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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461308

RESUMO

Background - Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the relevance of circulating metabolites for these associations. Methods - A nested case-control study within the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank included 3195 incident CVD cases (2057 occlusive CVD and 1138 intracerebral haemorrhage) and 1465 controls aged 30-79 years without prior CVD or statin use at baseline. NMR-spectroscopy measured 225 metabolic markers and derived traits in baseline plasma samples. Linear regression was used to relate self-reported physical activity and sedentary leisure time to biomarkers, adjusting for potential confounders. These were contrasted with associations of biomarkers with occlusive CVD risk. Results - Physical activity and sedentary leisure time were associated with >100 metabolic markers, with patterns of associations generally mirroring each other. Physical activity was inversely associated with very low and low density- and positively with large and very large high density-lipoprotein particle concentrations. Physical activity was also inversely associated with alanine, glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, and the inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetyls. In general, associations of physical activity and sedentary leisure time with specific metabolic markers were directionally consistent with the associations of these metabolic markers with occlusive CVD risk. Overall metabolic markers potentially explained ~70% of the protective associations of physical activity and ~50% of the positive associations of sedentary leisure time with occlusive CVD. Conclusions - Among Chinese adults, physical activity and sedentary behaviour have opposing associations with a diverse range of circulating metabolites, which may partially explain their associations with CVD risk.

2.
Talanta ; 205: 120089, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450479

RESUMO

We propose a promising capillary immunosensor by combining porous-layer surface modification of an open-tubular capillary and streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase nano-complex signal amplification of chemiluminescence read-out. The immunosensor, namely Porous Layer Open Tubular-Signal Amplification (PLOT-SA) sensor, is successfully applied for ultra-sensitive sensing of procalcitonin (PCT) in human serum samples. The results show the PLOT-SA sensor exhibits essential features for PCT determination, including a wide linear detection range of 0.1 pg/mL-100 ng/mL, an extremely low limit-of-quantitation of 0.01 pg/mL, excellent intra-day and inter-day stability and reproducibility with RSDs less than 4.5%. Our study provides a reliable and robust approach for developing capillary sensors that can be used in analysis of complex biologic samples.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9942-9949, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403785

RESUMO

We develop an ultrasensitive T2-mediated immunosensor based on the coordination chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azide andalkyne (CuAAC) and apply it for the detection of pesticide residues. We functionalize polyglutamic acid (PGA) on polystyrene to form a brush-like nanostructure that has a large loading capacity of Cu(II) through the coordination chemistry between PGA and Cu(II). Such a brush-like nanostructure could be used to chelate Cu(II) to modulate the CuAAC between azide-functionalized 1000 nm polystyrene (PS1000) and alkyne-functionalized 30 nm magnetic nanoparticles (MNP30), and the MNP30-PS1000 conjugate as a product of CuAAC can act as a magnetic probe in this T2-based immunosensor. This click chemistry and coordination chemistry-mediated immunosensor allows for an ultrasensitive detection for chlorpyrifos residue (0.022 ng/mL), a 58-fold enhancement compared with that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1.28 ng/mL), providing a promising platform for detection of trace small molecules.

4.
Anal Chem ; 91(17): 11316-11323, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403771

RESUMO

The traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has some disadvantages, such as insufficient sensitivity and low stability of the labeled enzyme, which limit its further applications. In this study, a more stable enzyme, Amp cephalosporinase (AmpC), was selected as the labeled enzyme, and its substrate was designed and synthesized. This substrate contained the cephalosporin ring core as the enzymatic recognition section and the structural motif of the 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) as the reporter molecule. AmpC can specifically catalyze the substrate and release 3-HF, which can enter the cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) on the surface of ZnS quantum dots and form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal amplification system. An AmpC-catalyzed, FRET-mediated ultrasensitive immunosensor (ACF immunosensor) for procalcitonin (PCT) was developed by combining the signal amplification system of the polystyrene microspheres and effective immune-based magnetic separation. The ACF immunosensor has high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of PCT: its linear range is from 0.1 ng mL-1 to 70 ng mL-1, and the limit of detection can reach 0.03 ng mL-1. The spiking recoveries of PCT in human serum samples range from 98.3% to 107%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.14% to 12.0%. This approach was applied to detect PCT in real patient serum samples, and the results are consistent with those obtained with a commercial ELISA kit.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443046

