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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801689

RESUMO

Three novel polyoxovanadoborates namely [V12B18O46(OH)14(H2O)0.75]·20.5H2O 1, Na2[V12B18O48(OH)12(H2O)0.5]·26.5H2O 2 and Cd0.5{[Na(H2O)2]2[Na(H2O)]2[Na(H2O)3]2V12B18O53(OH)7(H2O)0.5}·11H2O 3 have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The boratopolyoxovanadate cage [V12B18O60] backbones in 1-3 are constructed by the combination of two hexameric oxovanadate units [V6O9] and one puckered [B18O42] ring via sharing O atoms. All three compounds were obtained under alkaline conditions, and the cluster anions were all [V12B18O60]. But the cations were different, it is inferred that the protonation of the three compound cluster ions is different, respectively [V12B18O46(OH)14(H2O)0.75] in 1, [V12B18O48(OH)12(H2O)0.5]2- in 2 and [V12B18O53(OH)7(H2O)0.5]7- in 3. The V oxidation states ratio of VIV to VV were 2:1 confirmed by valence bond calculation and XPS. We studied the magnetic properties of three compounds by two methods: The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility and the 2D IR COS under magnetic perturbation. From the 2D IR COS under magnetic perturbation map, it is showed that all three: (1) the presence of VIV. (2) Certain quasi-aromaticity from B3O3 six-membered ring. (3) The difference of protonation and the charge of the cluster anions. This work enriches the theory of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and also provides a new approach to the study of magnetic materials.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134614, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806319

RESUMO

In this work, a fluorescent nanoparticles labeling-free fluorescence enzyme-linked immunoassay (FELISA) has been established for the ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water and fish samples. Polyclonal antibody against MC-LR was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and used as signal probe for binding with analyte in sample or for coating antigen. After washing of the unbound antibody, the substrate system (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS)/H2O2) was added. The oxidation product of ABTS (ox-ABTS) catalyzed by HRP effectively caused the fluorescence quenching of subsequently added silane-doped carbon dots (Si-CDs), and the change in fluorescence intensity of Si-CDs was used to realize the quantitative detection of MC-LR. Under the optimum conditions, the Si-CDs based FELISA method showed a good linear relationship from 0.001 to 3.20 µg L-1 (R2 = 0.994) and provided a low detection limit of 0.6 ng L-1, which was approximately 30-fold lower than that of traditional indirect competitive ELISA. Average recovery values from 79.9% to 109.2% was obtained from spiked water and crucian samples, suggesting its potential application on the monitoring of MR-LR at a trace level.

3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3635-3645, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833675

RESUMO

We carried out niche monitoring and analysis of plant populations under the forest community in the talus slope ecotone of a typical moderate-degraded Bajiaxiantang tiankeng to provide scientific references for biodiversity conservation and vegetation restoration in degraded tiankeng area. The results showed that soil ammonium, available potassium, and available phosphorus signifi-cantly affected species distribution, which explained 37.4%, 32.8%, 29.3% of the total variation, respectively. With the change of talus slope of tiankeng (pit, uphill, mid-slope, downhill and pit bottom), life form of understory plants changed from evergreen and xerophytes to evergreen and hygro-mesophytes, with the niche overlap of herbs being larger than that of shrubs. Shrubs of Viburnum congestum and Campylotropis polyantha, and herbs of Arisaema erubescens and Arthraxon hispidus had wide ecological amplitude and strong resistance, which occupied the upper layer of the shrub and herb layers. Shrub Cornus oblonga and herb Geranium nepalense, Agrimonia pilosa lost the competitiveness with increasing soil alkalinity. Niche characteristics of understory dominant species in Bajiaxiantang were closely related to the canopy structure of mixed trees, ecological strategies of shrub and herb species, unique habitat of tiankeng, and the importance value of dominant species.

4.
Oral Dis ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) signaling is essential in regulating craniofacial osteogenesis. This study aims to explore the effect of altered FGF8 signaling in maxillomandibular development during embryogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dmp1Cre ;R26RmTmG mice were generated to trace Dmp1+ cell lineage, and Dmp1Cre ;R26RFgf8 mice were generated to explore the effects of augmented FGF8 signaling in Dmp1+ cells on osteogenesis with a focus on maxillomandibular development during embryogenesis, as assessed by whole mount skeletal staining, histology, and immunostaining. Additionally, cell proliferation rate and the expression of osteogenic genes were examined. RESULTS: Osteocytes of maxillomandibular bones were found Dmp1 positive prenatally and Fgf8 over-expression in Dmp1+ cells led to mandibular hypoplasia. While Dmp1Cre allele functions in the osteocytes of the developing mandibular bone at as early as E13.5, and enhanced cell proliferation rate is observed in the bone forming region of the mandible in Dmp1Cre ;R26RFgf8 mice at E14.5, histological examination showed that osteogenesis was initially impacted at E15.5, along with an inhibition of osteogenic differentiation markers. CONCLUSIONS: Augmented FGF8 signaling in Dmp1+ cells lead to osteogenic deficiency in the mandibular bones, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18350, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860990

