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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618810

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), a contagious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae), poses a major global threat to the health of humans and many species of animals. Developing an ante-mortem detection technique for different species would be of significance in improving the surveillance employing a One Health strategy. To achieve this goal, a universal indirect ELISA was established for serologically detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection for multiple live hosts by using a fusion protein of MPB70, MPB83, ESAT6, and CFP10 common in M. tb, M. bovis, and M. caprae as the coating antigen (MMEC) and HRP-labeled fusion protein A and G as a secondary antibody. After testing the known positive and negative sera, the receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to decide the cut-off values. Then, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MMEC/AG-iELISA were determined as 100.00% (95% CI: 96.90%, 100.00%) and 100.00% (95% CI: 98.44%, 100.00%) for M. bovis infection of cattle, 100.00% (95% CI: 95.00%, 100.00%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.80%, 100.00%) for M. bovis infection of sheep, 90.74% (95% CI: 80.09%, 95.98%) and 98.63% (95% CI: 95.14%, 99.76%) for M. bovis infection of cervids, 100.00% (95% CI: 15.81%, 100.00%) and 98.81% (95% CI: 93.54%, 99.97%) for M. bovis infection of monkeys, 100.00% (95% CI: 86.82%, 100.00%) and 94.85% (95% CI: 91.22%, 97.03%) for M. tb infection of humans. Furthermore, this MMEC/AG-iELISA likely detects M. caprae infection in roe deer. Thus this method has a promising application in serological TB surveillance for multiple animal species thereby providing evidence for taking further action in TB control.

2.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105477, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482152

RESUMO

Abattoir surveillance is an integral component of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in Wuhan, China and to further assess two diagnostic procedures as an adjunct to the confirmation of M. bovis in animals with TB-like lesions. The study was conducted in an abattoir located in Wuhan, China over a period of 41 days from June to July 2019. A total of 171 culled adult dairy cows were sampled and inspected, and blood samples collected from 134 of these. The viscera and lymph nodes of the carcasses were visually inspected and palpated for TB-like lesions. A total of 28.1 % (48/171) of the carcasses had gross TB-like lesions. 89.6 % (43/48) of the animals with TB-like lesions were positive to a PCR procedure for bTB. The sensitivity and specificity for post-mortem examination for TB-like lesions using a Bayesian latent class analysis model was estimated to be 60.8 % and 86.6 %, respectively. A seroprevalence of 20.9 % (28/134) was recorded for antibody response to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 based on an ELISA procedure. There was a low-moderate agreement between the ELISA and PCR results in the detection of bTB (Kappa = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.24-0.67). The study confirms a high prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in the abattoir and highlights the need to implement surveillance for bTB based on post-mortem examination and ELISA and PCR methods in association with backward tracing of infected dairy herds.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575880

RESUMO

Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are two common pathogenic microorganisms that cause mastitis in dairy cows. They can cause clinical mastitis and subclinical mastitis. In recent studies, lncRNAs have been found to play an important role in the immune responses triggered by microbial inducers. However, the actions of lncRNAs in bovine mastitis remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine mammary epithelial cell injuries induced by treatment with E. coli and S. aureus, and to explore the lncRNA profile on cell injuries. The lncRNA transcriptome analysis showed a total of 2597 lncRNAs. There were 2234 lncRNAs differentially expressed in the E. coli group and 2334 in the S. aureus group. Moreover, we found that the E. coli and S. aureus groups of maternal genes targeted signaling pathways with similar functions according to KEGG and GO analyses. Two lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were constructed in order to predict the potential molecular mechanisms of regulation in the cell injuries. We believe that this is the first report demonstrating the dysregulation of lncRNAs in cells upon E. coli and S. aureus infections, suggesting that they have the potential to become important diagnostic markers and to provide novel insights into controlling and preventing mastitis.

