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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518236

RESUMO

Bluefin tuna (BFT), highly prized among consumers, accumulate high levels of mercury (Hg) as neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). However, how Hg bioaccumulation varies among globally distributed BFT populations is not understood. Here, we show mercury accumulation rates (MARs) in BFT are highest in the Mediterranean Sea and decrease as North Pacific Ocean > Indian Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, MARs increase in proportion to the concentrations of MeHg in regional seawater and zooplankton, linking MeHg accumulation in BFT to MeHg bioavailability at the base of each subbasin's food web. Observed global patterns correspond to levels of Hg in each ocean subbasin; the Mediterranean, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans are subject to geogenic enrichment and anthropogenic contamination, while the North Atlantic Ocean is less so. MAR in BFT as a global pollution index reflects natural and human sources and global thermohaline circulation.

2.
Urol J ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of bacterial scatter diagrams generated from the automated urine particle analyzer (UF-1000i, Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) in pre-estimate the treatment efficacy of oral cefalexin in treating women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 3 years, women 20-80 years old with symptoms suggestive of uUTI (Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms Assessment symptom score, ,UTISA > 3) and bacteriuria (bacterial count ≥100/uL) were enrolled. After informed consent, patients took cephalexin 500mg 4 times/day for 7 days. The voided urine specimens were classified into rods or cocci/mixed group automatically through the built-in software of the UF1000i. Patients were followed up with UTISA on the 3rd day after treatment and returned to the clinic on the 7th day and followed for additional UTISA and urine analysis. Symptom and laboratory improvement were defined as UTISA <4 and bacterial count <100/uL, respectively, on the 7th day. RESULTS: Of 99 women (age: 49.91 ±15.32 years) eligible for analysis, 80 were classified as having urine that contained rods and 19 as cocci/mixed. Symptom improvement was observed in 62 women in the rods group and 11 women in the cocci/mixed group (p=0.08). Laboratory improvement was noted in 64 women in the rods group and 10 women in the cocci/mixed group (p=0.01). On day 7, treatment success with both symptom and laboratory improvement was more observed in rods than in cocci/mixed group (61.3% vs. 26.3%, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The automatic urine particle analyzer can pre-estimate the treatment response of antibiotics in women with uUTI.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7643209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337051

RESUMO

Background: The critical role of vascular health on brain function has received much attention in recent years. At the single-cell level, studies on the developmental processes of cerebral vascular growth are still relatively few. Techniques for constructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) based on single-cell transcriptome expression data have made significant progress in recent years. Herein, we constructed a single-cell transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cerebrovascular cells. Methods: The single-cell RNA-seq dataset of mouse brain vessels was downloaded from GEO (GSE98816). This cell clustering was annotated separately using singleR and CellMarker. We then used a modified version of the SCENIC method to construct GRNs. Next, we used a mouse version of SEEK to assess whether genes in the regulon were coexpressed. Finally, regulatory module analysis was performed to complete the cell type relationship quantification. Results: Single-cell RNA-seq data were used to analyze the heterogeneity of mouse cerebrovascular cells, whereby four cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, microglia, and oligodendrocytes were defined. These subpopulations of cells and marker genes together characterize the molecular profile of mouse cerebrovascular cells. Through these signatures, key transcriptional regulators that maintain cell identity were identified. Our findings identified genes like Lmo2, which play an important role in endothelial cells. The same cell type, for instance, fibroblasts, was found to have different regulatory networks, which may influence the functional characteristics of local tissues. Conclusions: In this study, a transcriptional regulatory network based on single-cell analysis was constructed. Additionally, the study identified and profiled mouse cerebrovascular cells using single-cell transcriptome data as well as defined TFs that affect the regulatory network of the mouse brain vasculature.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5633514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457116

RESUMO

This study sought to perform integrative analysis of the immune/methylation/autophagy landscape on breast cancer prognosis and single-cell genotypes. Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Score (BCRRS) and Breast Cancer Prognostic Risk Score (BCPRS) were determined based on 6 prognostic IMAAGs obtained from the TCGA-BRCA cohort. BCRRS and BCPRS, respectively, were used to construct a risk prediction model of overall survival and progression-free survival. Predictive capacity of the model was evaluated using clinical data. Analysis showed that BCRRS is associated with a high risk of stroke. In addition, PPI and drug-ceRNA networks based on differences in BCPRS were constructed. Single cells were genotyped through integrated scRNA-seq of the TNBC samples based on clustering results of BCPRS-related genes. The findings of this study show the potential regulatory effects of IMAAGs on breast cancer tumor microenvironment. High AUCs of 0.856 and 0.842 were obtained for the OS and PFS prognostic models, respectively. scRNA-seq analysis showed high expression levels of adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in high BCPRS clusters. Moreover, analysis of ligand-receptor interactions and potential regulatory mechanisms were performed. The LINC00276&MALAT1/miR-206/FZD4-Wnt7b pathway was also identified which may be useful in future research on targets against breast cancer metastasis and recurrence. Neural network-based deep learning models using BCPRS-related genes showed that these genes can be used to map the tumor microenvironment. In summary, analysis of IMAAGs, BCPRS, and BCRRS provides information on the breast cancer microenvironment at both the macro- and microlevels and provides a basis for development of personalized treatment therapy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(9): 5475-5482, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417650

RESUMO

Sequences targeted at the V3 and V4 16S rRNA hypervariable regions of a streptococcal strain (P1L01T) isolated from vaginal swabs of a pregnant woman with diabetes were 100% similar to those of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi. However, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA full-gene sequencing (1562 bp) revealed highest sequence similarity to Streptococcus periodonticum (98.7%), followed by Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi (98.7%), and Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus (98.4%). Phylogenies of housekeeping genes rpoB and groEL were compared to improve classification, and the results showed a clear separation between strain P1L01T and closely related Streptococcus type strains. The complete genome of strain P1L01T consisted of 2,108,769 bp with a G + C content of 38.5 mol%. Average nucleotide identity values, based on genome sequencing, between strain P1L01T and Streptococcus periodonticum KCOM 2412T, Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi CCUG 39159T, and Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus NCTC 10713T were 95.5%, 94.3%, and 95.3%, respectively. The highest in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value with respect to the closest species was 66.2%, i.e., below the species cutoff of 70% hybridization. The main cellular fatty acids of strain P1L01T were 16:0, 18:1ω7c, and 14:0. On the basis of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data, we propose to classify this isolate as representative of a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus vaginalis sp. nov., in reference to its isolation from vaginal swabs, with strain P1L01T (= NBRC 114754T = BCRC 81289T) as the type strain.

6.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 24, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the new flow cytometer UF-5000 with the UF-1000i and Gram staining for determining bacterial patterns in urine samples. METHODS: Women who attended our clinic with symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Mid-stream urine samples were collected for gram staining, urine analysis and urine cultures. Bacterial patterns were classified using the UF-1000i (none, cocci bacteria or rods/mixed growth), the UF-5000 (none, cocci, rods or mixed growth) and Gram staining. RESULTS: Among the 102 included samples, there were 10 g-positive cocci, 2 g-positive bacilli, 66 g-negative rods, and 24 mixed growth. The sensitivity/specificity of the UF-1000i was 81.8/91.1% for gram-negative rods and 23.5/96.9% for cocci/mixed. The sensitivity/specificity of the UF-5000 was 80.0/88.2% for gram negative rods and 70.0/86.5% for gram-positive cocci. CONCLUSIONS: The UF-5000 demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity for Gram-negative bacilli and demonstrated an improved sensitivity for detecting Gram-positive cocci compared with the UF-1000i.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Violeta Genciana , Fenazinas , Coloração e Rotulagem , Urinálise/instrumentação , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 24033-24056, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221762

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a serious public health problem associated with the loss of muscle mass and function. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers and construct a ceRNA pathway as a significant predictor of sarcopenia. We designed a prediction model to select important differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs), and constructed a sarcopenia associated ceRNA network. After correlation analysis of each element in the ceRNA network based on clinical samples and GTEX database, C2C12 mouse myoblasts were used as a model to verify the identified ceRNA pathways. A new model for predicting sarcopenia based on four molecular markers SEPP1, SV2A, GOT1, and GFOD1 was developed. The model was used to construct a ceRNA network and showed high accuracy. Correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of lncDLEU2, SEPP1, and miR-181a were closely associated with a high risk of sarcopenia. lncDLEU2 inhibits muscle differentiation and regeneration by acting as a miR-181a sponge regulating SEPP1 expression. In this study, a highly accurate prediction tool was developed to improve the prediction outcomes of sarcopenia. These findings suggest that the lncDLEU2-miR-181a-SEPP1 pathway inhibits muscle differentiation and regeneration. This pathway may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Regeneração , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Selenoproteína P/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Sarcopenia/patologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Selenoproteína P/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
8.
PeerJ ; 8: e9890, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974101

RESUMO

Background: To create a nomogram prediction model for the efficacy of endoscopic nasal septoplasty, and the likelihood of patient benefiting from the operation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 155 patients with nasal septum deviation (NSD) was performed to develop a predictive model for the efficacy of endoscopic nasal septoplasty. Quality of life (QoL) data was collected before and after surgery using Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) scores to evaluate the surgical outcome. An effective surgical outcome was defined as a SNOT-22 score change ≥ 9 points after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then used to establish a predictive model for the NSD treatment. The predictive quality and clinical utility of the predictive model were assessed by C-index, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis. Results: The identified risk factors for inclusion in the predictive model were included. The model had a good predictive power, with a AUC of 0.920 in the training group and a C index of 0.911 in the overall sample. Decision curve analysis revealed that the prediction model had a good clinical applicability. Conclusions: Our prediction model is efficient in predicting the efficacy of endoscopic surgery for NSD through evaluation of factors including: history of nasal surgery, preoperative SNOT-22 score, sinusitis, middle turbinate plasty, BMI, smoking, follow-up time, seasonal allergies, and advanced age. Therefore, it can be cost-effective for individualized preoperative assessment.

9.
Acta Cardiol Sin ; 36(5): 475-482, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952357

RESUMO

Background: Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) may cause ventricular dyssynchrony and lead to left atrium and ventricle mechanical abnormalities. Although ventricular cardiomyopathy due to PVCs has been well studied, little is known about atrial adaptation to PVCs. Objectives: To assess atrial and ventricular responses to PVC therapy. Methods: All patients with PVC burden > 5000 beats/day on Holter monitoring were enrolled. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, social habits, Holter parameters, and echocardiography profiles were recorded. Follow-up Holter electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography data were compared between PVC-treated and non-treated patients. Results: Two hundred and eighty-six patients were enrolled, of whom 139 received PVC treatment. Among the treated patients, 125 who underwent follow up Holter ECG or echocardiography were included in the final analysis. The mean follow-up times of Holter ECG and echocardiography were 9.40 ± 6.70 and 9.40 ± 5.52 months, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmic burden was significantly reduced in the treatment group (16.46% vs. 13.41%, p = 0.041) but was significantly increased in the observation group (7.58% vs. 14.95%, p = 0.032). A significant increase in left atrial (LA) diameter (36.94 mm vs. 39.46 mm, p = 0.025) and reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (57.26% vs. 53.8%, p = 0.040) were noted in the observation group. There were no significant differences in supraventricular arrhythmic burden in the observation group and LA diameter and LVEF in the treatment group. Conclusions: PVC therapy effectively reduced ventricular arrhythmic burden in the treatment group on follow-up. Our data suggest that PVC treatment may prevent LA dilation and LVEF decline.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(36): 40572-40580, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791830

RESUMO

Many heteroacenes have been extensively studied to improve device performances; however, the morphological effects stemmed from the chemical modification on a multiscale remain less explored. In this research, five axisymmetric S,N-heteropentacenes (DTPT, DTPT-Ph, DTPT-CN, DTPT-PYCN, and DTPT-BTCN) are studied to reveal the influences of molecular symmetry and end-capping substituents on the structure-property relationship, the thermal stability, crystallization behavior, film morphology, and OFET performance. Phase behavior was probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while the quality of the crystal array and structural details was investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). The analytic results reveal that (1) the parent axisymmetric S,N-heteropentacene, DTPT, is hard to crystallize, which hinders the preparation of high-quality crystal arrays for the OFET application. (2) The incorporation of π-conjugated electron-withdrawing (π-EW) endcaps that provide extended conjugation length and enhanced molecular polarity is required to form oriented crystal arrays to deliver reasonable OFET characteristics. (3) The π-EW endcaps with conformational freedom, such as -BTCN, due to the asymmetric feature of benzothiadiazole (BT), can hinder bulk phase crystallization and cause conformational disorder in the crystal array. Hence, the tradeoff of introducing the end-substituents to reinforce the poor crystalline nature of S,N-heteroacenes should be carefully considered.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(10): 9549-9584, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1) can inhibit the development of diabetic bone disease by promoting osteogenesis. In this study, we examined whether this regulation by SCD1 is achieved by regulating the expression of related miRNAs. METHODS: SCD1 expression levels were observed in human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the effect of SCD1 on osteogenesis was observed in human adipose-derived MSCs transfected with the SCD1 lentiviral system. We designed a bioinformatics prediction model to select important differentially expressed miRNAs, and established protein-protein interaction and miRNA-mRNA networks. miRNAs and mRNAs were extracted and their differential expression was detected. The SCD1-miRNA-mRNA network was validated. FINDINGS: SCD1 expression in bone marrow was downregulated in patients with T2DM and low-energy fracture, and SCD1 expression promotes BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation. The predictors in the nomogram were seven microRNAs, including hsa-miR-1908 and hsa-miR-203a. SCD1 inhibited the expression of CDKN1A and FOS, but promoted the expression of EXO1 and PLS1. miR-1908 was a regulator of EXO1 expression, and miR-203a was a regulator of FOS expression. INTERPRETATION: The regulation of BM-MSCs by SCD1 is a necessary condition for osteogenesis through the miR-203a/FOS and miR-1908/EXO1 regulatory pathways.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nomogramas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1585-1590, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228772

RESUMO

A novel lactic acid bacterium, strain MB7T, was isolated from lychee in Taiwan. MB7T is Gram-staining-positive, catalase-negative, non-motile, non-haemolytic, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid-shaped, heterofermentative and mainly produces d-lactic acid from glucose. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences has demonstrated that the novel strain represented a member of the genus Leuconostoc. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results indicated that MB7T had the same sequence similarity of 99.25 % to four type strains of members of the genus Leuconostoc: Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum DSM 20484T, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. jonggajibkimchii DRC 1506T, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293T and Leuconostoc suionicum DSM 20241T. Additionally, high 16S rRNA sequence similarities were also observed with Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC 19254T (99.12 %) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides NRIC 1777T (98.69 %). When comparing the genomes of these type strains, the average nucleotide identity values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of MB7T with these type strains were 76.57-80.53 and 22.0-22.6 %, respectively. MB7T also showed different phenotypic characteristics to other most closely related species of the genus Leuconostoc, such as carbohydrate metabolizing ability, halotolerance and growth at various pHs. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain MB7T represents a novel species belonging to the genus Leuconostoc, for which the name Leuconostoc litchii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MB7T (=BCRC 81077T=NBRC 113542T).


Assuntos
Frutas/microbiologia , Leuconostoc/classificação , Litchi/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan
13.
PeerJ ; 8: e8793, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328345

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop a risk prediction model for postoperative sarcopenia in elderly patients with patellar fractures in China. Patients and methods: We conducted a community survey of patients aged ≥55 years who underwent surgery for patellar fractures between January 2013 and October 2018, through telephone interviews, community visits, and outpatient follow-up. We established a predictive model for assessing the risk of sarcopenia after patellar fractures. We developed the prediction model by combining multivariate logistic regression analysis with the least absolute shrinkage model and selection operator regression (lasso analysis) as well as the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The predictive quality and clinical utility of the predictive model were determined using C-index, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis. We also conducted internal sampling methods for qualitative assessment. Result: We recruited 137 participants (53 male; mean age, 65.7 years). Various risk factors were assessed, and low body mass index and advanced age were identified as the most important risk factor (P < 0.05). The prediction rate of the model was good (C-index: 0.88; 95% CI [0.80552-0.95448]), with a satisfactory correction effect. The C index is 0.97 in the validation queue and 0.894 in the entire cohort. Decision curve analysis suggested good clinical practicability. Conclusion: Our prediction model shows promise as a cost-effective tool for predicting the risk of postoperative sarcopenia in elderly patients based on the following: advanced age, low body mass index, diabetes, less outdoor exercise, no postoperative rehabilitation, different surgical methods, diabetes, open fracture, and removal of internal fixation.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 3988-3995, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157880

RESUMO

Distinct spatiotemporal distributions of sea surface dissolved elemental mercury (DEM) and its air-sea exchange flux were observed in the river-dominated and monsoon-influenced East China Sea (ECS). Spatially, DEM concentrations were higher in the nearshore Changjiang diluted water (90 ± 20 to 260 ± 40 fM) than in the offshore Kuroshio water (60 ± 10 to 160 ± 40 fM) and correlated with salinity and total Hg concentrations, suggesting that the total Hg discharged from the Changjiang river is a controlling factor. In summer, monsoon-driven coastal upwelling formed a transient nearshore water mass with very elevated DEM concentrations (290 ± 20 to 320 ± 70 fM). Seasonally, DEM concentrations in all water masses were the highest in summer (120 ± 30 to 320 ± 70 fM). Estimated rate coefficients for DEM production varied seasonally and strongly correlated with sea surface temperature (SST). Hg0 evasion fluxes also peaked in summer (670 ± 380 pmol m-2 day-1), while in winter, DEM was close to equilibrium with gaseous elemental mercury in the atmosphere. Based on the air-sea Hg fluxes for all four seasons from this study and regional atmospheric deposition fluxes from others, we conclude that the ECS is a net sink of Hg annually, but it is a source of Hg to the atmosphere in summer. Moreover, the contribution of the ECS to Hg evasion may increase as a result of flood-associated high Changjiang discharge and rising SST.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Estações do Ano
15.
Science ; 367(6474): 171-175, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919217

RESUMO

Hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength steel is an obstacle for using these steels in sustainable energy production. Hydrogen embrittlement involves hydrogen-defect interactions at multiple-length scales. However, the challenge of measuring the precise location of hydrogen atoms limits our understanding. Thermal desorption spectroscopy can identify hydrogen retention or trapping, but data cannot be easily linked to the relative contributions of different microstructural features. We used cryo-transfer atom probe tomography to observe hydrogen at specific microstructural features in steels. Direct observation of hydrogen at carbon-rich dislocations and grain boundaries provides validation for embrittlement models. Hydrogen observed at an incoherent interface between niobium carbides and the surrounding steel provides direct evidence that these incoherent boundaries can act as trapping sites. This information is vital for designing embrittlement-resistant steels.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2724-2732, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846297

RESUMO

A strategic approach combining a new co-host system and low concentration of new thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters to make efficient blue TADF organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was developed. The benchmark TADF molecule, 4CzIPN, was adopted as a probe to examine the feasibility of a co-host composing of a hole transporter SimCP and an electron transporter oCF3-T2T. As a result, a sky blue device with 1 wt % 4CzIPN doped in SimCP:oCF3-T2T co-host exhibited 100% energy transfer and achieved a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) up to 26.1%. Importantly, this device showed a limited efficiency rolloff with an EQE of 24% at 1000 cd m-2. To further shift the emission toward blue, three new TADF molecules, 4CzIPN-CF3, 3CzIPN-H-CF3, and 3CzIPN-CF3, modified either by lowering the electron-withdrawing ability of the acceptor group or by reducing the number of carbazole donors of 4CzIPN, have been synthesized and characterized. Among them, 4CzIPN-CF3 and 3CzIPN-H-CF3 display hypsochromic shift emissions compared to that of 4CzIPN. These new compounds were then explored for their potential applications as TADF emitters. Blue TADF OLEDs with 1 wt % of 4CzIPN-CF3 and 3CzIPN-H-CF3 dispersed in SimCP:oCF3-T2T co-host achieved EQEs of 23.1 and 16.5% and retained high EQEs of 20.9 and 14.7% at 1000 cd m-2, respectively.

17.
Urol Oncol ; 37(5): 299.e7-299.e18, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic adaptation in cancer cells is important for cancer cell survival. Alternation in cellular metabolism getting more energy to support cell proliferation played a critical role in disease progression. We initially analyzed the public transcriptome of urothelial carcinoma in Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE31684) with particular focus on genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, and found that Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) was a significantly up-regulated gene associated with advanced disease status. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression and prognostic significance of CHI3L1 in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical study to evaluate CHI3L1 expression in 2 well-defined cohorts of urothelial carcinoma, including UTUC (n = 340) and UBUC (n = 295). CHI3L1 expression level was determined by H-score method. The associations between CHI3L1 expression and clinicopathological features, disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were analyzed. RESULTS: High expression of CHI3L1 was significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological features in UTUC or UBUC, including advanced tumor status (pT), nodal metastasis, high histological grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and high mitotic activity (all P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with high CHI3L1 expression had shorter DSS and MFS in both UTUC and UBUC (all P < 0.05). In multivariate survival analyses, high expression of CHI3L1 acted as an independent prognostic factor for worse DSS (P < 0.001 in UTUC and P = 0.036 in UBUC) and MFS (P = 0.002 in UTUC and P = 0.003 in UBUC) in both UTUC and UBUC groups. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of CHI3L1 was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and acted as an independent prognostic factor for worse outcome in urothelial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ureterais/genética , Neoplasias Ureterais/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/biossíntese , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Ureterais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
18.
J Food Drug Anal ; 26(2): 688-695, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567239

RESUMO

The serious cytotoxicity of tyramine attracted marked attention as it induced necrosis of human intestinal cells. This paper presented a novel and facile high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method tailored for screening tyramine in cheese. Separation was performed on glass backed silica gel plates, using methanol/ethyl acetate/ammonia (6/4/1 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Special efforts were focused on optimizing conditions (substrate preparation, laser wavelength, salt types and concentrations) of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements directly on plates after derivatization, which enabled molecule-specific identification of targeted bands. In parallel, fluorescent densitometry (FLD) scanning at 380

Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Densitometria/métodos , Microscopia Óptica não Linear/métodos , Tiramina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Neuroscience ; 377: 1-11, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482001

RESUMO

Both chemical and physical microenvironments appear to be important for lineage specification of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). However, physical factors such as the elastic modulus in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are seldom studied. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral edema after TBI may change the brain's physical microenvironment, which inhibits neural lineage specification of transplanted UCMSCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential regulatory effect of mild hypothermia on the elastic modulus of the injured brain. First, we found that more UCMSCs grown on gels mimicking the elastic modulus of the brain (0.5 kPa) differentiated into neural cells, which were verified with the formation of branched cells and the expression of neural markers. Then, UCMSCs were transplanted into TBI rats, and we observed that mild hypothermia resulted in the differentiation of more neurons and astrocytes from transplanted UCMSCs. To demonstrate that more neural specification of UCMSCs was due to the regulation of the elastic modulus, we monitored intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. The results showed that mild hypothermia significantly reduced intracranial pressure and brain water content, indicating modulation of the elastic modulus by mild hypothermia. An examination with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a cell injury model in vitro further verified hypothermia-regulated elastic modulus. In this study, we found a novel role of mild hypothermia in modulating the elastic modulus of the injured brain, resulting in the promotion of neural lineage specification of UCMSCs, which suggested that the combination of mild hypothermia had more advantages in cell-based therapy after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tecidos Suporte
20.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 10(2): 148-156, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177756

RESUMO

Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 607, isolated from persimmon fruit, was found to have high inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes and several other Gram-positive bacteria. Inhibitory substances were purified from culture supernatant by ion-exchange chromatography, Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Two antibacterial peptides were observed during the purification procedures. One of these peptides had a molecular size of 4623.05 Da and a partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of NH2-KNYGNGVHxTKKGxS, in which the YGNGV motif is specific for class IIa bacteriocins. A BLAST search revealed that this bacteriocin was similar to leucocin C from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Leucocin C-specific primers were designed and a single PCR product was amplified. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence has revealed a putative peptide differing by only one amino acid residue from the sequence of leucocin C. No identical peptide or protein has been reported in the literature, and this peptide, termed leucocin C-607, was therefore considered to be a new variant of leucocin C produced by Leuc. pseudomesenteroides 607. Another antibacterial peptide purified from the same culture supernatant had a molecular size of 3007.7 or 3121.97 Da. However, detailed information regarding this second peptide remains to be determined. Distinct characteristics, such as heat stability and inhibitory spectrum, were observed for the two bacteriocins produced by Leuc. pseudomesenteroides 607. These results suggested that Leuc. pseudomesenteroides 607 produces leucocin C-607 along with another unknown bacteriocin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Diospyros/microbiologia , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/química , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Frutas/microbiologia , Leuconostoc/classificação , Leuconostoc/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/enzimologia
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