RESUMO

This study, an important groundwork for clinical tongue diagnosis and future traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research, tested the hypothesis that some tongue features vary significantly between different gender and age groups by utilizing an automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS).A cross-sectional study of 1487 participants from a community-based population was performed. Study subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 92 were categorized into 3 groups: <40, 40 to 64, and ≥65 years old, and the subjects were also stratified according to gender. Tongue images were collected at the end of each normal health examination routine to further derive the relevant tongue features of every participant by using the ATDS developed by our team. There were a total of nine tongue features that were identified: tongue shape, tongue color, fur thickness, fur color, saliva, tongue fissure, ecchymosis, teeth mark, and red dot. The corresponding tongue features, demography, and physical/laboratory examination data were compared between different gender and age groups.Our study showed that, compared to females, males had enlarged tongue shape, thicker fur, more fissures and fewer teeth marks (all P < .001), and also had more red tongue color (P = .019), normal saliva (P = .001), more red dots (P = .005) and yellower fur (P = .014). In females, increasing age was associated with more enlarged tongue shape, thicker fur, yellower fur, more saliva, fissures and fewer teeth marks (all P < .001), more ecchymoses (P = .009), and more red tongue color (P = .023). These associations of age with more fissures, fewer teeth marks, fewer red dots (P < .001), median tongue shape (P = .029), and wet saliva (P = .014) were also evident in males, but other relationships were not clearly evident.Even though most of the common tongue features derived from a community-based population are consistent with TCM theory, yet some significantly gender- and age-dependent tongue characteristics were identified. These disparities in tongue features associated with gender or age shall be prudently taken into consideration in clinical tongue diagnosis and future TCM research.


Assuntos
Língua/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758234

RESUMO

The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is required for sequential cell fate determination of both motor neurons and oligodendrocytes and for progenitor proliferation in the central nervous system. However, the role of Olig2 in peripheral sensory neurogenesis remains unknown. We report that Olig2 is transiently expressed in the newly differentiated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is down-regulated in the mature OSNs in mice from early gestation to adulthood. Genetic fate mapping demonstrates that Olig2-expressing cells solely give rise to OSNs in the peripheral olfactory system. Olig2 depletion does not affect the proliferation of peripheral olfactory progenitors and the fate determination of OSNs, sustentacular cells, and the olfactory ensheathing cells. However, the terminal differentiation and maturation of OSNs are compromised in either Olig2 single or Olig1/Olig2 double knockout mice, associated with significantly diminished expression of multiple OSN maturation and odorant signaling genes, including Omp, Gnal, Adcy3, and Olfr15. We further demonstrate that Olig2 binds to the E-box in the Omp promoter region to regulate its expression. Taken together, our results reveal a distinctly novel function of Olig2 in the periphery nervous system to regulate the terminal differentiation and maturation of olfactory sensory neurons.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; : 115190, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744779

RESUMO

A novel series of graveolinine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-Alzheimer agents. Compound 5f exhibited the best inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and had surprisingly potent inhibitory activity for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), with IC50 values of 0.72 µM and 0.16 µM, respectively. The results from Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular modeling study indicated non-competitive inhibition of AChE by compound 5f. In addition, these derivatives showed potent self-induced ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregation inhibition. Moreover, 5f didn't show obvious toxicity against PC12 and HepG2 cells at 50 µM. Finally, in vivo studies confirmed that 5f significantly ameliorates the cognitive performances of scopolamine-treated ICR mice. Therefore, these graveolinine derivatives should be thoroughly and systematically studied for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(11): 1079-1084, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mostly by enteroviruses. However, other viral agents also can cause similar syndromes, and hence, the infections they cause are often misdiagnosed clinically. To determine non-enterovirus etiologic agents in HFMD-like cases, we screened enterovirus-negative samples collected from the patients who were clinically diagnosed as HFMD in China. METHODS: Two hundred enterovirus-negative samples were collected previously in Wenzhou city of Zhejiang province, China. Both high throughput sequencing and RT-PCR were used to screen viral agents. In addition, their clinical features were analyzed. RESULTS: Norovirus (NoV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) were identified from 22 (11.00%) and 9 (4.50%) samples, respectively. In addition, the complete genome sequences were recovered from 4 NoV-positive samples, and the VP1/3Dpol gene sequences were recovered from 5 HPeV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the NoV sequences revealed that they were closely related to those circulated in other regions of China. Notably, 4 genotypes of HPeVs, including HPeV-1, HPeV-4, HPeV-5 and HPeV-14, were found, indicating high genetic diversity of the virus. Frequent recombination between various genotypes was also observed in the HPeVs. Although most of the patients presented with the clinical features of HFMD, 4 patients infected with NoV GII.4 and 3 patients infected with HPeV-1 (1) and HPeV-4 (2) were characterized with diarrhea. Finally, tonsillitis, convulsion and granulocytopenia were observed in 1 NoV GII.4 patient, while liver dysfunction was found in 1 NoV GII.17 patient. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal the variety of agents in the cases clinically diagnosed as HFMD.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 294(48): 18294-18305, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649032