4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424158

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) belongs to genus Mamastravirus (MAstV). It can be detected in the faeces of both diarrhoeal and healthy calves. However, its prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with cattle diarrhoea are poorly understood. In this study, faecal samples of 87 diarrhoeal and 77 asymptomatic calves from 20 farms in 12 provinces were collected, and BoAstV was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence rate of this virus in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic calves was 55.17 % (95 % CI: 44.13, 65.85 %) and 36.36 % (95 % CI: 25.70, 48.12 %), respectively, indicating a correlation between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.15, P=0.024). BoAstV existed mainly in the form of co-infection (85.53 %) with one to five of nine viruses, and there was a strong positive correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.83, P=0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed this correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.41, P=0.038). The co-infection of BoAstV and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with or without other viruses accounted for 70.77 % of all the co-infection cases. The diarrhoea risk for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and BRV was 8.14-fold higher than that for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and other viruses (OR=8.14, P=0.001). Further, the co-infection of BoAstV/BRV/bovine kobuvirus (BKoV) might increase the risk of calf diarrhoea by 14.82-fold, compared with that of BoAstV and other viruses (OR=14.82, P <0.001). Then, nearly complete genomic sequences of nine BoAstV strains were assembled by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. Sequence alignment against known astrovirus (AstV) strains at the levels of both amino acids and nucleotides showed a high genetic diversity. Four genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes MAstV-28 (n=3) and MAstV-33 (n=2) and two novel genotypes designated tentatively as MAstV-34 (n=1) and MAstV-35 (n=3). In addition, seven out of nine BoAstV strains showed possible inter-genotype recombination and cross-species recombination. Therefore, our results increase the knowledge about the prevalence and the genetic evolution of BoAstV and provide evidence for the association between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Diarreia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Prevalência
5.
Immunol Lett ; 238: 21-28, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228988

RESUMO

Lifelong immunosuppression use presents many serious side effects to transplant recipients. Previous studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) regulate the progress of inflammation and protect allograft function. However, the benefits of MSC combined with low-dose tacrolimus (FK506) has not been investigated in heart transplant recipients, and its mechanism deserves further investigation. SD Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were infused into recipient mouse (C57BL/6, B6) through the tail vein, followed by a BALB/c donor cervical ectopic heart transplantation on the next day of infusion. T-lymphocyte subsets and their functions were determined using flow cytometry, ELISA, and qPCR. Thereafter, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to identify the mechanisms regarding MSC and FK506 combination (MF group) use in regulating IFN-γ signaling. MF group in the allogeneic heart transplantation mouse model inhibited acute rejection and prolonged mean survival time (MST) of grafts from 7 days (d) to 22d. Pathological examination of heart grafts suggested that inflammatory cell infiltration decreased, and tissue damage was significantly reduced in the MF group. IFN-γ mRNA expression levels in the grafts and recipients decreased, while IL-4 and TGF-ß mRNA expression increased in the MF group. Phosphorylation of TBK1/IRF3 in recipient immune cells decreased under donor antigen stimulation. Combination use of MSC and FK506 can prolong graft survival, possibly by down-regulating TBK1/IRF3 phosphorylation, thus reducing IFN-γ production to prevent infiltration of inflammatory cells in the graft and extend graft survival. The findings provide a potential new approach to immunosuppression selection.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200743

RESUMO

Mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows that is mostly caused by E. coli, and it brings massive losses to the dairy industry. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A), a methylation at the N6 position of RNA adenine, is a type of modification strongly associated with many diseases. However, the role of m6A in mastitis has not been investigated. In this study, we used MeRIP-seq to sequence the RNA of bovine mammary epithelial cells treated with inactivated E. coli for 24 h. In this in vitro infection model, there were 16,691 m6A peaks within 7066 mRNA transcripts in the Con group and 10,029 peaks within 4891 transcripts in the E. coli group. Compared with the Con group, 474 mRNAs were hypermethylated and 2101 mRNAs were hypomethylated in the E. coli group. Biological function analyses revealed differential m6A-modified genes mainly enriched in the MAPK, NF-κB, and TGF-ß signaling pathways. In order to explore the relationship between m6A and mRNA expression, combined MeRIP-seq and mRNA-seq analyses revealed 212 genes with concomitant changes in the mRNA expression and m6A modification. This study is the first to present a map of RNA m6A modification in mastitis treated with E. coli, providing a basis for future research.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metilação de DNA , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite Bovina/genética , Adenosina/química , Animais , Bovinos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia
7.
Vaccine ; 39(30): 4184-4189, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127292