RESUMO

The dysregulation and mutation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to result in a variety of human diseases. Identifying potential disease-related lncRNAs may benefit disease diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. A number of methods have been proposed to predict the potential lncRNA-disease relationships. However, most of them may give rise to incorrect results due to relying on single similarity measure. This article proposes a novel framework (ILDMSF) by fusing the lncRNA similarities and disease similarities, which are measured by lncRNA-related gene and known lncRNA-disease interaction and disease semantic interaction, and known lncRNA-disease interaction, respectively. Further, the support vector machine is employed to identify the potential lncRNA-disease associations based on the integrated similarity. The leave-one-out cross validation is performed to compare ILDMSF with other state of the art methods. The experimental results demonstrate our method is prospective in exploring potential correlations between lncRNA and disease.

6.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 160, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised control trials and genetic analyses have demonstrated that vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels may not play a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease. However, it is unclear if 25(OH)D is causally associated with cause-specific vascular disease and lipids. Therefore, we examined the causal association of 25(OH)D with myocardial infarction, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage, and lipid levels among both Chinese and Europeans. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation (MR) design in the China Kadoorie Biobank, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Copenhagen General Population Study. The 25(OH)D-related genetic variants in the CYP2R1 and DCHR7 genes were genotyped in 99,012 Chinese adults and 106,911 Danish adults. RESULTS: In Chinese adults, plasma 25(OH)D levels were not significantly associated with cause-specific vascular disease or mortality, with the exception of intracerebral haemorrhage (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01,1.18] per 25 nmol/L higher plasma 25(OH)D). In Europeans, plasma 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with all types of vascular diseases and mortality. However, MR analysis did not demonstrate causal associations of genetically increased 25(OH)D levels with cause-specific vascular diseases, or mortality in both Chinese and European adults. In addition, each 25 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D was observationally associated with lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Likewise, MR analysis showed that 25(OH)D levels were not causally associated with lipids in both Chinese and European adults after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support that genetically increased 25(OH)D was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and lipid levels in both Chinese and European adults. These results suggest that the inverse associations of vitamin D with vascular disease could be the result of confounding.

7.
Diabetes ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399431

RESUMO

In observational studies, type 2 diabetes is associated with 2- to 4-fold higher risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, we examined associations of genetically-predicted type 2 diabetes with CVD among ∼160,000 participants, to assess whether these relationships are causal. A type 2 diabetes genetic risk score (comprising 48 established risk variants) was associated with the presence of carotid plaque (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.05, 1.29] per 1 unit higher log-odds of type 2 diabetes; n=6,819), and elevated risk of ischaemic stroke (IS) (1.08 [1.02, 1.14]; n=17,097), non-lacunar IS (1.09 [1.03, 1.16]; n=13,924) and major coronary event (1.12 [1.02, 1.23]; n= 5,081). There was no significant association with lacunar IS (1.03 [0.91, 1.16], n=3,173) or intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (1.01 [0.94, 1.10], n=6,973), although effect estimates were imprecise. These associations were consistent with observational associations of type 2 diabetes with CVD in CKB (p for heterogeneity>0.3), and with the associations of type 2 diabetes with IS, ICH and coronary heart disease in two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses based on summary statistics from European population GWAS (p for heterogeneity>0.2). In conclusion, among Chinese adults, genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes was associated with atherosclerotic CVD, consistent with a causal association.

8.
Development ; 146(14)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320323

RESUMO

The sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary cardiac pacemaker, consists of a head domain and a junction/tail domain that exhibit different functional properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanism defining these two pacemaker domains remains elusive. Nkx2-5 is a key transcription factor essential for the formation of the working myocardium, but it was generally thought to be detrimental to SAN development. However, Nkx2-5 is expressed in the developing SAN junction, suggesting a role for Nkx2-5 in SAN junction development and function. In this study, we present unambiguous evidence that SAN junction cells exhibit unique action potential configurations intermediate to those manifested by the SAN head and the surrounding atrial cells, suggesting a specific role for the junction cells in impulse generation and in SAN-atrial exit conduction. Single-cell RNA-seq analyses support this concept. Although Nkx2-5 inactivation in the SAN junction did not cause a malformed SAN at birth, the mutant mice manifested sinus node dysfunction. Thus, Nkx2-5 defines a population of pacemaker cells in the transitional zone. Despite Nkx2-5 being dispensable for SAN morphogenesis during embryogenesis, its deletion hampers atrial activation by the pacemaker.

