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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cohort studies have explored the relation between tea consumption and stroke risk; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent. In addition, evidence is lacking in China, where the patterns of tea consumption and main types of tea consumed differ substantially from those in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically assess the association of tea consumption with the risk of stroke based on a Chinese large-scale cohort study. METHODS: A total of 487,377 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in the present study. Detailed information about tea consumption (including frequency, duration, amount, and tea type) was self-reported at baseline. After ∼4.3 million person-years of follow-up, 38,727 incident cases of stroke were recorded, mainly through linkage with mortality and morbidity registries and based on the national health insurance system. RESULTS: Overall, 128,280 adults (26.3%) reported drinking tea almost daily (41.4% men, 15.9% women), predominantly green tea (86.7%). Tea consumption had an inverse and dose-response relation with the risk of stroke (Ptrend < 0.001). Compared with nonconsumers, those who consumed tea occasionally, weekly, and daily had adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of 0.96 (0.94, 0.99), 0.94 (0.90, 0.98), and 0.92 (0.89, 0.95) respectively, with little difference by stroke type. Among those who consumed tea daily, the HRs for stroke decreased with the increasing duration and amount of tea consumed (all P < 0.001). These inverse associations were significant for green tea but not for other types of tea. Among men, but not women, the inverse relations could be detected, and similar inverse associations could be found for male noncurrent alcohol-consumers and noncurrent smokers as well. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, higher consumption of tea, especially green tea, was associated with a lower risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

2.
Neurology ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of individual insomnia symptoms with risks of incident cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CVD) and possible moderating factors among Chinese adults. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank is a prospective cohort study that recruited participants from 10 areas across China. Data from 487,200 adults 30 to 79 years of age who were free of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancer at baseline were analyzed. Three insomnia symptoms were assessed with self-reported difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and daytime dysfunction for at least 3 d/wk at baseline. Incidences of CVD were followed up through disease registries and national health insurance databases until 2016. RESULTS: During a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, 130,032 cases of CVD were documented. Cox regressions showed that 3 insomnia symptoms were associated with increased risk of total CVD, with respective adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.11), 1.07 (95% CI 1.05-1.09), and 1.13 (95% CI 1.09-1.18). Participants with individual symptoms also had higher risks of ischemic heart disease (IHD; HR 1.13, 1.09, and 1.17) and ischemic stroke but not hemorrhagic stroke. Participants with all 3 symptoms were at an 18%, 22%, or 10% higher risk of CVD, IHD, or ischemic stroke compared to nonsymptomatic adults. Associations between 3 symptoms and CVD incidence were consistently stronger in younger adults or those without baseline hypertension (p for interaction <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Individual and coexisting insomnia symptoms are independent risk factors for CVD incidence, especially among young adults or adults who have not developed hypertension.

3.
Addiction ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692116

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the associations of problem drinking with wellbeing and mortality in Chinese men. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: 10 diverse areas across China. PARTICIPANTS: 210,259 men aged 30-79 years enrolled into China Kadoorie Biobank between 2004-2008. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported alcohol intake and indicators of problem drinking (i.e., drinking in the morning, unable to stop drinking, unable to work due to drinking, negative emotions after drinking, having shakes after stopping drinking) were assessed by questionnaire at baseline, along with stressful life events (e.g., divorce, income loss, violence) and wellbeing-related measures (e.g., life satisfaction, sleep problems, depression, anxiety). Problem drinking was defined as reporting at least one of the drinking problem indicators. Follow-up for mortality and hospitalised events was through linkage to death registries and national health insurance systems. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed cross-sectional relationships between problem drinking and stressful life events/wellbeing. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated prospective associations of problem drinking with mortality/hospitalised events. FINDINGS: A third of men were current regular drinkers (i.e., drank alcohol at least weekly), among whom 24% reported problem drinking: 8% of all men. Experience of stressful life events in the past two years, especially income loss (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-2.39), was associated with increased problem drinking. Compared with low-risk drinkers (i.e., intake <200g/week, no reported problem drinking or habitual heavy drinking episodes), men with problem drinking had poorer self-reported health, poorer life satisfaction, and sleep problems, and were more likely to have symptoms of depression and anxiety. Men with two or more problem drinking indicators had approximately two-fold higher risk for all-cause mortality as well as mortality and morbidity from external causes (i.e., injuries), respectively, and 15% higher risk for any hospitalisation, compared with low-risk drinkers (all p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Eight percent of men in China are problem drinkers and this is associated with significantly increased risk of physical and mental health problems and premature death.