RESUMO

Infectious diseases can have a major impact on the profitability of the cattle industry. To determine the occurrence of bovine infectious diseases in China and the adoption of vaccination to control them, a national-wide questionnaire and focus group meeting were performed. The questionnaire was administered to 189 farmers including 93 dairy farmers, 80 beef cattle farmers and 16 yak farmers. Since it is compulsory to vaccinate cattle against foot and mouth disease, the coverage of vaccination to this disease was the highest (100% of dairy and yak farms and 92.5% of beef farms). However, the implementation of vaccination against other diseases was vastly different between cattle types with less than 50% of farms adopting vaccination (except brucellosis vaccine in yak farms). In a focus group meeting of 36 cattle experts on the key issues affecting the frequency of infectious diseases in cattle and the vaccination practices adopted on Chinese cattle farms, the lack of effective vaccines against single or multiple pathogens, a lack of tools for the early and correct diagnosis of disease, difficulties in licensing novel vaccines and diagnostic agents, low efficiency in disseminating knowledge on diseases and control products to producers were identified as key issues. In conclusion, except for FMD, the control of most infectious diseases of cattle in China requires improving. Development of improved control measures and diagnostic tests along with the development and implementation of educational material for producers on cattle diseases should be given priority.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
8.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(4): 800-810, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705114

RESUMO

The modulation of the interaction between macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) through microRNA during M.tb infection is increasingly capturing the attention of researchers. However, the potential role of microRNA-18b-5p (miR-18b) is not elucidated yet. In this study, miR-18b was found to be downregulated in M.tb-infected macrophage cell lines (THP-1 and RAW264.7) in time- and dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, when the miR-18b mimic and inhibitor and small interfering RNA hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (si-HIF-1α) were transfected into the macrophages separately or in combination, it was found that miR-18b targeted hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). During M.tb infection, the decrease in the expression of miR-18b facilitated HIF-1α expression, which led to the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, resulting in decreased bacterial survival in the host cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 was activated by the miR-18b inhibitor. Our findings expand the current understanding of the M.tb-cell interaction mechanism and provide a potential target to control M.tb infection.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , MicroRNAs , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 616074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732240

RESUMO

Berberine, which is a traditional Chinese medicine can inhibit tumorigenesis by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. However, the immunoregulatory of effects berberine on T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we first examined whether berberine can prolong allograft survival by regulating the recruitment and function of T cells. Using a major histocompatibility complex complete mismatch mouse heterotopic cardiac transplantation model, we found that the administration of moderate doses (5 mg/kg) of berberine significantly prolonged heart allograft survival to 19 days and elicited no obvious berberine-related toxicity. Compared to that with normal saline treatment, berberine treatment decreased alloreactive T cells in recipient splenocytes and lymph node cells. It also inhibited the activation, proliferation, and function of alloreactive T cells. Most importantly, berberine treatment protected myocardial cells by decreasing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration and by inhibiting T cell function in allografts. In vivo and in vitro assays revealed that berberine treatment eliminated alloreactive T lymphocytes via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was validated by transcriptome sequencing. Taken together, we demonstrated that berberine prolongs allograft survival by inducing apoptosis of alloreactive T cells. Thus, our study provides more evidence supporting the potential use of berberine in translational medicine.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Coração , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Blood Adv ; 5(5): 1224-1238, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646304

