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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with severe liver disease (SLD) in Chinese populations. However, there is limited evidence on the combined impact of these factors, or the genetic variants associated with SLD. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of combined metabolic risk factors with risks of SLD, both overall and by genetic predisposition to SLD. METHODS: The study population involved 486,828 participants of the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas in China without a history of cancer or liver disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs for SLD associated with combined metabolic risk factors (central adiposity, physical inactivity, and diabetes) by stratum of genetic risk [assessed separately by a PNPLA3 variant (rs738409) and a BMI genetic risk score]. RESULTS: During ∼10 years of follow-up, 3279 incident cases of SLD were recorded. The overall mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2 (SD, 3.4 kg/m2), and 5.9% participants had diabetes. Compared with those with 3 metabolic factors, participants with 2, 1, and 0 metabolic factors had 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.65-0.73), 43% (HR, 0.57; 95% CI: 0.53-0.60), and 52% (HR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.56) lower risks of SLD, respectively. For both BMI and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease variants, participants with fewer metabolic factors had a lower risk of SLD, lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lower fatty liver index scores, in participants with low and high genetic risks (P value for interaction > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In relatively lean Chinese adults, individuals with fewer metabolic risk factors had a lower relative risk of SLD and a more favorable profile of liver biomarkers across all strata of genetic risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare Cox models, machine learning (ML), and ensemble models combining both approaches, for prediction of stroke risk in a prospective study of Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated models for stroke risk at varying intervals of follow-up (<9 years, 0-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-9 years) in 503 842 adults without prior history of stroke recruited from 10 areas in China in 2004-2008. Inputs included sociodemographic factors, diet, medical history, physical activity, and physical measurements. We compared discrimination and calibration of Cox regression, logistic regression, support vector machines, random survival forests, gradient boosted trees (GBT), and multilayer perceptrons, benchmarking performance against the 2017 Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. We then developed an ensemble approach to identify individuals at high risk of stroke (>10% predicted 9-yr stroke risk) by selectively applying either a GBT or Cox model based on individual-level characteristics. RESULTS: For 9-yr stroke risk prediction, GBT provided the best discrimination (AUROC: 0.833 in men, 0.836 in women) and calibration, with consistent results in each interval of follow-up. The ensemble approach yielded incrementally higher accuracy (men: 76%, women: 80%), specificity (men: 76%, women: 81%), and positive predictive value (men: 26%, women: 24%) compared to any of the single-model approaches. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Among several approaches, an ensemble model combining both GBT and Cox models achieved the best performance for identifying individuals at high risk of stroke in a contemporary study of Chinese adults. The results highlight the potential value of expanding the use of ML in clinical practice.

3.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(4): e25000, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest health problem in Australia, which kills more people than any other disease and incurs enormous costs for the health care system. In this study, we present a benchmark comparison of various artificial intelligence (AI) architectures for predicting the mortality rate of patients with CVD using structured medical claims data. Compared with other research in the clinical literature, our models are more efficient because we use a smaller number of features, and this study could help health professionals accurately choose AI models to predict mortality among patients with CVD using only claims data before a clinic visit. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to support health clinicians in accurately predicting mortality among patients with CVD using only claims data before a clinic visit. METHODS: The data set was obtained from the Medicare Benefits Scheme and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme service information in the period between 2004 and 2014, released by the Department of Health Australia in 2016. It included 346,201 records, corresponding to 346,201 patients. A total of five AI algorithms, including four classical machine learning algorithms (logistic regression [LR], random forest [RF], extra trees [ET], and gradient boosting trees [GBT]) and a deep learning algorithm, which is a densely connected neural network (DNN), were developed and compared in this study. In addition, because of the minority of deceased patients in the data set, a separate experiment using the Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) was conducted to enrich the data. RESULTS: Regarding model performance, in terms of discrimination, GBT and RF were the models with the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (97.8% and 97.7%, respectively), followed by ET (96.8%) and LR (96.4%), whereas DNN was the least discriminative (95.3%). In terms of reliability, LR predictions were the least calibrated compared with the other four algorithms. In this study, despite increasing the training time, SMOTE was proven to further improve the model performance of LR, whereas other algorithms, especially GBT and DNN, worked well with class imbalanced data. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other research in the clinical literature involving AI models using claims data to predict patient health outcomes, our models are more efficient because we use a smaller number of features but still achieve high performance. This study could help health professionals accurately choose AI models to predict mortality among patients with CVD using only claims data before a clinic visit.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections have been associated with a transient increase in cardiovascular risk. However, whether such an association persists beyond 1 month and the potential modifying effect of cardiovascular risk factors on such an association are less well established. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 726 participants aged 30-79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004-2008. By the end of 2017, a total of 5444 participants with new-onset ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and 4846 with ischaemic stroke (IS) who also had at least a record of hospitalization for pneumonia during follow-up were included. We used a self-controlled case-series method and calculated the age- and season-adjusted relative incidences (RIs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ischaemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) after pneumonia. RESULTS: The risk of ischaemic CVD increased during days 1-3 after pneumonia hospitalization, with an RI (95% CI) of 4.24 (2.92-6.15) for IHD and 1.85 (1.02-3.35) for IS. The risk gradually reduced with longer duration since pneumonia hospitalization but remained elevated until days 92-365 for IHD (1.23, 1.12-1.35) and days 29-91 for IS (1.25, 1.05-1.48). Pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors amplified the associations between pneumonia and ischaemic CVD risks, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both IHD and IS, and diabetes and smoking for IHD (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Besides, the risk of ischaemic CVD was also higher among the participants aged ≥70 years (Pinteraction < 0.001 for IHD and 0.033 for IS). CONCLUSION: Among middle-aged and older Chinese adults, pneumonia hospitalization was associated with both short- and long-term increases in ischaemic CVD risk for ≤1 year.