4.
Heart ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the potential impacts of prenatal experience of the Chinese Great Famine on chronic disease risks in the middle age. METHODS: This study included 92 284 participants aged 39-51 years from China Kadoorie Biobank born around the famine period and without major chronic diseases at baseline. We categorised participants into non-famine births (born between 1 October 1956 and 30 September 1958, and 1 October 1962 and 30 September 1964) and famine births (born between 1 October 1959 and 30 September 1961). The outcomes were incident cardiovascular disease, cancer and respiratory system disease. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HR and 95% CI for famine exposure. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics. RESULTS: During a median 10.1 years of follow-up, we identified 4626 incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD) cases, 7332 cerebrovascular disease cases, 3111 cancer cases and 16 081 respiratory system disease cases. In the whole population, prenatal famine exposure was not statistically associated with the risks of developing any chronic diseases in adulthood. However, for urban participants, compared with non-famine births, famine births had a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28); such association was not shown for rural participants (p for interaction <0.001). Also, we observed the associations of prenatal famine exposure with IHD (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26) and cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21) in participants with lower physical activity level, but not in those with higher ones (all p for interaction=0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine might be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and such risk may be modified by adult lifestyle.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754945

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence on the association of soy intake with breast cancer risk is still inconsistent due to different soy intake levels across previous studies and small number of breast cancer cases. We aimed to investigate this issue by analyzing data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study and conducting a dose-response meta-analysis to integrate existing evidence. The CKB study included over 300,000 women aged 30-79 from 10 regions across China enrolled between 2004 and 2008, and followed-up for breast cancer events until 31 December 2016. Information on soy intake was collected from baseline, two resurveys and twelve 24-h dietary recalls. We also searched for relevant prospective cohort studies to do a dose-response meta-analysis. The mean (SD) soy intake was 9.4 (5.4) mg/day soy isoflavones among CKB women. During 10 years of follow-up, 2289 women developed breast cancers. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk was 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.22) for the fourth (19.1 mg/day) versus the first (4.5 mg/day) soy isoflavone intake quartile. Meta-analysis of prospective studies found that each 10 mg/day increment in soy isoflavone intake was associated with a 3% (95% CI 1-5%) reduced risk of breast cancer. The CKB study demonstrated that moderate soy intake was not associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women. Higher amount of soy intake might provide reasonable benefits for the prevention of breast cancer.

6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758234

RESUMO

The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is required for sequential cell fate determination of both motor neurons and oligodendrocytes and for progenitor proliferation in the central nervous system. However, the role of Olig2 in peripheral sensory neurogenesis remains unknown. We report that Olig2 is transiently expressed in the newly differentiated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is down-regulated in the mature OSNs in mice from early gestation to adulthood. Genetic fate mapping demonstrates that Olig2-expressing cells solely give rise to OSNs in the peripheral olfactory system. Olig2 depletion does not affect the proliferation of peripheral olfactory progenitors and the fate determination of OSNs, sustentacular cells, and the olfactory ensheathing cells. However, the terminal differentiation and maturation of OSNs are compromised in either Olig2 single or Olig1/Olig2 double knockout mice, associated with significantly diminished expression of multiple OSN maturation and odorant signaling genes, including Omp, Gnal, Adcy3, and Olfr15. We further demonstrate that Olig2 binds to the E-box in the Omp promoter region to regulate its expression. Taken together, our results reveal a distinctly novel function of Olig2 in the periphery nervous system to regulate the terminal differentiation and maturation of olfactory sensory neurons.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; : 115190, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744779