9.
ACS Sens ; 4(7): 1942-1949, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256590

RESUMO

Magnetic relaxation switching assays with a broad and tunable detection range can greatly improve current magnetic sensors for biochemical detections, but it remains challenging in terms of the limited detection range and low sensitivity. Herein, we report a methodology that uses click chemistry to assemble different sizes of polystyrene beads and magnetic nanoparticles to prepare versatile magnetic probes for broad-range bioassays with high sensitivity. Small magnetic nanoparticles can be controllably assembled on different sizes of polystyrene beads to form core-satellite structures, acting as broad-range probes that enable the magnetic relaxation switching assays with high sensitivity because different sizes of polystyrene beads can conjugate different numbers of small magnetic nanoparticles. On the basis of click chemistry, we assemble polystyrene beads and magnetic nanoparticles to develop a biosensing technique for analyzing three different antibiotics, with a high sensitivity and a tunable detection range from pg/mL to µg/mL.

10.
Inflammation ; 42(5): 1843-1856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256292

RESUMO

Ozone is a strong oxidant in air pollution that exacerbates respiratory disorders and is a major risk factor for acute asthma exacerbation. Ozone can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and airway neutrophilic inflammation. In addition, γδT17 cells contribute to IL-17A production upon ozone challenge, resulting in neutrophilic inflammation. It is known, however, that Nrf2 can ameliorate oxidative stress. We therefore investigated whether RTA-408, an Nrf2 activator, can attenuate airway inflammation and inhibit ROS production and whether this effect involves γδT17 cells. Balb/c mice were sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and followed by ozone exposure. We investigated the effect of Nrf2 activator RTA-408 on airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophilic airway inflammation, cytokine/chemokine production, and OVA-specific IgE level in a mouse model of O3 induced asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and intracellular ROS were measured. IL-17+ γδT cell percentage by flow cytometer was determined. Nrf2 protein expression by western blot was also examined. We observed that RTA-408 attenuated ROS release during ozone-induced asthma exacerbation and suppressed neutrophil lung infiltration. RTA-408 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and reduced the percentage of IL-17+ γδT cells. Thus, our results suggest that RTA-408 does attenuate airway inflammation in a murine model of ozone-induced asthma exacerbation.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 800-810, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344541

RESUMO

Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), one of the rarest birds in the world, was almost extinct in the historically widespread areas partly due to the environmental pollution. Therefore, non-invasive indicators of feather, eggshell, and excrement were used to investigate the exposure of this endangered bird to eleven trace elements in this study. The results indicated that crested ibises under in situ and ex situ conservations were diversely exposed to trace elements, with higher exposure levels of As, Cd, and Mn in the wild, but higher exposure levels of Hg, Se, and Zn in the captive breeding center. In addition, concentrations of As, Co, Cr, and Ni were significantly greater in the sediments of three types of foraging habitats for wild crested ibis, but concentration of Se was greater in the soil of captive cages. Feather and eggshell of crested ibis exhibited a very consistent indication for most of the trace elements, and concentrations of almost all of the elements in the excrements were very consistent with the results in the environmental samples (sediments or soils). Concentrations of As, Hg, Mn, and Zn in feathers, and Mn and Zn in eggshells of wild and captive crested ibis were greater than those in other similar species. Moreover, As, Cd, Cu, and Mn concentrations in excrement of wild crested ibises were greater than that in captive individuals and other species, but Se and Zn concentrations in excrement of captive crested ibises were greater than that of the wild and other species. The present study provided evidence that both of the wild and captive crested ibis were exposed to trace elements, which may be harmful to their health.

