10, MCP-1, MDC, and TNF-α and downregulated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-kappa B-p65 (NF-κB-p65) in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Acarbose suppressed LPS-induced acetylation of histones H3 (H3) and H4 in the IP-10 and MCP-1 promoter regions. These findings revealed the suppressive effects of acarbose on IP-10, MCP-1, MDC, and TNF-α production in THP-1 cells via, at least partially, the p38, JNK, ERK, and NF-κB-p65 pathways, as well as through epigenetic regulation via histone H3 and H4 acetylation. CONCLUSION: Our study points to the therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential of acarbose.


Assuntos
Acarbose/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL22/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 4814928, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524656

RESUMO

The medicinal herb Lycium barbarum fruit has been widely used for improving and maintaining the health of the eyes in the Far East for many centuries. This study is aimed at investigating whether protective effects generated from the aqueous (LBA) and ethanol (LBE) extracts of the L. barbarum fruit existed against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. L. barbarum extracts LBA and LBE exerted the activity of ROS scavenging and rescued UVB irradiation-induced growth inhibition in retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Compared to LBA, the ethanol extract LBE exerted a superior protective activity on UVB-induced growth arrest in ARPE-19 cells. Both L. barbarum extracts significantly reduced cell cycle G2-arrest population in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, the cytometer-based Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay further showed that both L. barbarum extracts protected ARPE-19 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis. L. barbarum extracts also reduced the activation of γH2AX, a sensor of DNA damage in ARPE-19 cells in a dose-responsive manner. By using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), the bioinformatics revealed that the protective effects of both LBA and LBE extracts might be involved in three signaling pathways, especially the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway associated with cellular proliferation. Our study suggests that both ethanol and aqueous extracts of L. barbarum exhibit antioxidant activity and rescue UVB-induced apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells. Collectively, the ethanol extract exerts a superior effect on rescuing UVB-induced growth arrest of ARPE-19 compared to the aqueous extract, which might be associated with the activation of TLR signaling. Our present work will benefit the preventive strategy of herbal medicine-based vision protection for treating eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration in the future.


Assuntos
Citoproteção , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13648, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206269

RESUMO

Subwavelength focusing is crucial for many applications in photonics including super-resolution micro/nanoscopy, nanolithography, and optical trapping. However, most nanostructures exhibit poor ability to modulate focusing spot, which makes them hard to achieve ultra-small resolution. Here, we propose three kinds of plasmonic lens (PL) by utilizing different meta-aperture designs for efficient subwavelength focusing modulation. The shape of nanoaperture strongly influences the diffraction properties. Spatial modulation of focusing spot by employing a circular array of proposed nanoapertures is explored. The best focusing performance among these PLs is the design of T-shape nanoaperture, which has great resolution achieving ultra-small focusing spot of 0.14 λ2 and 0.20 λ2 (λ = 633 nm) for simulation and experiment respectively, better than lots of focusing devices especially by using linear polarization. Multiple-object trapping can be realized by using T-shape nanoaperture-based PL. Our designed PLs with different nanoapertures demonstrate the capability to broaden and integrate different functionalities for on-chip nanotechnologies development.

13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 51(6): 829-838, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Dengue disease is widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Severe dengue infection is characterized by plasma leakage, fluid accumulation, severe bleeding, or vital organ impairment. Bleeding is a critical complication of dengue disease. However, the biomarkers of dengue disease are still unknown. Macrophages have a distinct polarization phenotype related to M1/M2 classification. Macrophage polarization toward the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype is considered critical for efficient antiviral immune responses, whereas the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype is considered essential for tissue remodeling. We investigated macrophage polarization patterns in the peripheral blood of pediatric patients with dengue disease. METHODS: Medical records and laboratory data were collected from 23 pediatric healthy controls and 100 dengue disease samples from 50 dengue patients. Macrophage polarization-related surface markers were assessed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The percentage of macrophages in the peripheral blood was higher in dengue patients than in the healthy controls. The percentages of M2a and M2c macrophage subsets were higher and the percentage of M1 macrophage subset was lower in dengue patients than in healthy controls. However, the percentages of M1, M2a and M2b macrophage subsets in dengue patients with bleeding tendency were lower than that without bleeding tendency. The percentages of M2a, M2b, and M2c macrophage subsets were positively correlated with platelet counts. CONCLUSION: Decreased the percentages of M2 macrophage subsets in pediatric dengue patients are associated with bleeding tendency and lower platelet counts.


Assuntos
Dengue/sangue , Dengue/complicações , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 13(12): 1405-1416, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972649

RESUMO

AIM: The extensive use of vancomycin has given rise to vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). We aim to explore potent medical treatments that can inhibit the growth of VRE. MATERIALS & METHODS: Vancomycin-immobilized gold nanoparticles (Au@Van NPs) with polygonal shapes from one-pot reactions were generated within approximately 7 min. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The as-prepared Au NPs exhibit not only antibacterial capability but also photothermal competence. The temperature of the sample solution containing the as-prepared Au@Van NPs can be raised by approximately 15°C under irradiation by a near-infrared laser (λ = 808 nm) within 5 min. CONCLUSION: The required amount of vancomycin on the as-prepared Au@Van NPs combined with near-infrared irradiation for inhibiting VRE is approximately 16-fold lower than that of free-form vancomycin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Ouro/química , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fototerapia , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/patogenicidade
15.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(7)2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973515

RESUMO

Oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, can widen the bandgap of graphene. In this study, we varied the amount of hydrogen peroxide used to prepare GO samples with different degrees of oxidation. Transmittance measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to completely characterize the change in oxidation degree. The effects of oxidation degree on p-type and n-type Si heterojunction photodetectors were compared. Notably, GO with a lower oxidation degree led to a larger photoresponse of p-type Si, whereas that with a higher oxidation degree achieved a larger photoresponse of n-type Si.