RESUMO

A novel series of graveolinine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-Alzheimer agents. Compound 5f exhibited the best inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and had surprisingly potent inhibitory activity for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), with IC50 values of 0.72 µM and 0.16 µM, respectively. The results from Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular modeling study indicated non-competitive inhibition of AChE by compound 5f. In addition, these derivatives showed potent self-induced ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregation inhibition. Moreover, 5f didn't show obvious toxicity against PC12 and HepG2 cells at 50 µM. Finally, in vivo studies confirmed that 5f significantly ameliorates the cognitive performances of scopolamine-treated ICR mice. Therefore, these graveolinine derivatives should be thoroughly and systematically studied for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745826

RESUMO

Pregnancy and pregnancy loss may be associated with increased risk of diabetes in later life. However, the evidence is inconsistent and sparse, especially among East Asians where reproductive patterns differ importantly from those in the West. We examined the associations of pregnancy and pregnancy loss (miscarriage, induced abortion, and still birth) with the risk of incident diabetes in later life among Chinese women. In 2004-2008, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 302 669 women aged 30-79 years from 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) diverse localities. During 9.2 years of follow-up, 7780 incident cases of diabetes were recorded among 273,383 women without prior diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression yielded multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of diabetes associated with pregnancy and pregnancy loss. Overall, 99% of women had been pregnant, of whom 10%, 53%, and 6% reported having a history of miscarriage, induced abortion, and stillbirth, respectively. Among ever pregnant women, each additional pregnancy was associated with an adjusted HR of 1.04 (95% CI 1.03; 1.06) for diabetes. Compared with those without pregnancy loss, women with a history of pregnancy loss had an adjusted HR of 1.07 (1.02; 1.13) and the HRs increased with increasing number of pregnancy losses, irrespective of the number of livebirths; the adjusted HR was 1.03 (1.00; 1.05) for each additional pregnancy loss. The strength of the relationships differed marginally by type of pregnancy loss. Among Chinese women, a higher number of pregnancies and pregnancy losses were associated with a greater risk of diabetes.

9.
Mol Metab ; 29: 145-157, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High fructose feeding changes fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplementation reduces fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to determine the role of FGF21 and underlying mechanisms in the protective effects of LGG. METHODS: FGF21 knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice were fed 30% fructose for 12 weeks. LGG was administered to the mice in the last 4 weeks during fructose feeding. FGF21-adiponectin (ADPN)-mediated hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation were investigated. RESULTS: FGF21 expression was robustly increased after 5-weeks of feeding and significantly decreased after 12-weeks of feeding in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. LGG administration reversed the depressed FGF21 expression, increased adipose production of ADPN, and reduced hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation in the WT mice but not in the KO mice. Hepatic nuclear carbohydrate responsive-element binding protein (ChREBP) was increased by fructose and reduced by LGG, resulting in a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes. The methylated form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) C, which dephosphorylates and activates ChREBP, was upregulated by fructose and normalized by LGG. Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1, which methylates PP2AC, was also increased by fructose and decreased by LGG. However, those beneficial effects of LGG were blunted in the KO mice. Hepatic dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate, which inhibits PP2A, was markedly increased by LGG in the WT mice but attenuated in the KO mice. LGG decreased adipose hypertrophy and increased serum levels of ADPN, which regulates sphingosine metabolism. This beneficial effect was decreased in the KO mice. CONCLUSION: LGG administration increases hepatic FGF21 expression and serum ADPN concentration, resulting in a reduced ChREBP activation through dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated PP2A deactivation, and subsequently reversed fructose-induced NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that FGF21 is required for the beneficial effects of LGG in reversal of fructose-induced NAFLD.