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 168, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) have been widely used as a valid indicator of health status at the population and individual level. We aimed to investigate the distribution and correlates of global SRH and age-comparative SRH in elderly Chinese. METHODS: Survey of 57,693 men and 67,089 women aged 60 years and above was conducted in five rural (Gansu, Sichuan, Hunan, Henan, Zhejiang) and five urban areas (Heilongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangxi, Hainan) in China between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the relations of different factors with global SRH and age-comparative SRH. RESULTS: Among the participants, 38.33% reported their global SRH as good or excellent while 61.67% as fair or poor, and 17.70% reported better age-comparative SRH while 17.99% as worse. In the multivariate model, compared to women, men tended to report a good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH, urban residents tend to report good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH. The socioeconomic and health behavior factors that were associated with good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH (with varying strengths of association) included: high educational level, high household income, house ownership, quitting smoking by own choices, occasional and current alcohol drinking, overweight, and high physical activity level. The factors that were associated with poor global SRH and worse age-comparative SRH included: quitting smoking by illness, former drinking, underweight, and weight lost ≥2.5 kg in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: We found a moderate level of good global SRH and a low level of better age-comparative SRH among elderly Chinese. We identified a number of demographic, socioeconomic and health behavior factors that were related to SRH measures. Our study emphasizes the importance of incorporating both global and age-comparative SRH measures in future studies, and considering gender inequalities and urban/rural disparity, as well as socioeconomic status and health behaviors as important modifiers of health.

13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(8): 753-763, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152367

RESUMO

Current experimental and epidemiological studies provide inconsistent evidence toward the association between tea consumption and cancer incidence. We investigated whether tea consumption was associated with the incidence of all cancers and six leading types of cancer (lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer and cervix uteri cancer) among 455,981 participants aged 30-79 years in the prospective cohort China Kadoorie Biobank. Tea consumption was assessed at baseline (2004-2008) with an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Cancer cases were identified by linkage to the national health insurance system. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the present population, daily tea consumers were more likely to be current smokers and daily alcohol consumers. 22,652 incident cancers occurred during 10.1 years follow-up (5.04 cases/1000 person-years). When we restricted analyses to non-smokers and non-excessive alcohol consumers to minimize confounding, tea consumption was not associated with all cancers (daily consumers who added tea leaves > 4.0 g/day vs. less-than-weekly consumers: HR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.93-1.13), lung cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.84-1.40), colorectal cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.81-1.45) and liver cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.75-1.55), yet might be associated with increased risk of stomach cancer (HR, 1.46; CI, 1.07-1.99). In both less-than-daily and daily tea consumers, all cancer risk increased with the amount of tobacco smoked or alcohol consumed. Our findings suggest tea consumption may not provide preventive effect against cancer incidence.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194873, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150080

RESUMO

Importance: A better understanding of the role of atherosclerosis in the development of ischemic stroke subtypes could help to improve strategies for prevention of stroke worldwide. Objective: To assess the role of carotid atherosclerosis in the association between major cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic stroke subtypes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank cohort study was conducted in the general population of 5 urban and 5 rural areas in China, with a baseline survey obtained between June 2004 and July 2008. A random sample of 23 973 participants with no history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment who had carotid artery ultrasonographic measurements recorded at a resurvey from September 2013 to June 2014 were included. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2016, to April 10, 2019. Exposures: Major cardiovascular risk factors (ie, blood pressure [BP], blood lipid levels, smoking, and diabetes). Main Outcomes and Measures: Carotid ultrasonographic measures of plaque burden (derived from number and maximum size of carotid artery plaques at resurvey) and first ischemic stroke during follow-up (n = 952), with subtyping (data release, August 2018) as lacunar (n = 263), probable large artery (n = 193), probable cardioembolic (n = 66), or unconfirmed (n = 430). Associations between cardiovascular risk factors, carotid plaque burden, and ischemic stroke subtypes were adjusted for age, sex, and geographic area. Results: The 23 973 participants in the study had a mean (SD) age of 50.6 (10.0) years, and 14 833 (61.9%) were women. Systolic BP had a stronger association (odds ratio [OR] per SD, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61) than plaque burden (OR per SD, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.44) with ischemic stroke, and the associations of systolic BP with each subtype of ischemic stroke were modestly attenuated by adjustment for plaque burden. After adjustment for BP, plaque burden had a stronger association with probable large artery stroke (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.63) than with lacunar stroke (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.43) but was not associated with probable cardioembolic stroke (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.83-1.36). Conclusions and Relevance: Although BP was an important risk factor for all ischemic stroke subtypes, carotid atherosclerosis was an important risk factor only for large artery and lacunar strokes, suggesting that drug treatments targeting atherosclerosis may reduce the risk of stroke subtypes to different extents.

15.
ACS Sens ; 4(7): 1864-1872, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184113

RESUMO

We describe herein a newly developed chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor (OFIS) with a tunable detection range for multiplexed analysis of veterinary drug residues with vastly different concentrations in milk samples. The optical fiber probe is used as a carrier of biorecognition element as well as a transducer, enabling a low-cost compact design, which makes this system suitable for cost-effective on-site detection of the target analytes. Importantly, the synergy between modulation of the length of the optical fiber sensing region and the number of fibers allows performing multiplexed immunoassays in an easily controllable manner over a tunable detection range from pg/mL to µg/mL analyte concentrations. By combining the optical fiber sensor with a nanocomplex signal amplification system, a highly sensitive chemiluminescent OFIS system is demonstrated for the multiplexed assaying of veterinary drug residues in milk samples with linear ranges of 10-(2 × 104) pg/mL for chloramphenicol, 0.5-500 ng/mL for sulfadiazine, and 0.1-300 µg/mL for neomycin. This controllable strategy, based on modulation of the fiber probe, provides a versatile platform for multiplexed quantitative detection of both low-abundance and high-abundance targets, which shows great potential for on-site testing in food safety.

16.
Head Neck ; 41(9): 3317-3327, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the prognostic value of radiologic extra-nodal extension (rENE) in stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Stage II NPC patients with N1 category (n = 365) were enrolled and divided into three groups according to the situation of rENE: without rENE, suspected rENE, and confirmed rENE (grades: A, infiltration into surrounding fat; B, matted nodes; C, infiltration into adjacent structures). RESULTS: Only high-grade rENE (including matted nodes and infiltration into adjacent structures) could significantly influence the survival outcomes, patients with high-grade rENE had significantly poorer survival than those without, with the 7-year distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival demonstrated to be 78.5% vs 93.0% (P < .001) and 81.9% vs 89.9% (P = .05), respectively. High-grade rENE, as defined in our study, is a stable criterion, with high intra-rater and inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: High-grade rENE was an evaluable predictor that could help with the selection of stage II patients with high risk of distant metastasis.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15942, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192930

RESUMO

Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed at 10 children's hospitals in mainland China in 2016.Among the collected 6132 S pneumoniae isolates, pneumococcal diseases mainly occurred in children younger than 5 years old (85.1%). The resistance rate of S pneumoniae to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 95.8%, 95.2%, 93.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The resistance rates of S pneumoniae to penicillin were 86.9% and 1.4% in non-meningitis and meningitis isolates, while the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients with invasive pneumococcal disease usually have several MDR coexistence.S pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance to common antibiotics in mainland China. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance rate of invasive streptococcal pneumonia patients were significantly higher than that of non-invasive S pneumoniae patients. Alarmingly, 46.1% of invasive clinical isolates were multidrug resistant, so it is important to continued monitor the resistance of S pneumoniae when protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is coming in mainland China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195718, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199446