RESUMO

Gene therapy may lead to a cure for hemophilia B (HB) if it is successful. Data from clinical trials using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated liver-targeted FIX gene therapy are very encouraging. However, this protocol can be applied only to adults who do not have liver disease or anti-AAV antibodies, which occur in 30% to 50% of individuals. Thus, developing a protocol that can be applied to all HB patients is desired. Our previous studies have demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated platelet-specific FIX (2bF9) gene therapy can rescue bleeding diathesis and induce immune tolerance in FIXnull mice, but FIX expression was only ∼2% to 3% in whole blood. To improve the efficacy, we used a codon-optimized hyperfunctional FIX-Padua (2bCoF9R338L) to replace the 2bF9 cassette, resulting in 70% to 122% (35.08-60.77 mU/108 platelets) activity levels in 2bCoF9R338L-transduced FIXnull mice. Importantly, sustained hyperfunctional platelet-FIX expression was achieved in all 2bCoF9R338L-transduced highly immunized recipients with activity levels of 18.00 ± 9.11 and 9.36 ± 12.23 mU/108 platelets in the groups treated with 11 Gy and 6.6 Gy, respectively. The anti-FIX antibody titers declined with time, and immune tolerance was established after 2bCoF9R338L gene therapy. We found that incorporating the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib into preconditioning can help eliminate anti-FIX antibodies. The bleeding phenotype in 2bCoF9R338L-transduced recipients was completely rescued in a tail bleeding test and a needle-induced knee joint injury model once inhibitors dropped to undetectable. The hemostatic efficacy in 2bCoF9R338L-transduced recipients was further confirmed by ROTEM and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Together, our studies suggest that 2bCoF9R338L gene therapy can be a promising protocol for all HB patients, including patients with inhibitors.


Assuntos
Hemofilia B , Animais , Plaquetas , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia Genética , Hemofilia B/genética , Hemofilia B/terapia , Camundongos
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 619362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659004

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis causes important diseases and great losses on feedlots and dairy farms. However, there are only a few measures to control M. bovis-related diseases. As in other mycoplasma species, this is predominantly because the virulence related factors of this pathogen are largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel virulence-related factors among the secreted proteins of M. bovis. Using bioinformatic tools to analyze its secreted proteins, we preliminarily predicted 39 secreted lipoproteins, and then selected 11 of them for confirmation based on SignalP scores >0.6 or SceP scores >0.8 and conserved domains. These 11 genes were cloned after gene modification based on the codon bias of Escherichia coli and expressed. Mouse antiserum to each recombinant protein was developed. A western blotting assay with these antisera confirmed that MbovP280 and MbovP475 are strongly expressed and secreted proteins, but only MbovP280 significantly reduced the viability of bovine macrophages (BoMac). In further experiments, MbovP280 induced the apoptosis of BoMac treated with both live M. bovis and MbovP280 protein. The conserved coiled-coil domain of MbovP280 at amino acids 210-269 is essential for its induction of apoptosis. Further, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and coimmunoprecipitation assays identified the anti-apoptosis regulator αB-crystallin (CRYAB) as an MbovP280-binding ligand. An αß-crystallin knockout cell line BoMac-cryab-, Mbov0280-knockout M. bovis strain T9.297, and its complemented M. bovis strain CT9.297 were constructed and the apoptosis of BoMac-cryab- induced by these strains was compared. The results confirmed that CRYAB is critical for MbovP280 function as an apoptosis inducer in BoMac. In conclusion, in this study, we identified MbovP280 as a novel secreted protein of M. bovis that induces the apoptosis of BoMac via its coiled-coil domain and cellular ligand CRYAB. These findings extend our understanding of the virulence mechanism of mycoplasmal species.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma bovis/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Ligantes , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/metabolismo
12.
Macromol Biosci ; 21(4): e2000382, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522144

RESUMO

Host defense systems can invade viral infection through immune responses and cellular metabolism. Recently, many studies have shown that cellular metabolism can be reprogrammed through N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modifications during viral infection. Among of them, methyltransferase like-14 enzyme (METTL14) plays an important role in m6 A RNA modification, yet its antiviral function still remains unclear. In this work, it is uncovered that metal-protein nanoparticles designated GSTP1-MT3(Fe2+ ) (MPNP) can polarize macrophages toward the M1 phenotype and activate immune responses to induce Interferon-beta (IFN-ß) production in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected macrophages. Further investigation elucidates that a high dose of IFN-ß can promote the expression of METTL14, which has a well anti-VSV capacity. Moreover, it is found that other negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, such as influenza viruses (H1N1(WSN)), can also be inhibited through either immune responses or METTL14. Collectively, these findings provide insights into the antiviral function of METTL14 and suggest that the manipulation of METTL14 may be a potential strategy to intervene with other negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infections.