10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 98, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle is associated with substantially lower risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in white populations. However, little is known about the health benefits among non-white populations. Also, no previous studies have focused on respiratory disease mortality in both white and non-white populations. We assessed the relationships between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors and multiple death outcomes in Chinese adults. METHODS: This study included 487,198 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank without heart disease, stroke, and cancer at study enrolment. We defined five healthy lifestyle factors as never smoking or smoking cessation not due to illness; non-daily drinking or moderate alcohol drinking; median or higher level of physical activity; a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes and fish, and limited in red meat; a body mass index of 18.5 to 27.9 kg/m2 and a waist circumference < 90 cm (men)/85 cm (women). Cox regression was used to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) relating these healthy lifestyle factors to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.2 years (IQR 9.2-11.1), we documented 37,845 deaths. After multivariable adjustment, the number of healthy lifestyle factors exhibited almost inverse linear relationships with the risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Compared with participants without any healthy factors, the hazard ratio of participants with five healthy factors was 0.32 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.37] for all-cause mortality. The corresponding HRs in specific cause of death were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.67) for ischaemic heart disease, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.49) for ischaemic stroke, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) for haemorrhage stroke, 0.36 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.45) for cancer, 0.26 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.48) for respiratory diseases, and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.39) for other causes. Theoretically, 38.5% (95% CI: 33.0, 43.8%) of all-cause mortality was attributable to nonadherence to a healthy lifestyle, and the proportions of preventable deaths through lifestyle modification ranged from 26.9 to 47.9% for cause-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was associated with substantially lower risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer mortality in Chinese adults. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle may considerably reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in China.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134946, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759710

RESUMO

Land-use affects soil properties and soil carbon storage. Fully understanding land-use impacts on soil is essential to predicting effects on soils from climate change, and providing a scientific basis for soil management. Here, we measured soil properties, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and total carbon (TC) from 202 samples from cropland, forestland, and grassland, to a depth of 500 cm on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). We find that grassland and cropland have the highest clay and silt content, and have a significantly higher soil moisture capacity than forestland. Soil moisture in forestland is scarce at depths of 100-300 cm, and does not benefit from rainfall infiltration. At the same time, the soil carbon content and stocks in grassland are not significantly different from forestland. We suggest that in the light of climate change and water shortages on the CLP, grassland is more suitable than forestland or cropland to optimize carbon fixation, and prevent soil erosion. Hence the cultivation of grass should be considered as a strategy for sustainable ecosystem management on the CLP.

12.
J Nutr Biochem ; 75: 108256, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760308

RESUMO

High-fat/high-fructose diet plus intermittent hypoxia exposure (HFDIH) causes metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects and understand the mechanism of action of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGGs) on HFDIH-induced metabolic dysfunction. Mice were fed high-fat:high-fructose diet for 15 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, the mice were exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia for the next 12 weeks (HFDIH), and LGGs was supplemented over the entire experiment. HFDIH exposure significantly led to metabolic disorders. LGGs treatment showed significant improvements in indices of metabolic disorders including fat mass, energy expenditure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased hepatic steatosis and liver injury. HFDIH mice markedly increased adipose inflammation and adipocyte size, and reduced circulating adiponectin, which was restored by LGGs treatment. LGGs treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression and circulating FGF21 protein levels, which were associated with increased hepatic PPARα expression and fecal butyrate concentration. In addition, HFDIH-induced hepatic fat accumulation and apoptosis were significantly reduced by LGGs supplementation. In summary, LGGs treatment increased energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and prevented metabolic abnormalities in HFDIH mice, and this is associated with the FGF21-adiponectin signaling pathway. LGGs may be a potential prevention/treatment strategy in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e012556, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576770

RESUMO

Background Active commuting is related to a higher level of physical activity but more exposure to ambient air pollutants. With the rather serious air pollution in urban China, we aimed to examine the association between active commuting and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the Chinese population. Methods and Results A total of 104 170 urban commuters without major chronic diseases at baseline were included from China Kadoorie Biobank. Self-reported commuting mode was defined as nonactive commuting, work at home or near home, walking, and cycling. Multivariable Cox regression was used to examine associations between commuting mode and cardiovascular disease. Overall, 47.2% of the participants reported nonactive commuting, 13.4% reported work at home or work near home, 20.1% reported walking, and 19.4% reported cycling. During a median follow-up of 10 years, we identified 5374 incidents of ischemic heart disease, 664 events of hemorrhagic stroke, and 4834 events of ischemic stroke. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, sedentary time, body mass index, comorbidities, household air pollution, passive smoking, and other domain physical activity, walking (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.96) and cycling (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.88) were associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease than nonactive commuting. Cycling was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.00). No significant association was found of walking or cycling with hemorrhagic stroke. The associations of commuting mode with major cardiovascular disease were consistent among men and women and across different levels of other domain physical activity. Conclusions In urban China, cycling was associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. Walking was associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease.