RESUMO

Importance: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been identified as a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the associations between HBV infection and other cancer types are not well understood. Objective: To assess the associations between chronic HBV infection and risk of all cancer types. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study involved 3 cohorts in China. The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) prospective cohort study, conducted between June 2004 and July 2008, used a dipstick assay for detection of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 496 732 participants to determine the association between HBV infection and risk of all cancer types. Two cohort studies were used to validate the associations by applying more precise serum HBsAg detection assays: the Qidong cohort (37 336 participants enrolled from November 2007 to April 2011) and the Changzhou nested case-control study (17 723 participants enrolled from June 2004 to September 2005). A total of 97 samples of stomach cancer tissues, 10 samples of pancreatic cancer tissues, and 9 samples of lung cancer tissues were included to assess the presence of HBV replication and expression. Statistical analysis was performed from December 2016 to October 2018. Exposures: Serum HBsAg status in the population-based stage and HBV DNA status, the expression of hepatitis B X protein, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the tissue-based stage. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of all cancer types during follow-up. Results: In the CKB cohort, the mean (SD) age of the 496 732 participants was 51.5 (10.7) years; 59.0% of the participants were women. After 4.4 million person-years of follow-up, participants who were HBsAg seropositive (n = 15 355) had a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 15.77; 95% CI, 14.15-17.57), stomach cancer (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.80), colorectal cancer (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.12-1.81), oral cancer (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.49), pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.65), and lymphoma (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.34-3.31) when compared with participants who were HBsAg seronegative (n = 481 377). Because of the limitation of sample size, only associations of HBV infection with hepatocellular carcinoma and stomach cancer were validated in the Qidong cohort (hepatocellular carcinoma: HR, 17.51; 95% CI, 13.86-22.11; stomach cancer: HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.24-3.29); the Changzhou nested case-control study validated only an association between HBV infection and stomach cancer (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.04-2.98). Moreover, among 22 participants with stomach cancer from the Qidong cohort who were anti-HBc seropositive, 12 samples (54.5%) of cancer tissues were HBV DNA positive, while among 25 participants with stomach cancer who were anti-HBc seronegative, no HBV DNA was detected. The same negative and positive rate was observed in the validation set from Zhejiang Tumor Hospital (19 of 35 samples [54.3%] were HBV DNA positive). Moreover, among the 8 patients with stomach cancer from the Qidong cohort who were anti-HBc seropositive, anti-HBc and hepatitis B X protein were expressed in all of their stomach cancer tissue samples. The same phenomenon was observed in the patients with pancreatic cancer but not in the patients with lung cancer, which was consistent with the population-based results of the CKB cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that HBV infection was also associated with the risk of nonliver cancer, especially digestive system cancers among adults in China.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15567, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083226

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public problem closely associated with numerous oral complications, such as coated tongue, xerostomia, salivary dysfunction, etc. Tongue diagnosis plays an important role in clinical prognosis and treatment of diabetes in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study investigated discriminating tongue features to distinguish between type 2 DM and non-DM individuals through non-invasive TCM tongue diagnosis.The tongue features for 199 patients with type 2 DM, and 372 non-DM individuals, serving as control, are extracted by the automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS). A total of 9 tongue features, namely, tongue shape, tongue color, fur thickness, fur color, saliva, tongue fissure, ecchymosis, teeth mark, and red dot. The demography, laboratory, physical examination, and tongue manifestation data between 2 groups were compared.Patients with type 2 DM possessed significantly larger covering area of yellow fur (58.5% vs 22.5%, P < .001), thick fur (50.8% vs 29.2%, P < .001), and bluish tongue (P < .001) than those of the control group. Also, a significantly higher portion (72.7% vs 55.2%, P < .05) of patients with long-term diabetics having yellow fur color than the short-term counterparts was observed.The high prevalence of thick fur, yellow fur color, and bluish tongue in patient with type 2 DM revealed that TCM tongue diagnosis can serve as a preliminary screening procedure in the early detection of type 2 DM in light of its simple and non-invasive nature, followed by other more accurate testing process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying non-invasive TCM tongue diagnosis to the discrimination of type 2 DM patients and non-DM individuals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Língua/patologia , Doenças da Língua/complicações , Doenças da Língua/epidemiologia , Doenças da Língua/patologia
20.
Anal Chem ; 91(10): 6769-6774, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050405

RESUMO

The main issues of imaging ellipsometry-based biosensing for small molecules are the low sensitivity and narrow detection range due to the low molecular weight of small molecules that results in a negligible signal. To meet this challenge, we theoretically investigated the deciding factors of the ellipsometry signal and further applied the theory to guide the design of ellipsometry-based biosensor using metal nanoparticles that have a high dielectric constant. Significant signal amplification effects can be achieved by using nanoparticle labels including magnetic nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles. Guided by the theory, we have developed a sensitive surface-enhanced imaging ellipsometry (SEIE)-biosensor for detecting chloramphenicol in real milk sample with high sensitivity (with a limit of detection of 6 pg/mL) and broaden detection range. This nanoparticles-enabled SEIE not only greatly improves the sensitivity of conventional imaging ellipsometry-based biosensors but also retains the advantages of conventional methods in terms of automated and convenient operation, providing an effective strategy for detection of trace small molecules in complex samples that holds great promise in scientific research, clinical diagnosis, and food safety.

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