5.
Comput Biol Med ; 133: 104361, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872968

RESUMO

It is a well-known fact that there are often side effects to the long-term use of certain medications. These side effects can vary from mild dizziness to, at its most serious, death. The main factors that cause these side effects are the chemical composition, the mode of treatment, and the dose. The dynamics that govern the reaction of a drug heavily depend on its structural composition. The structural composition of a drug is defined by the structural arrangement of the corresponding basic chemical functional groups. Hence, it is essential to investigate the effect of chemical functional groups on the side effects to synthesize drugs with minimal side effects. To support this process, we developed a framework named MedFused (Medical Functional Group Side Effects Database), which is composed of drugs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: IUPAC nomenclature), functional groups, and the side effects along with other valuable information such as STITCH (search tool for interactions of chemicals) compound ID, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept ID. We develop a web framework that functions on the MedFused system database on top of the Django web framework. Our web server supports functionalities such as exploring the database and descriptive graph tools, which provide additional exploration capabilities to the framework. These descriptive tools include histograms, pie charts, and association charts, which further explore the system. Above these basic tools, MedFused includes functionality to discover the drug's "chemical functional group" impact on "side effects". The method conducts an association rule analysis on the relationships by considering the MedFused database as a collection of transactions. A specific transaction has a list of the functional groups of a drug and one side effect. Hence, a drug that has more than one side effect forms multiple transactions. Next, we generate a binary feature matrix based on the transactions and introduce a pruning mechanism to consider only the potential functional groups and side effects based on their support (frequencies), subjected to a predefined threshold (which can be changed accordingly). As the current version of the MedFused database has a limited number of side effects (hence low support), we restricted the analysis to identify the functional groups which have the most potential of causing a particular side effect, based on a confidence value of 1. Our framework can be further extended with more functions and tools as it supports the model view controller (MVC) architecture, which is inherited from the Django Python web framework.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805392

RESUMO

A few prospective studies have suggested that tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption may reduce the risk of kidney stones. However, little is known whether such associations and their combined effect persist in Chinese adults, for whom the popular tea and alcohol drinks are different from those investigated in the aforementioned studies. The present study included 502,621 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). Information about tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was self-reported at baseline. The first documented cases of kidney stones during follow-up were collected through linkage with the national health insurance system. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During a median of 11.1 years of follow-up, we collected 12,407 cases of kidney stones. After multivariable adjustment, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption were found to be negatively associated with kidney stone risk, but the linear trend was only found in tea and fruit consumption. Compared with non-tea consumers, the HR (95% CI) for participants who drank ≥7 cups of tea per day was 0.73 (0.65-0.83). Compared with non-alcohol consumers, the HR (95% CI) was 0.79 (0.72-0.87) for participants who drank pure alcohol of 30.0-59.9 g per day but had no further decrease with a higher intake of alcohol. Compared with less-than-weekly consumers, the HR (95% CI) for daily fruit consumers was 0.81 (0.75-0.87). Even for those who did not drink alcohol excessively, increasing tea and fruit consumption could also independently reduce the stone risk. Among Chinese adults, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was associated with a lower risk of kidney stones.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797717