16.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021747, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To illuminate the association between interferon-based therapy (IBT) and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 that included 18 971 patients with HCV infection between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012. We identified 1966 patients with HCV infection who received IBT (treated cohort) and used 1:4 propensity score-matching to select 7864 counterpart controls who did not receive IBT (untreated cohort). OUTCOME MEASURES: All study participants were followed until the end of 2012 to calculate the incidence rate and risk of incident RA. RESULTS: During the study period, 305 RA events (3.1%) occurred. The incidence rate of RA was significantly lower in the treated cohort than the untreated cohort (4.0 compared with 5.5 per 1000 person-years, p<0.018), and the adjusted HR remained significant at 0.63 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.94, p=0.023) in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Multivariate stratified analyses revealed that the attenuation in RA risk was greater in men (0.35; 0.15 to 0.81, p=0.014) and men<60 years (0.29; 0.09 to 0.93, p=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that IBT may reduce the risk of RA and contributes to growing evidence that HCV infection may lead to development of RA.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Hepatite C Crônica/fisiopatologia , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antivirais/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/prevenção & controle , Artrite Reumatoide/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Interferon alfa-2/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(4): 437, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740017

RESUMO

Degeneration or loss of inner ear hair cells (HCs) is irreversible and results in sensorineural hearing loss (SHL). Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been employed in disease modelling and cell therapy. Here, we propose a transcription factor (TF)-driven approach using ATOH1 and regulatory factor of x-box (RFX) genes to generate HC-like cells from hiPSCs. Our results suggest that ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 could significantly increase the differentiation capacity of iPSCs into MYO7AmCherry-positive cells, upregulate the mRNA expression levels of HC-related genes and promote the differentiation of HCs with more mature stereociliary bundles. To model the molecular and stereociliary structural changes involved in HC dysfunction in SHL, we further used ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 to differentiate HC-like cells from the iPSCs from patients with myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibres (MERRF) syndrome, which is caused by A8344G mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and characterised by myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia and SHL. Compared with isogenic iPSCs, MERRF-iPSCs possessed ~42-44% mtDNA with A8344G mutation and exhibited significantly elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and CAT gene expression. Furthermore, MERRF-iPSC-differentiated HC-like cells exhibited significantly elevated ROS levels and MnSOD and CAT gene expression. These MERRF-HCs that had more single cilia with a shorter length could be observed only by using a non-TF method, but those with fewer stereociliary bundle-like protrusions than isogenic iPSCs-differentiated-HC-like cells could be further observed using ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 TFs. We further analysed and compared the whole transcriptome of M1ctrl-HCs and M1-HCs after treatment with ATOH1 or ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3. We revealed that the HC-related gene transcripts in M1ctrl-iPSCs had a significantly higher tendency to be activated by ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 than M1-iPSCs. The ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 TF-driven approach for the differentiation of HC-like cells from iPSCs is an efficient and promising strategy for the disease modelling of SHL and can be employed in future therapeutic strategies to treat SHL patients.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(19): 16874-16880, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687706

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, particularly the direct-gap monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), are currently being developed for various atomically thin optoelectronic devices. However, practical applications are hindered by their low quantum efficiencies in light emissions and absorptions. While photonic cavities and metallic plasmonic structures can significantly enhance the light-matter interactions in TMDs, the narrow spectral resonance and the local hot spots considerably limit the applications when broadband and large area are required. Here, we demonstrate that a properly designed distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) can be an ideal platform for light-coupling enhancement in 2D TMDs. The main idea is based on engineering the amplitude and phase of optical reflection from the DBR to produce optimal substrate-induced interference. We show that the photoluminescence, Raman, and second harmonic generation signals of monolayer WSe2 can be enhanced by a factor of 26, 34, and 58, respectively. The proposed DBR substrates pave the way for developing a range of 2D optoelectronic devices for broadband and large-area applications.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 366, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophage heterogeneity is the main feature of the tumour microenvironment. Breast cancer is one of the most life-threatening cancers. However, macrophage polarization patterns in different tumour stages and the importance of its relationship to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer remains highly unclear. The present study investigated the patterns of monocyte differentiation and macrophage polarization in breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with breast cancer (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 39) were prospectively recruited. The percentages and subsets of circulating macrophage-like cells were analysed by flow cytometry, and the polarization patterns of these cells in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer were compared with those of healthy controls. In addition, macrophage polarization patterns in different stages and HER2 status in breast cancer were investigated. RESULTS: The percentages of circulating macrophages, which are defined as PM-2 K+ cells in the peripheral blood, were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy controls. The percentages of M1-like macrophages were significantly lower, but those of M2-like macrophages were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy controls. The percentage of M2c-like macrophages was significantly higher in advanced (stages II and III) breast cancer. However, the patterns of macrophage polarization were not associated with HER2 status in breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant macrophage polarization was observed in breast cancer and was correlated with breast cancer stage. These quantitative data may provide new molecular biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Endocr Res ; 43(4): 228-234, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630425

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are chronic T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Metformin is a widely used drug for type 2 DM that reduces the need for insulin in type 1 DM. However, whether metformin has an anti-inflammatory effect for treating DM is unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was pretreated with metformin and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of T-helper (Th)-1-related chemokines including interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine, and the proinflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor-α was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular signaling pathways were investigated using Western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Metformin suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 and MCP-1 production as well as LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Moreover, metformin suppressed LPS-induced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IP-10 promoter. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin suppressed the production of Th1-related chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 in THP-1 cells. Suppressive effects of metformin on IP-10 production might be attributed at least partially to the JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB pathways as well as to epigenetic regulation through the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. These results indicated the therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential of metformin.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA