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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(23)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885532

RESUMO

In this study, aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) thin films are used as the piezoelectric layers to fabricate solidly mounted resonators (SMR) for high frequency acoustic wave devices. AlGaN film is deposited on a Bragg reflector, composed of three pairs of Mo and SiO2 films, through a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering system at room temperature. The optimized deposition parameters of AlGaN film have a sputtering power of 175 W for Al target, sputtering power of 25 W for GaN target, N2 flow ratio (N2/Ar + N2) of 60%, and sputtering pressure of 10 mTorr. The obtained AlGaN film has a smooth surface, uniform crystal grains, and strong c-axis orientation. The contents of Al and Ga in the AlGaN film, analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) are 81% and 19%, respectively. Finally, the frequency response s11 of the obtained SMR device shows that the center frequency is 3.60 GHz, the return loss is about -8.62 dB, the electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) is 2.33%, the quality factor (Q) value is 96.93 and the figure of merit (FoM) value is 2.26.

2.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 157-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 21q(21q22.1→ qter) in fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and corpus callosum dysgenesis but escaped from the detection by cell free DNA testing was reported. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old, primigravida women, presented with intrauterine growth restriction and corpus callosum dysgenesis at 23 weeks of gestational age by anatomic ultrasound screening. The interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on amniocytes revealed monosomy 21, while the cytogenetic analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with CytoScan gene chip ascertained a 12.35 Mb deletion at 21q22.1q22.3. CONCLUSION: Although noninvasive prenatal testing is used extensively and can be applied to certain microdeletion diseases, the application for uncommon deletion disorders such as the present case remains limited. Prenatal examination with detailed ultra-sonography combined with different modalities of invasive prenatal testing can provide a more comprehensive information.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Monossomia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/embriologia , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Monossomia/genética , Gravidez
3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 9(4)2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718018

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (ARRTD) is a rare and lethal disorder that causes stillbirth or early neonatal death. Most of the reported cases are diagnosed postnatally by a histopathological hallmark of the absence or paucity of differentiated proximal tubules in kidneys. Prenatal diagnosis of ARRTD is challenging because only a few fetal features (e.g., oligohydramnios/anhydramnios, anuria) are associated with this condition. In this study, we report a fetus with ARRTD, which showed anhydramnios and invisible urinary bladder since the second trimester, followed by growth restriction and reversed end diastolic flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA-REDF). No morphological anomaly was detected on the fetal kidneys during an ultrasound scan. The baby died of refractory hypotension the day after their birth. Genetic analysis of genes that are involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which are the known genetic causes of ARRTD, identified a novel, biparental-origin homozygous c.857-619_1269+243delinsTTGCCTTGC mutation in the AGT gene. The mutation is considered as pathogenic because it is cosegregated with ARRTD and detected in other unrelated ARRTD families. Our findings link the fetal ultrasound manifestations to the ARRTD, highlighting clues that are useful for prenatal diagnosis, which warrants confirmatory genotyping of the RAAS genes including oligohydramnios/anhydramnios, anuria (absent filling of a fetal urinary bladder), MCA-REDF, and a morphologically normal kidney.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843829

RESUMO

Coplanar electrodes are used with the c-axis-oriented piezoelectric film to form the pure longitudinal mode and the pure shear mode solidly mounted resonators (SMRs). Aluminum and molybdenum are used as electrode materials to achieve different excitation pure shear mode and pure longitudinal mode. There is no need to make a bottom electrode or etch the piezoelectric layer, which simplifies the manufacturing and makes the structure stable. Furthermore, the cycle time of the process is significantly reduced. However, the control of the thickness of the Bragg reflectors, roughness control, and electrode photolithography are all challenging aspects of SMR manufacturing. In this study, ZnO piezoelectric film, which has a good electromechanical coupling factor and low transmission loss, was used as the c-axis-oriented piezoelectric film. An RF magnetron sputtering system was used to sputter a seed layer to encourage the growth of the zinc-oxide piezoelectric film and improve the c-axis orientation. The pure longitudinal mode and pure shear mode resonance signals were excited using the room temperature positive axis method. The quality factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the pure shear mode were 398% and 4.43%, respectively. The quality factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the pure longitudinal mode were 171% and 3.83%, respectively. Stability and feature recognition were accomplished in the pure longitudinal mode and the pure shear mode via a simplified and accelerated manufacturing process using electrodes with the same specifications.

5.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 275, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27251325

RESUMO

In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 6(3)2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344296

RESUMO

In this study, commercial-grade NiCr (80 wt % Ni, 20 wt % Cr) and NiCrSi (55 wt % Ni, 40 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Si) were used as targets and the sputtering method was used to deposit NiCr and NiCrSi thin films on Al2O3 and Si substrates at room temperature under different deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films were amorphous phase, and the field-effect scanning electronic microscope observations showed that only nano-crystalline grains were revealed on the surfaces of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin films. The log (resistivity) values of the NiCr and NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased approximately linearly as their thicknesses increased. We found that the value of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR value) of the NiCr thin-film resistors was positive and that of the NiCrSi thin-film resistors was negative. To investigate these thin-film resistors with a low TCR value, we designed a novel bi-layer structure to fabricate the thin-film resistors via two different stacking methods. The bi-layer structures were created by depositing NiCr for 10 min as the upper (or lower) layer and depositing NiCrSi for 10, 30, or 60 min as the lower (or upper) layer. We aim to show that the stacking method had no apparent effect on the resistivity of the NiCr-NiCrSi bi-layer thin-film resistors but had large effect on the TCR value.

7.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 10: 69, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25852365

RESUMO

Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) have been evaluated for use as biosensors because of their high sensitivity and small size. This study fabricated a novel human IgE biosensor using shear-mode FBAR devices with c-axis 23°-tilted AlN thin films. Off-axis radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used for deposition of c-axis 23°-tilted AlN thin films. The deposition parameters were adopted as working pressure of 5 mTorr, substrate temperature of 300°C, sputtering power of 250 W, and 50 mm distance between off-axis and on-axis. The characteristics of the AlN thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The frequency response was measured with an HP8720 network analyzer with a CASCADE probe station. The X-ray diffraction revealed (002) preferred wurtzite structure, and the cross-sectional image showed columnar structure with 23°-tilted AlN thin films. In the biosensor, an Au/Cr layer in the FBAR backside cavity was used as the detection layer and the Au surface was modified using self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) method. Then, the antigen and antibody were coated on biosensor through their high specificity property. Finally, the shear-mode FBAR device with k t (2) of 3.18% was obtained, and the average sensitivity for human IgE detection of about 1.425 × 10(5) cm(2)/g was achieved.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 8(10): 6752-6760, 2015 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793598

RESUMO

Resistors in integrated circuits (ICs) are implemented using diffused methods fabricated in the base and emitter regions of bipolar transistor or in source/drain regions of CMOS. Deposition of thin films on the wafer surface is another choice to fabricate the thin-film resistors in ICs' applications. In this study, Ni(55%)Cr(40%)Si(5%) (abbreviated as NiCrSi) in wt % was used as the target and the sputtering method was used to deposit the thin-film resistors on Al2O3 substrates. NiCrSi thin-film resistors with different thicknesses of 30.8 nm~334.7 nm were obtained by controlling deposition time. After deposition, the thin-film resistors were annealed at 400 °C under different durations in N2 atmosphere using the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. The sheet resistance of NiCrSi thin-film resistors was measured using the four-point-probe method from 25 °C to 125 °C, then the temperature coefficient of resistance could be obtained. We aim to show that resistivity of NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased with increasing deposition time (thickness) and the annealing process had apparent effect on the sheet resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance. We also aim to show that the annealed NiCrSi thin-film resistors had a low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 0 ppm/°C and +50 ppm/°C.