RESUMO

Microbiome plays an important role in evaluating soil quality for sustainable agriculture. However, the suitability of biological indicators in reclaimed farmland is less understood. Using high-throughput sequencing, we evaluated the soil microbial community of the newly created farmland (NF) after reclamation with two local high-yield farmlands (slope farmland (SF), check-dam farmland (CF)) on the Loess Plateau. Soil enzyme activities and the amount of culturable microorganism were also quantified to assess the soil quality. Results showed that the microbial diversity, cultural microorganism abundance, and soil enzyme activities indicated poor soil quality in NF. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. The abundance of Acidobacteria was significantly lower in NF (13.31%) than in SF (27.25%) and CF (27.91%). Soil enzyme activities had a significant correlation with the abundance of culturable microorganism, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, and pH, suggesting that soil microbes have driven the formation of nutrition and further mediated crop growth. Therefore, the application of bacterial fertilizers could be a potential way to improve the soil quality of reclaimed farmland for crop growth.

8.
Anal Chem ; 93(17): 6613-6619, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886309

RESUMO

In this work, we develop a direct transverse relaxation time (T2) biosensing strategy and employ it for assaying foodborne pathogens relying on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-mediated sol-gel transition of hydrogels. ALP can catalyze the reaction to generate an acidic environment to transform the sol-state alginate solution to hydrogel, and this hydrogelation process can directly regulate the diffusion rate of water protons that results in a T2 change of water molecules. By means of enzyme-modulated sol-gel transition and antigen-antibody interactions, this T2 biosensor displays high sensitivity for detecting 50 CFU/mL S. enteritidis within 2 h. This biosensing strategy directly modulates the water molecules rather than magnetic probes in traditional methods, offering a straightforward, novel, and sensitive platform for pathogen detection.

9.
Anal Chem ; 93(15): 6178-6187, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829768

RESUMO

Development of a versatile biosensing toolkit is in urgent need for rapid and multiplexed detection applications. In this work, an electronic particle counter-implemented versatile biosensing toolkit has been developed for detecting a range of targets with high sensitivity, broad detection range, multiplexibility, simple operation, and low cost. The electrical resistance-based particle counter conventionally measuring the number of microspheres (1-100 µm) can quantify analytes. The versatility of this approach is verified by assaying small molecules, protein biomarkers, pathogen bacteria, and tumor cells using three strategies: (1) antigen-antibody interaction, (2) DNA hybridization, and (3) polypeptide recognition. More importantly, this biosensing toolkit allows the simultaneous detection of multiple targets with a broad detection range from pg mL-1 to µg mL-1, showing great potential as a powerful technique for food safety testing and biomedical diagnosis.

10.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675359

RESUMO

Thalamocortical neurons (TCNs) play a critical role in the maintenance of thalamocortical oscillations, dysregulation of which can result in certain types of seizures. Precise control over firing rates of TCNs is foundational to these oscillations, yet the transcriptional mechanisms that constrain these firing rates remain elusive. We hypothesized that Shox2 is a transcriptional regulator of ion channels important for TCN function and that loss of Shox2 alters firing frequency and activity, ultimately perturbing thalamocortical oscillations into an epilepsy-prone state. In this study, we used RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR of control and Shox2 knockout mice to determine Shox2-affected genes and revealed a network of ion channel genes important for neuronal firing properties. Protein regulation was confirmed by Western blotting, and electrophysiological recordings showed that Shox2 KO impacted the firing properties of a subpopulation of TCNs. Computational modeling showed that disruption of these conductances in a manner similar to Shox2's effects modulated frequency of oscillations and could convert sleep spindles to near spike and wave activity, which are a hallmark for absence epilepsy. Finally, Shox2 KO mice were more susceptible to pilocarpine-induced seizures. Overall, these results reveal Shox2 as a transcription factor important for TCN function in adult mouse thalamus.

11.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003545, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death in China and accounts for about one-sixth of all suicides worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the recent distribution of suicide and risk factors for death by suicide. Identifying underlying risk factors could benefit development of evidence-based prevention and intervention programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study, the China Kadoorie Biobank, of 512,715 individuals (41% men, mean age 52 years) from 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) areas which are diverse across China in geographic locations, social economic developmental stages, and prevalence of disease patterns. After the baseline measurements of risk factors during 2004 to 2008, participants were followed up for suicide outcomes including suicide and possible suicide deaths. Risk factors, such as sociodemographic factors and physical and mental health status, were assessed by semistructured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Suicide and possible suicide deaths were identified through linkage to the local death registries using ICD-10 codes. We conducted Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for suicide and for possible suicide in sensitivity analyses. During an average follow-up period of 9.9 years, 520 (101 per 100,000) people died from suicide (51.3% male), and 79.8% of them lived in rural areas. Sociodemographic factors associated with increased suicide risk were male gender (adjusted hazard ratios [aHR] = 1.6 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.0], p < 0.001), older age (1.3 [1.2 to 1.5] by each 10-yr increase, p < 0.001), rural residence (2.6 [2.1 to 3.3], p < 0.001), and single status (1.7 [1.4 to 2.2], p < 0.001). Increased hazards were found for family-related stressful life events (aHR = 1.8 [1.2 to 1.9], p < 0.001) and for major physical illnesses (1.5 [1.3 to 1.9], p < 0.001). There were strong associations of suicide with a history of lifetime mental disorders (aHR = 9.6 [5.9 to 15.6], p < 0.001) and lifetime schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (11.0 [7.1 to 17.0], p < 0.001). Links between suicide risk and depressive disorders (aHR = 2.6 [1.4 to 4.8], p = 0.002) and generalized anxiety disorders (2.6 [1.0 to 7.1], p = 0.056) in the last 12 months, and sleep disorders (1.4 [1.2 to 1.7], p < 0.001) in the past month were also found. All HRs were adjusted for sociodemographic factors including gender, age, residence, single status, education, and income. The associations with possible suicide deaths were mostly similar to those with suicide deaths, although there was no clear link between possible suicide deaths and psychiatric factors such as depression and generalized anxiety disorders. A limitation of the study is that there is likely underreporting of mental disorders due to the use of self-report information for some diagnostic categories. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, stressful life events, physical, and mental health factors were associated with suicide in China. High-risk groups identified were elderly men in rural settings and individuals with mental disorders. These findings could form the basis of targeted approaches to reduce suicide mortality in China.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from epidemiological studies remains inconsistent or limited about the associations of tea consumption with incident diabetes and risk of diabetic complications and death among patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations of tea consumption with long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risks of diabetic complications and death among patients with diabetes. METHODS: This study included 482,425 diabetes-free participants and 30,300 patients with diabetes aged 30-79 y at study enrollment from the China Kadoorie Biobank. Tea consumption information was collected at baseline by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Incidences of diabetes, diabetic complications, and death were identified by linkages to the National Health Insurance system, disease registries, and death registries. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of participants free of diabetes was 51.2 ± 10.5 y and 41% were male. The mean ± SD age of patients with diabetes was 58.2 ± 9.6 y and 39% were male. Of all daily tea consumers, 85.8% preferred green tea. In the diabetes-free population, 17,434 participants developed incident T2D during 11.1 y of follow-up. Compared with participants who never consumed tea in the past year, the HR (95% CI) of T2D for daily consumers was 0.92 (0.88, 0.97). In patients with diabetes, we identified 6572 deaths, 12,677 diabetic macrovascular cases, and 2441 diabetic microvascular cases during follow-up. Compared with patients who never consumed tea in the past year, the HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality and risk of microvascular complications for daily consumers were 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) and 0.88 (0.78, 1.00), respectively. Tea consumption was not associated with risk of macrovascular complications among patients with diabetes. With regard to tea consumed, the inverse associations between daily tea consumption and risks of T2D and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes were only observed among daily green tea drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese adults, daily green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of incident T2D and a lower risk of all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes, but the associations for other types of tea were less clear. In addition, daily tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of diabetic microvascular complications, but not macrovascular complications.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease (GSD) is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, it is unclear whether the associations are causal. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recorded 17,598 cases of GI cancer among 510,137 participants without cancer at baseline during 10 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancer by GSD status and duration. Mendelian randomisation was conducted to assess the genetic associations of GSD with specific cancer. RESULTS: Overall 6% of participants had symptomatic GSD at baseline. Compared with those without GSD, individuals with symptomatic GSD had adjusted HRs of 1.13 (1.01-1.29) for colorectal, 2.01 (1.78-2.26) for liver, 3.70 (2.88-4.87) for gallbladder, 2.31 (1.78-3.07) for biliary tract, and 1.38 (1.18-1.74) for pancreatic cancer. Compared with participants without GSD, the risks of colorectal, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer were highest during 0 to <5 years following disease diagnosis. There was evidence of genetic associations of GSD with these cancers, with odds ratios per 1-SD genetic score of 1.08 (1.05-1.11) for colorectal, 1.22 (1.19-1.25) for liver, 1.56 (1.49-1.64) for gallbladder, 1.39 (1.31-1.46) for biliary tract, and 1.16 (1.10-1.22) for pancreatic cancer. When meta-analysing the genetic estimates in CKB and UK Biobank, there was evidence of causal associations of GSD with colon cancer, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (GBTC), and total GI cancer (RR per 1-SD: 1.05 [0.99-1.11], 2.00 [1.91-2.09], and 1.09 [1.05-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS: GSD was associated with higher risks of several GI cancers, warranting future studies on the underlying mechanisms.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766948