RESUMO

During mammalian palatogenesis, cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells undergo osteogenic differentiation and form the hard palate, which is divided into palatine process of the maxilla and the palatine. However, it remains unknown whether these bony structures originate from the same cell lineage and how the hard palate is patterned at the molecular level. Using mice, here we report that deficiency in Shox2 (short stature homeobox 2), a transcriptional regulator whose expression is restricted to the anterior palatal mesenchyme, leads to a defective palatine process of the maxilla but does not affect the palatine. Shox2 overexpression in palatal mesenchyme resulted in a hyperplastic palatine process of the maxilla and a hypoplastic palatine. RNA sequencing and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin-sequencing analyses revealed that Shox2 controls the expression of pattern specification and skeletogenic genes associated with accessible chromatin in the anterior palate. This highlighted a lineage-autonomous function of Shox2 in patterning and osteogenesis of the hard palate. H3K27ac ChIP-Seq and transient transgenic enhancer assays revealed that Shox2 binds distal-acting cis-regulatory elements in an anterior palate-specific manner. Our results suggest that the palatine process of the maxilla and palatine arise from different cell lineages and differ in ossification mechanisms. Shox2 evidently controls osteogenesis of a cell lineage and contributes to the palatine process of the maxilla by interacting with distal cis-regulatory elements to regulate skeletogenic gene expression and to pattern the hard palate. Genome-wide Shox2 occupancy in the developing palate may provide a marker for identifying active anterior palate-specific gene enhancers.

10.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 61: 126-131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493737

RESUMO

Biologically oriented regenerative dentistry in an attempt to regrow a functional tooth by harnessing the natural healing capabilities of dental tissues has become a recent trend challenging the current dental practice on repairing the damaged or missing tooth. In this review, we outline the conceptual development on the in situ revitalization of the tooth replacement capability lost during evolution, the updated progress in stem-cell-based in vivo repair of the damaged tooth, and the recent endeavors for in vitro generation of an implantable bioengineered tooth germ. Thereafter, we summarize the major challenges that need to be overcome in order to provide the rationale and directions for the success of fully functional tooth regeneration in the near future.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443046

RESUMO

The dysregulation and mutation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to result in a variety of human diseases. Identifying potential disease-related lncRNAs may benefit disease diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. A number of methods have been proposed to predict the potential lncRNA-disease relationships. However, most of them may give rise to incorrect results due to relying on single similarity measure. This article proposes a novel framework (ILDMSF) by fusing the lncRNA similarities and disease similarities, which are measured by lncRNA-related gene and known lncRNA-disease interaction and disease semantic interaction, and known lncRNA-disease interaction, respectively. Further, the support vector machine is employed to identify the potential lncRNA-disease associations based on the integrated similarity. The leave-one-out cross validation is performed to compare ILDMSF with other state of the art methods. The experimental results demonstrate our method is prospective in exploring potential correlations between lncRNA and disease.

12.
Inflammation ; 42(5): 1843-1856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256292

RESUMO

Ozone is a strong oxidant in air pollution that exacerbates respiratory disorders and is a major risk factor for acute asthma exacerbation. Ozone can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and airway neutrophilic inflammation. In addition, γδT17 cells contribute to IL-17A production upon ozone challenge, resulting in neutrophilic inflammation. It is known, however, that Nrf2 can ameliorate oxidative stress. We therefore investigated whether RTA-408, an Nrf2 activator, can attenuate airway inflammation and inhibit ROS production and whether this effect involves γδT17 cells. Balb/c mice were sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and followed by ozone exposure. We investigated the effect of Nrf2 activator RTA-408 on airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophilic airway inflammation, cytokine/chemokine production, and OVA-specific IgE level in a mouse model of O3 induced asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and intracellular ROS were measured. IL-17+ γδT cell percentage by flow cytometer was determined. Nrf2 protein expression by western blot was also examined. We observed that RTA-408 attenuated ROS release during ozone-induced asthma exacerbation and suppressed neutrophil lung infiltration. RTA-408 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and reduced the percentage of IL-17+ γδT cells. Thus, our results suggest that RTA-408 does attenuate airway inflammation in a murine model of ozone-induced asthma exacerbation.