13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 89: 104715, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434703

RESUMO

Rotaviruses (RVs) account for severe diarrhea in children and young animals globally. In the current study, the fecal samples of diarrheic calves from a beef farm in Inner Mongolia were screened for RVA by ELISA and RT-PCR, followed by culture of three positive RVA samples in the MA-104 cell line. After 10 blind passages, cytopathic effects (CPE) appeared as detachment, granulation, and clustering of the inoculated cells. The virus isolates were identified by RT-PCR (VP6 gene RVA) and ESI-LC-MS/MS for whole protein sequencing. The protein sequences demonstrated the presence of two strains from species A rotavirus and one RVB strain; RVA/Cow-tc/CHN/35333/2019/G6P[5] was mixed with one RVB strain (RVB/Cow-tc/CHN/35334/2019/G5P[3]) in two samples, and RVA/Cow-tc/CHN/10927/2019/G8P[7] was found in one sample. They are of genotype constellations (G6-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3), (G8-P[7]-I5-R1-C1- M2-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1), and (G5-P[3]-I3-R5-C5-A5-N4-H5), respectively. Besides, phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences demonstrated viral evolution.

14.
J Sex Med ; 18(3): 487-492, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal flatus is involuntarily passing gas from the vagina. Women seldom voluntarily report it, and related data are limited. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of vaginal flatus in women with pelvic floor disorders and its impact on sexual function. METHODS: This was an observational study involving women who visited a urogynecologic clinic in a tertiary medical center. Patients were asked about their experience of vaginal flatus. Other evaluations included urodynamics, genital prolapse stage, and quality-of-life questionnaires, including the short form of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, Urogenital Distress Inventory, and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire. OUTCOMES: Clinical characteristics, vaginal anatomic landmarks, stage of prolapse, urodynamic parameters, and quality-of-life scores were compared between women with and without vaginal flatus. RESULTS: Among 341 women, 118 (35%) reported vaginal flatus, which was more common in those who were younger (a mean age of 49.3 ± 9.2 years; range 25-74 years vs 49.3 ± 9.2 years; range 25-74 years, P < .001) and sexually active (98% vs 55%, P < .001). Women with vaginal flatus had significantly worse sexual function (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, 16.3 ± 15.9 vs 30.9 ± 8.0, P < .001) and incontinence-related quality of life (Urogenital Distress Inventory, 23.4 ± 10.5 vs 17.8 ± 8.9, P = .039; Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, 25.5 ± 14.5 vs 17.2 ± 12.5, P = .012). For frequency and bother, 48 of 116 (46%) women reported often or always having symptoms during sexual activity, 5 of 34 (15%) when performing daily activities, and 4 of 31 (12%) when exercising, and 70 of 116 (60%) felt least moderate bothersome during sexual activity compared with 2 of 34 (5%) when performing daily activities and 6 of 31 (18%) when exercising. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Vaginal flatus is prevalent in women with pelvic floor disorders, particularly in those who are younger and sexually active. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: The strength of this study is to evaluate the sexual function with validated questionnaires. The lack of data after pelvic floor management is the major limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with pelvic floor disorders, those with vaginal flatus reported poorer sexual function. Routine counseling should be considered for these patients. Lau H-H, Su T-H, Chen Y-Y, et al. The Prevalence of Vaginal Flatus in Women With Pelvic Floor Disorders and Its Impact on Sexual Function. J Sex Med 2021;18:487-492.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Flatulência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/complicações , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/epidemiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/complicações , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Methods ; 189: 34-43, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949692