RESUMO

Lung function is a heritable complex phenotype with obesity being one of its important risk factors. However, the knowledge of their shared genetic basis is limited. Most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for lung function have been based on European populations, limiting the generalisability across populations. Large-scale lung function GWAS in other populations are lacking.We included 100 285 subjects from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). To identify novel loci for lung function, single-trait GWAS were performed on FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC in CKB. We then performed genome-wide cross-trait analysis between the lung function and obesity traits (body mass index [BMI], BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference) to investigate the shared genetic effects in CKB. Finally, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of lung function were developed in CKB and its interaction with BMI's association on lung function were examined. We also conducted cross-trait analysis in parallel with CKB using 457 756 subjects from UK Biobank (UKB) for replication and investigation of ancestry specific effect.We identified 9 genome-wide significant novel loci for FEV1, 6 for FVC and 3 for FEV1/FVC in CKB. FEV1 and FVC showed significant negative genetic correlation with obesity traits in both CKB and UKB. Genetic loci shared between lung function and obesity traits highlighted important pathways, including cell proliferation, embryo and tissue development. Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested significant negative causal effect of BMI on FEV1 and on FVC in both CKB and UKB. Lung function PRSs significantly modified the effect of change-in-BMI on change-in-lung function during an average follow-up of 8 years.This large-scale GWAS of lung function identified novel loci and shared genetic etiology between lung function and obesity. Change-in-BMI might affect change-in-lung function differently according to a subject's polygenic background. These findings may open new avenue for the development of molecular-targeted therapies for obesity and lung function improvement.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between educational attainment and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is limited in evidence in middle-income countries like China. Exploring lifestyle-related mediators, which might be not universal between socioeconomic status and health outcomes in diverse regions, can contribute to interventions targeted at the Chinese to narrow the educational gap in IHD. METHODS: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank of 489 594 participants aged 30-79 years who did not have heart disease or stroke at baseline, this study examined the association of educational attainment with IHD. Total IHD cases were further divided into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases and non-AMI cases. The Cox proportional hazard model was performed to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs for mortality and incidence of IHD. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs for case fatality. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 11.1 years, this study documented 45 946 (6668) incident IHD (AMI) cases and 5948 (3689) deaths altogether. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased risk of incident AMI as well as death and fatality of total IHD including its subtypes (ptrend <0.001). Although the risk of incident non-AMI was greater for participants with higher levels of education in the whole population (ptrend <0.001), an inverse association of education with its incidence was found in participants from <50 years age group and rural areas. Smoking and dietary habits were the two most potent mediating factors in the associations of education with mortality and AMI incidence; whereas, physical activity was the major mediating factor for non-AMI incidence in the whole population. DISCUSSION: Interventions targeting unhealthy lifestyles are ideal ways to narrow the educational gap in IHD while solving 'upstream' causes of health behaviours might be the most fundamental ones.

16.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686431

RESUMO

The rapid development of high-throughput technology has generated a large number of biological networks. Network-based methods are able to provide rich information for inferring gene function. This is composed of analyzing the topological characteristics of genes in related networks, integrating biological information, and considering data from different data sources. To promote network biology and related biotechnology research, this article provides a survey for the state of the art of advanced methods of network-based gene function prediction and discusses the potential challenges.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525608