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 2002-2010, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257773

RESUMO

After invading the grand negative landform karst degraded tiankeng, Eupatorium adenophorum will affect the plant diversity, community succession and natural ecological restoration of degraded tiankeng by changing soil microbial community. Taking the degraded tiankeng "Bajiaxiantang" as the research area, the soil around E. adenophorum roots in different habitats was selected to explore the microbial community characteristics of E. adenophorum roots using the Biolog-ECO micro-plate method. The results showed that the invasion degree of E. adenophorum was in order of pit slope shrub-grassland > pit bottom grassland > pit slope forest > pit head shrub-grassland. The characteristics of E. adenophorum varied among different habitats due to habitat heterogeneity. The change of microbial community metabolic activity, dominance index, richness index and evenness index of E. adenophorum roots was closely related with the invasion degree, with significant diffe-rence between inside and outside of the tiankeng. Amino acids and polymers were the main carbon sources utilized by soil microorganism. The α diversity of herbaceous plants in different habitats were correlated with that of soil microbial community. The diversity of soil microbial community around E. adenophorum roots increased significantly with the increases of invasion level, which could form a microenvironment conducive to invasion and colonization. In the future, the degraded tiankeng would eventually form the climax community of underground forests with community succession and natural ecological restoration, which might result in the disappearance of E. adenophorum in the degraded tiankeng.


Assuntos
Ageratina , Espécies Introduzidas , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Florestas , Plantas , Solo
14.
Development ; 146(14)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320323

RESUMO

The sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary cardiac pacemaker, consists of a head domain and a junction/tail domain that exhibit different functional properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanism defining these two pacemaker domains remains elusive. Nkx2-5 is a key transcription factor essential for the formation of the working myocardium, but it was generally thought to be detrimental to SAN development. However, Nkx2-5 is expressed in the developing SAN junction, suggesting a role for Nkx2-5 in SAN junction development and function. In this study, we present unambiguous evidence that SAN junction cells exhibit unique action potential configurations intermediate to those manifested by the SAN head and the surrounding atrial cells, suggesting a specific role for the junction cells in impulse generation and in SAN-atrial exit conduction. Single-cell RNA-seq analyses support this concept. Although Nkx2-5 inactivation in the SAN junction did not cause a malformed SAN at birth, the mutant mice manifested sinus node dysfunction. Thus, Nkx2-5 defines a population of pacemaker cells in the transitional zone. Despite Nkx2-5 being dispensable for SAN morphogenesis during embryogenesis, its deletion hampers atrial activation by the pacemaker.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15942, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192930

RESUMO

Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed at 10 children's hospitals in mainland China in 2016.Among the collected 6132 S pneumoniae isolates, pneumococcal diseases mainly occurred in children younger than 5 years old (85.1%). The resistance rate of S pneumoniae to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 95.8%, 95.2%, 93.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The resistance rates of S pneumoniae to penicillin were 86.9% and 1.4% in non-meningitis and meningitis isolates, while the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients with invasive pneumococcal disease usually have several MDR coexistence.S pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance to common antibiotics in mainland China. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance rate of invasive streptococcal pneumonia patients were significantly higher than that of non-invasive S pneumoniae patients. Alarmingly, 46.1% of invasive clinical isolates were multidrug resistant, so it is important to continued monitor the resistance of S pneumoniae when protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is coming in mainland China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15567, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083226

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public problem closely associated with numerous oral complications, such as coated tongue, xerostomia, salivary dysfunction, etc. Tongue diagnosis plays an important role in clinical prognosis and treatment of diabetes in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study investigated discriminating tongue features to distinguish between type 2 DM and non-DM individuals through non-invasive TCM tongue diagnosis.The tongue features for 199 patients with type 2 DM, and 372 non-DM individuals, serving as control, are extracted by the automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS). A total of 9 tongue features, namely, tongue shape, tongue color, fur thickness, fur color, saliva, tongue fissure, ecchymosis, teeth mark, and red dot. The demography, laboratory, physical examination, and tongue manifestation data between 2 groups were compared.Patients with type 2 DM possessed significantly larger covering area of yellow fur (58.5% vs 22.5%, P < .001), thick fur (50.8% vs 29.2%, P < .001), and bluish tongue (P < .001) than those of the control group. Also, a significantly higher portion (72.7% vs 55.2%, P < .05) of patients with long-term diabetics having yellow fur color than the short-term counterparts was observed.The high prevalence of thick fur, yellow fur color, and bluish tongue in patient with type 2 DM revealed that TCM tongue diagnosis can serve as a preliminary screening procedure in the early detection of type 2 DM in light of its simple and non-invasive nature, followed by other more accurate testing process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying non-invasive TCM tongue diagnosis to the discrimination of type 2 DM patients and non-DM individuals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Língua/patologia , Doenças da Língua/complicações , Doenças da Língua/epidemiologia , Doenças da Língua/patologia
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(2): 337-342, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016531