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes and diseases. With the rise of the whole genome bisulfite sequencing technique, aberrant methylation patterns can now be detected by comparing paired normal and disease samples at the single nucleotide level. We develop a novel Bayesian method for detecting differentially methylated regions from paired bisulfite sequencing data, and implement it as a R package called BSDMR. Based on a non-homogeneous hidden Markov model, BSDMR provides a better modeling strategy for the spatial correlation between CpG sites and takes into consideration the relationship between methylation signals from normal and disease samples. Simulations show that BSDMR performs well even under low read depth and has a smaller false discovery rates than existing methods. We also apply BSDMR to the colon cancer data from Gene Expression Omnibus. The detected DMRs are well supported by existing biomedical literatures.

16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(2): 450-461, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977009

RESUMO

AIMS: Eva-1 homologue 1 (Eva1a) is a novel protein involved in the regulation of cardiac remodelling and plaque stability, but little is known about its role in re-endothelialization and the development of atherosclerosis (AS). Thus, in the present study, we aimed to elucidate the function of Eva1a in re-endothelialization and AS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wire injuries of carotid and femoral arteries were established in Eva1a-/- mice. Eva1a-deficient mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E-/- (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate AS development and re-endothelialization of carotid artery injuries. Denudation of the carotid artery at 3, 5, and 7 days was significantly aggravated in Eva1a-/- mice. The neointima of the femoral artery at 14 and 28 days was consequently exacerbated in Eva1a-/- mice. The area of atherosclerotic lesions was increased in Eva1a-/-ApoE-/- mice. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we performed transwell, scratch migration, cell counting kit-8, and bromodeoxyuridine assays using cultured human aorta endothelial cells (HAECs), which demonstrated that EVA1A promoted HAEC migration and proliferation. Proteomics revealed that the level of actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B (Arpc1b) was decreased, while Eva1a expression was absent. Arpc1b was found to be a downstream molecule of EVA1A by small interfering RNA transfection assay. Activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases was also regulated by EVA1A. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into anti-atherogenesis effects of Eva1a by promoting endothelium repair. Thus, Eva1a is a promising therapeutic target for AS.

17.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(1): 17-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are commonly encountered in postmenopausal women. Optimal non-antimicrobial prophylaxis for rUTIs is an important health issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of estrogen in the prevention of rUTIs versus placebo. METHODS: Eligible studies published up to December 2019 were retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Systematic Reviews. We included randomized controlled trials of estrogen therapies versus placebo regarding the outcomes of preventing rUTIs. Changes in vaginal pH and estrogen-associated adverse events were also analyzed. RESULTS: Eight studies including 4702 patients (2367 who received estrogen and 2335 who received placebo) were identified. Five studies including 1936 patients evaluated the use of vaginal estrogen, which resulted in a significant reduction in rUTIs (relative risk, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.30-0.59). Three studies including 2766 patients evaluated the outcomes of oral estrogen in the prevention of UTIs and showed no significant difference in the number of rUTIs compared to treatment with placebo (relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92-1.35). Two studies reviewed changes in vaginal pH and showed a lower pH (mean difference, -1.81; 95% CI, -3.10--0.52) after vaginal estrogen therapy. Adverse events associated with vaginal estrogen were reported, including vaginal discomfort, irritation, burning, and itching. There was no significance increase in the vaginal estrogen group (relative risk, 3.06; 95% CI, 0.79-11.90). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, vaginal estrogen treatment could reduce the number of rUTIs and lower the vaginal pH in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Pós-Menopausa , Infecções Urinárias , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
18.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(1): 354-365, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510630