RESUMO

The strong noise generated during the operation of the centrifugal pump harms the pump group and people. In order to decrease the noise of the centrifugal pump, a specific speed of 117.3 of the centrifugal pump is chosen as a research object. The bionic modification of centrifugal pump blades is carried out to explore the influence of different bionic structures on the noise reduction performance of centrifugal pumps. The internal flow field and internal sound field of bionic blades are studied by numerical calculation and test methods. The test is carried out on a closed pump test platform which includes external characteristics and a flow noise test system. The effects of two different bionic structures on the external characteristics, acoustic amplitude-frequency characteristics and flow field structure of a centrifugal pump, are analyzed. The results show that the pit structure has little influence on the external characteristic parameters, while the sawtooth structure has a relatively great influence. The noise reduction effect of the pit structure is aimed at the wide-band noise, while the sawtooth structure is aimed at the discrete noise of the blade-passing frequency (BPF) and its frequency doubling. The noise reduction ability of the sawtooth structure is not suitable for high-frequency bands.


Assuntos
Biônica , Ruído , Humanos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116648, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581628

RESUMO

The concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs, DP, PCBs, and OCPs were analyzed in water samples of the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and in soil and maize samples collected from basin irrigation areas to understand the status of POPs and associated health risks. The results showed: (1) the congeners of eight PBDEs and seven NBFRs were detected in 10 tributaries, with average concentrations of 1575 and 4288 pg. L-1. Thirty-three congeners of PCBs were detected, and the average concentration of PCB was 232 pg. L-1. Five HCHs were the primary congeners among twenty-three congeners of OCPs in the ten tributaries, accounting for 79% of the total. The average concentration of OCPs was 8287 pg. L-1. (2) Similar congeners of HFRs, PCBs, and OCPs were found in the trunk water. The ranking based on the HFR concentration was upstream > downstream > midstream, and that of the PCB and OCP concentration was downstream > upstream > midstream. (3) PCBs and OCPs in the trunk water of the YRB and in the soil and maize irrigated with river water pose potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. The results indicate considerable organic pollution in the YRB, suggesting that national emission standards for POPs should be implemented soon.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(3): 286-293, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is the primary option of acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) treatment. However, the unique traumatic stress of cardiovascular disease and surgery brings physical and psychological suffering to the patients and causes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of PTSD in AAAD patients after surgery and identify the risk factors of this complication. METHODS: A prospective cohort design was used. All patients who underwent AAAD surgery from September 2017 to June 2019 were included. Resilience, anxiety, and depression level were assessed before patients discharged from the hospital. Additionally, the PTSD symptoms were assessed three months after discharge from hospital. The data were analyzed by SPSS 24.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were included in this study. The incidence of PTSD was 21.4%. Symptoms were highly prevalent with reexperience and increased alertness. "Primary or below" AAAD patients had a significantly higher score in "increased alertness" (P<0.05). Depressive symptoms (B=1.621, ß=0.398, P<0.001), female gender (B=-7.539, ß=-0.311, P<0.001) were the risk factors associated with PTSD, while optimism (B=-0.920, ß=-0.169, P=0.012) was the protective factor in AAAD patients. CONCLUSIONS: AAAD patients exhibited high prevalence of PTSD, which was highly prevalent with reexperience and increased alertness. Higher depressive level, female gender, and lower optimism were associated with higher risk of PTSD. The findings suggest that medical staff should assess the psychological health status of AAAD patients timely and identify high-risk patients early to improve the outcome.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Adulto , Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 148(12): 2924-2934, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521941

RESUMO

China has made rapid progress in reducing the incidence of HBV infection in the past three decades, along with a rapidly changing lifestyle and aging population. We aimed to develop and validate an up-to-date liver cancer risk prediction model with routinely available predictors and evaluate its applicability for screening guidance. Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, we included 486 285 participants in this analysis. Fifteen risk factors were included in the model. Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate the 10-year absolute risk of liver cancer. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. A total of 2706 participants occurred liver cancer over the 4 814 320 person-years of follow-up. Excellent discrimination of the model was observed in both development and validation datasets, with c-statistics (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.80 (0.78-0.82) respectively, as well as excellent calibration of observed and predicted risks. Decision curve analysis revealed that use of the model in selecting participants for screening improved benefit at a threshold of 2% 10-year risk, compared to current guideline of screening all HBsAg carriers. Our model was more sensitive than current guideline for cancer screening (28.17% vs 25.96%). We developed and validated a CKB-PLR (Prediction for Liver cancer Risk Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank Study) model to predict the absolute risk of liver cancer for both HBsAg seropositive and seronegative populations. Application of the model is beneficial for precisely identifying the high-risk groups among the general population.

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