14.
Biomark Med ; 13(15): 1263-1272, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584289

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) at admission and in-hospital mortality of patients with acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD). Patients & methods: We enrolled 536 patients with AAAD between June 2013 and December 2017. Patients were divided into two groups: the deceased group and the survival group. Results: In multivariable analysis, the association between LMR and in-hospital mortality was still significant. When the Q4 was set as the reference value, the odds ratios values of Q1, Q2 and Q3 were 4.4 (95% CI: 2.2-8.9; p < 0.001), 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-3.4; p = 0.03) and 1.7 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9; p = 0.158). Conclusion: Lower LMR may be independently associated with in-hospital mortality in AAAD.

15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(11): 1079-1084, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mostly by enteroviruses. However, other viral agents also can cause similar syndromes, and hence, the infections they cause are often misdiagnosed clinically. To determine non-enterovirus etiologic agents in HFMD-like cases, we screened enterovirus-negative samples collected from the patients who were clinically diagnosed as HFMD in China. METHODS: Two hundred enterovirus-negative samples were collected previously in Wenzhou city of Zhejiang province, China. Both high throughput sequencing and RT-PCR were used to screen viral agents. In addition, their clinical features were analyzed. RESULTS: Norovirus (NoV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) were identified from 22 (11.00%) and 9 (4.50%) samples, respectively. In addition, the complete genome sequences were recovered from 4 NoV-positive samples, and the VP1/3Dpol gene sequences were recovered from 5 HPeV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the NoV sequences revealed that they were closely related to those circulated in other regions of China. Notably, 4 genotypes of HPeVs, including HPeV-1, HPeV-4, HPeV-5 and HPeV-14, were found, indicating high genetic diversity of the virus. Frequent recombination between various genotypes was also observed in the HPeVs. Although most of the patients presented with the clinical features of HFMD, 4 patients infected with NoV GII.4 and 3 patients infected with HPeV-1 (1) and HPeV-4 (2) were characterized with diarrhea. Finally, tonsillitis, convulsion and granulocytopenia were observed in 1 NoV GII.4 patient, while liver dysfunction was found in 1 NoV GII.17 patient. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal the variety of agents in the cases clinically diagnosed as HFMD.

16.
ACS Sens ; 4(10): 2771-2777, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593439

RESUMO

Paramagnetic ion-mediated sensors can greatly simplify current magnetic sensors for biochemical assays, but it remains challenging because of the limited sensitivity. Herein, we report a magnetic immunosensor relying on Mn(VII)/Mn(II) interconversion and the corresponding change in the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) of the transverse relaxation rate (R2). The fact that the NMR R2 of the water protons detected in Mn(II) aqueous solution is much stronger than Mn(VII) aqueous solution enables the modulation of the LF-NMR signal intensity of R2. By employing immunomagnetic separation and enzyme-catalyzed reaction, this Mn(VII)/Mn(II) interconversion allows the development of a background signal-free magnetic immunosensor with a high signal-to-background ratio that enables detection of ractopamine and Salmonella with high sensitivity (the limits of detection for ractopamine and Salmonella are 8.1 pg/mL and 20 cfu/mL, respectively). This Mn-mediated magnetic immunosensor not only retains the good stability but also greatly improves the sensitivity of conventional paramagnetic ion-mediated magnetic sensors, offering a promising platform for sensitive, stable, and convenient bioanalysis.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649032