RESUMO

Calcium carbonates are commonly administered as supplements for conditions of calcium deficiency. We report here pharmacokinetic characteristics of a novel formulation, calcium carbonate compound granules (CCCGs), forming complexes of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in water. CCCGs were compared to a kind of commonly-used calcium carbonate D3 preparation (CC) in the market in 5-week-old mice that had been treated with omeprazole, to suppress gastric acid secretion, and in untreated control mice. The results showed that: (1) CCCGs had better water solubility than CC in vitro; (2) In control mice, calcium absorption rates after CCCGs administration were comparable to those after CC administration; (3) Inhibition of gastric acid secretion did not affect calcium absorption after CCCGs, but moderately decreased it after CC; (4) The presence of phytic acid or tannin did not affect calcium absorption rates after CCCGs but did for CC; and (5) In normal mice, CCCGs did not inhibit gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion, and did not alter the gastrointestinal hormones. The results suggest that CCCGs may be therapeutically advantageous over more commonly used calcium supplement formulations, particularly for adolescents, because of their stable calcium absorption characteristics and their relatively favorable adverse effect profile.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 979-987, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018476

RESUMO

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world and is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit the Qinling Mountains. Last year, China announced the establishment of the first Giant Panda National Park (GPNP) with a goal of restoring and connecting fragmented habitats; the proposal ignored the environmental pollution caused by economic development in panda habitats. The spatial distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and As) was analyzed in giant panda feces, soil, bamboo, and water in four of GPNP's functional areas at different altitudes and latitudes. Heavy metal pollution decreased with anthropogenic influences, from outside the park through the buffer and into the core area. Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn accumulated from natural sources; As, Hg and Cr were associated with fuel combustion; and Pb and Cd were associated with traffic and agriculture sources. The presence of heavy metals at high altitudes and latitudes in the proposed GPNP is due to emissions from Xi'an and other upwind industrial cities. We conclude that reducing emissions and heavy metal input should be included in the design of the GPNP. Policy interventions should consider functional zones planning, wind direction, reducing mining, and the abandonment of existing roads and farmland within the GPNP to reduce other direct human impacts on the Qinling panda.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ursidae , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Fezes/química , Mineração , Análise Multivariada , Parques Recreativos
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(17): 15322-15331, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986029

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress leads to neuron damage and is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researchers, therefore, are looking for antiinflammatory drugs and gene therapy approaches to slow down or even prevent neurological disorders. Combining therapeutics has shown a synergistic effect in the treatment of human diseases. Many nanocarriers could be designed for the simultaneous codelivery of drugs with genes to fight diseases. However, only a few researches have been performed in NDs. In this study, we developed a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based approach for neurodegenerative therapy. This MSN-based platform involved multiple designs in the targeted codelivery of (1) curcumin, a natural antioxidant product, to protect ROS-induced cell damage and (2) plasmid RhoG-DsRed, which is associated with the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia for promoting neurite outgrowth. At the same time, TAT peptide was introduced to the plasmid RhoG-DsRed via electrostatic interaction to elevate the efficiency of nonendocytic pathways and the nuclear plasmid delivery of RhoG-DsRed in cells for enhanced gene expression. Besides, such a plasmid RhoG-DsRed/TAT complex could work as a noncovalent gatekeeper. The release of curcumin inside the channel of the MSN could be triggered when the complex was dissociated from the MSN surface. Taken together, this MSN-based platform combining genetic and pharmacological manipulations of an actin cytoskeleton as well as oxidative stress provides an attractive way for ND therapy.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/química , Citoesqueleto de Actina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/química , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Plasmídeos/química , Porosidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
20.
Drug Discov Today ; 24(7): 1332-1343, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876845

RESUMO

Machine learning, especially deep learning, has the predictive power to predict adverse drug reactions, repurpose drugs and perform precision medicine. We provide a background of machine learning and propose a potential high-performance deep learning framework for its successful applications in these practices.

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