RESUMO

Our previous studies have demonstrated that platelet-targeted factor IX (FIX) gene therapy can introduce sustained platelet-FIX expression in hemophilia B (FIXnull ) mice. In this study, we aimed to enhance platelet-FIX expression in FIXnull mice with O6 -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT)-mediated in vivo drug selection of transduced cells under nonmyeloablative preconditioning. We constructed a novel lentiviral vector (2bF9/MGMT lentivirus vector), which harbors dual genes, the FIX gene driven by the αIIb promoter (2bF9) and the MGMT P140K gene under the murine stem cell virus promoter. Platelet-FIX expression in FIXnull mice was introduced by 2bF9/MGMT-mediated hematopoietic stem cell transduction and transplantation. The 2bF9/MGMT-transduced cells were effectively enriched after drug selection by O6 -benzylguanine/1,3-bis-2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea. There were a 2.9-fold higher FIX antigen and a 3.7-fold higher FIX activity in platelets, respectively, posttreatment compared with pretreatment. When a 6-hr tail bleeding test was used to grade the bleeding phenotype, the clotting time in treated animals was 2.6 ± 0.5 hr. In contrast, none of the FIXnull control mice were able to clot within 6 hr. Notably, none of the recipients developed anti-FIX antibodies after gene therapy. One of four recipients developed a low titer of inhibitors when challenged with rhF9 together with adjuvant. In contrast, all FIXnull controls developed inhibitors after the same challenge. Anti-FIX immunoglobulin G were barely detectable in recipients (1.08 ± 0.54 µg/ml), an 875-fold lower level than in the FIXnull controls. Our data demonstrate that using the MGMT-mediated drug selection system in 2bF9 gene therapy can significantly enhance therapeutic platelet-FIX expression, resulting in sustained phenotypic correction and immune tolerance in FIXnull mice.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Hemofilia B/genética , Animais , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/genética , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transdução Genética/métodos
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118288

RESUMO

Brucellosis has re-emerged in China in recent years, resulting in an increasing health burden and economic losses for humans and the livestock industries. This study integrated data from human and livestock brucellosis surveillance systems to explore the changing epidemiology of brucellosis from 2004 to 2018 in China. A total of 524,980 human cases of brucellosis were reported, with the average annual incidence in humans being significantly higher for the period 2012-2018 than for 2004-2011 (3.3 vs. 1.9 per 100,000 residents). An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model predicted an upward trend in the monthly incidence of brucellosis in humans in 2019 and 2020. Characteristics including being male, aged 45-54 years, working in the livestock industries, and residing in the northern provinces of China increased the risk of people contracting brucellosis. The percentage of provinces with infected people increased from 67.7% (21/31) in 2004 to all provinces in 2018. A total of 29,115 outbreaks were reported in livestock from 2004 to 2018, with 443,883 seropositive animals although only 381,224 (85.9%) of these were culled. The monthly incidence of brucellosis in humans was strongly positively correlated (r = .539, p < .001) with the number of outbreaks of brucellosis in livestock reported 3 months prior to the human cases. At the provincial level, the annual incidence of brucellosis in humans was significantly positively correlated with the sheep population (r = .786, p < .01). In conclusion, brucellosis in humans and livestock has been spreading in mainland China in the past decade. A more active surveillance of brucellosis in both livestock and humans in China should be coordinated and adjusted by adopting an evidence-based 'One Health' approach, particularly in high-risk regions and livestock industries.

20.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086687

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate the fecal carriage of Salmonella spp. among culled adult dairy cows presented to an abattoir in Wuhan, China and to evaluate their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Rectal swabs from 138 culled cows were cultured. Laboratory analysis involved the identification of Salmonella, the susceptibility assessment and the presence of Extended Spectrum ß-lactamases and mcr genes in the isolates. An overall prevalence of Salmonella of 29.0% was recorded with 63.4% (26/41) and 2.4% (1/41) of the isolates identified as S. Typhimurium and S. Dublin, respectively. The occurrence of Salmonella was higher (odd ratios: 3.3) in culled cows originating from the northeast zone of China than cows originating from the central and north zones. Twenty multi-drug resistant strains (resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents) were detected (48.8%) and overall, a high resistance to ampicillin (36/41) and tetracycline (15/41) was observed. Extended Spectrum ß-lactamases phenotypes were found in 7/41 isolates, of which all contained the blaCTX-M resistance gene, and no mcr genes were found by polymerase chain reaction. The high prevalence of Salmonella fecal carriage and antimicrobial resistance may contribute to an increased risk of Salmonella transmission to food.

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