RESUMO

During mammalian palatogenesis, cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells undergo osteogenic differentiation and form the hard palate, which is divided into palatine process of the maxilla and the palatine. However, it remains unknown whether these bony structures originate from the same cell lineage and how the hard palate is patterned at the molecular level. Using mice, here we report that deficiency in short stature homeobox 2 (Shox2), a transcriptional regulator whose expression is restricted to the anterior palatal mesenchyme, leads to a defective palatine process of the maxilla, but does not affect the palatine. Shox2 overexpression in palatal mesenchyme resulted in a hyperplastic palatine process of the maxilla and a hypoplastic palatine. RNA-Seq and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC)-Seq analyses revealed that SHOX2 controls the expression of pattern-specification and skeletogenic genes associated with accessible chromatin in the anterior palate. This highlighted a lineage-autonomous function of SHOX2 in patterning and osteogenesis of the hard palate. H3K27ac ChIP-Seq and transient transgenic enhancer assays revealed that SHOX2 binds distal-acting cis-regulatory elements in an anterior palate-specific manner. Our results suggest that the palatine process of the maxilla and palatine arise from different cell lineages and differ in ossification mechanisms. SHOX2 evidently controls osteogenesis of a cell lineage and contributes to the palatine process of the maxilla by interacting with distal cis-regulatory elements to regulate skeletogenic gene expression and to pattern the hard palate. Genome-wide SHOX2 occupancy in the developing palate may provide a marker for identifying active anterior palate-specific gene enhancers.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmful substances in solid fuel and tobacco smoke are believed to enter the bloodstream via inhalation and to be metabolized in the liver, leading to chronic liver damage. However, little is known about the independent and joint effects of solid fuel use and smoking on risks of chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality. METHODS: During 2004-08, ∼0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years were recruited from 10 areas across China. During a 10-year median follow-up, 2461 CLD deaths were recorded. Multivariable Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the individual associations of self-reported long-term cooking fuel and tobacco use with major CLD death. RESULTS: Overall, 49% reported solid fuel use and 26% smoked regularly. Long-term solid fuel use for cooking and current smoking were associated with higher risks of CLD deaths, with adjusted HRs of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.02-1.56) and 1.28 (1.13-1.44), respectively. Compared with never-smoking clean fuel users, the HRs were 1.41 (1.10-1.82) in never-smoking solid fuel users, 1.55 (1.17-2.06) in regular-smoking clean fuel users and 1.71 (1.32-2.20) in regular-smoking solid fuels users. Individuals who had switched from solid to clean fuels (1.07, 0.90-1.29; for median 14 years) and ex-regular smokers who stopped for non-medical reasons (1.16, 0.95-1.43; for median 10 years) had no evidence of excess risk of CLD deaths compared with clean fuel users and never-regular smokers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, long-term solid fuel use for cooking and smoking were each independently associated with higher risks of CLD deaths. Individuals who had stopped using solid fuels or smoking had lower risks.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the rate of returning to work within 12 months after open triple-branched stent graft placement in acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) patients and the reasons why patients did not return to work. METHODS: We conducted this cohort study of AAAD patients who were discharged alive from the hospital at Fujian Cardiac Center during the period 2013-2018. The collected data included the patients' baseline characteristics, employment status at 12 months after AAAD and variables classifying the potential reasons for those who did not return to work at 12 months. We applied logistic regression to estimate the factors associated with returning to work at 12 months. RESULTS: One year after AAAD hospitalization, of the 326 AAAD patients, 81 (24.8%) returned to work, 231 (70.9%) did not and 14 (4.3%) died. Among the 231 patients who did not return to work, 105 (45.5%) were unable to work because of AAAD and 36 (15.6%) lost job owing to AAAD. After adjustment for other risk factors, age, female sex, type of work, operating time, aortic cross-clamp time and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were still significantly associated with a lower chance of returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 25% of the previously employed patients returned to work at 12 months after AAAD. Older age, female sex, manual or semi-skilled professional work, a longer operating time, a longer aortic cross-clamp time and a longer length of ICU stay were associated with a lower likelihood of returning to work.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4523, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586053

RESUMO

Arctigenin (ATG) is a major component of Fructus Arctii, a traditional herbal remedy that reduced proteinuria in diabetic patients. However, whether ATG specifically provides renoprotection in DKD is not known. Here we report that ATG administration is sufficient to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury in mouse models of diabetes. Transcriptomic analysis of diabetic mouse glomeruli showed that cell adhesion and inflammation are two key pathways affected by ATG treatment, and mass spectrometry analysis identified protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) as one of the top ATG-interacting proteins in renal cells. Enhanced PP2A activity by ATG reduces p65 NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and high glucose-induced migration in cultured podocytes via interaction with Drebrin-1. Importantly, podocyte-specific Pp2a deletion in mice exacerbates DKD injury and abrogates the ATG-mediated renoprotection. Collectively, our results demonstrate a renoprotective mechanism of ATG via PP2A activation and establish PP2A as a potential target for DKD progression.

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