9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 177, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24725295

RESUMO

In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a physical mechanism mode to explain the origin of near-zero TCR for the TaN thin film resistor (TFR). Through current fitting, the carrier conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to surface scattering and finally to ohmic conduction for different TaN TFRs with different TaN microstructures. Experimental data of current-voltage measurement under successive increasing temperature confirm the conduction mechanism transition. A model of TaN grain boundary isolation ability is eventually proposed to influence the carrier transport in the TaN thin film resistor, which causes different current conduction mechanisms.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18467230

RESUMO

This study focused on the fabrication and the theoretical analysis of solidly mounted resonators (SMR) concerning dual-mode frequency responses and their frequency shift of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonance. For this device fabrication, RF/DC magnetron sputtering and photolithography were employed to constitute the required multilayer structure. For the theoretical analysis, the dualmode frequency shift was characterized by the Sauerbrey's formula, and a modified formula was carried out following the trend for the large frequency shift. In the fabrication of the SMR device, Mo/SiO2 was chosen to construct the Bragg reflector as the high/low acoustic impedance materials, respectively, and aluminum nitride (AlN) was used as a piezoelectric layer. To investigate the characteristics of BAW on the dual-mode frequency shift, the c-axis tilted angle of AlN was altered as well as the various mass loading on the SMR. Based on the experimental results, the dual-resonance frequencies showed a nonlinear decreasing trend with a linear increase of the mass loading. Therefore, a modified formula was carried out. Furthermore, the ratio of the longitudinal-resonant frequency to the shear-resonant frequency remained at a range around 1.76 despite the various c-axis tilted angles of AlN and gradual mass loading on the SMR. The electromechanical coupling coefficient, k2(eff), of the shear resonance rose with the increase of the c-axis tilted angle of AlN.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17941379

RESUMO

In this study, the Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (BZ1T9) thin films have been well deposited on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. The optimum radio frequency (RF) deposition parameters are developed, and the BZ1T9 thin films deposition at the optimum parameters have the maximum capacitance and dielectric constant of 4.4 nF and 190. As the applied voltage is increased to 8 V, the remnant polarization and coercive field of BZ1T9 thin films are about 4.5 microC/cm2 and 80 kV/cm. The counterclockwise current hysteresis and memory window of n-channel thin-film transistor property are observed, and that can be used to indicate the switching of ferroelectric polarization of BZ1T9 thin films. One-transistor-capacitor (1TC) structure of BZ1T9 ferroelectric random access memory device using bottom-gate amorphous silicon thin-film transistor was desirable because of the smaller size and better sensitivity. The BZ1T9 ferroelectric RAM devices with channel width = 40 microm and channel length = 8 microm has been successfully fabricated and the ID-VG transfer characteristics also are investigated in this study.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bário/química , Dispositivos de Armazenamento em Computador , Capacitância Elétrica , Nanoestruturas/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Eletroquímica/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Membranas Artificiais , Volatilização
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17441589

RESUMO

The solidly mounted resonator (SMR) is fabricated using planar processes from a piezoelectric layer sandwiched between two electrodes upon Bragg reflectors, which then are attached to a substrate. To transform the effective acoustic impedance of the substrate to a near zero value, the Bragg reflectors are composed of alternating high and low acoustic impedance layers of quarter-wavelength thickness. This paper presents the influence of Bragg reflector surface roughness on the resonance characteristics of an SMR. Originally, an A1N/A1 multilayer is used as the Bragg reflector. The poor surface roughness of this Bragg reflector results in a poor SMR frequency response. To improve the surface roughness of Bragg reflectors, a molybdenum (Mo)/titanium (Ti) multilayer with a similar coefficient of thermal expansion is adopted. By controlling deposition parameters, the surface roughness of the Bragg reflector is improved, and better resonance characteristics of SMR are obtained.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Teóricos , Refratometria/instrumentação , Transdutores , Simulação por Computador , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16529127

RESUMO

A nontoxic proton source, octanoic acid, was adopted to fabricate proton-exchanged (PE) waveguides in 36 degrees Y-X lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) substrates. The PE ability of octanoic acid on LiTaO3, the penetration depth, was investigated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The penetration depth of hydrogen ion exhibited an obviously step-like profile, which will be excellent for waveguide application. The relationship between waveguide depth (d) and exchanging time (t) was represented by d = 0.0653 X square root of t at T = 200 degrees C. To deserve to be mentioned, the octanoic acid has a slight dissociation coefficient and low activation energy, thus the accurate waveguide depth control can be obtained. For the application of acoustic wave guided acousto-optic devices, the leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) properties of PE 36 degrees Y-X LiTaO3 waveguides were investigated. The phase velocity slightly decreased with the increase of kd, where k was wavenumber. An indispensable parameter of acoustic wave device, the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF), calculated from the frequency change of the output of LSAW delay line showed an increase with increased kd.


Assuntos
Lítio/análise , Lítio/química , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/química , Tantálio/análise , Tantálio/química , Transdutores , Transferência de Energia , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Prótons
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15857060

RESUMO

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of proton-exchanged (PE) z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguides with silicon dioxide (SiO2) film layers were investigated using octanoic acid. The distribution of hydrogen measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed a step-like profile, which was assumed to be equal to the waveguide depth (d). The SiO2 film was deposited on z-cut LiNbO3 waveguide by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. We investigated the important parameters for the design of SAW devices such as phase velocity (Vp), insertion loss (IL) and temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) by a network analyzer using thin-film aluminum interdigital transducer electrodes on the upper SiO2 film surface. The experimental results showed that the Vp of SAW decreased slightly with the increase of h/lambda, where h was the thickness of SiO2 films and lambda was the wavelength. The IL of SAW increased with increased h/lambda. The TCF of SAW calculated from the frequency change of the output of SAW delay line showed an evident decrease with the increase of h/lambda. The TCF for PE z-cut LiNbO3 was measured to be about -54.72 ppm/degreees C at h/lambda = 0.08. It revealed that the SiO2 films could compensate and improve the temperature stability as compared with the TCF of SAW on PE samples without SiO2 film.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12952086

RESUMO

The novel pyroelectric IR detectors have been fabricated using the Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)/Lead Titanate (PT) pyroelectric bilayer thin films, which were deposited onto Pt(111)/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by a sol-gel process. The ceramic/polymer structure was constructed of the randomly oriented polycrystalline PT film (approximately 1 microm) heated at 700 degrees C for 1 h and the beta-phase PVDF film crystallized at 65 degrees C for 2 h. The effects of PVDF thin film thickness (100 approximately 580 nm) on the pyroelectric response of IR detectors were studied. The results show that the depositions of PVDF thin films onto the PT films will cause the leakage current (J) of the detectors decrease from 6.37 x 10(-7) A/cm2 to 3.86 x 10(-7) A/cm2. The specific detectivity (D*) measured at 100 Hz decreased from 2.72 x 10(7) cm x Hz(1/2)/W for detector without PVDF to 1.71 x 10(7) cm x Hz(1/2)/W for detector with PVDF thickness of 580 nm. By optimizing the ratio of the specific detectivity (D*) to leakage current, D*/J, the detector with PVDF thickness of 295 nm exhibits the best performance.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12322884

RESUMO

The c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AIN) films were deposited on z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline orientation of the AIN film determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be dependent on the deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, N2 concentration, and sputtering pressure. Highly c-axis-oriented AIN films to fabricate the AIN/LiNbO3-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were obtained under a sputtering pressure of 3.5 mTorr, N2 concentration of 60%, RF power of 165 W, and substrate temperature of 400 degrees C. A dense pebble-like surface texture of c-axis-oriented AIN film was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) of SAW were measured to be about 4200 m/s and 1.5%, respectively. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of SAW was calculated to be about -66 ppm/ degrees C.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Compostos de Alumínio/química , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Micro-Ondas , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura , Transdutores
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