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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(20): 207701, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809081

RESUMO

A pair of Dirac points (analogous to a vortex-antivortex pair) associated with opposite topological numbers (with ±π Berry phases) can be merged together through parameter tuning and annihilated to gap the Dirac spectrum, offering a canonical example of a topological phase transition. Here, we report transport studies on thin films of BiSbTeSe_{2}, which is a 3D topological insulator that hosts spin-helical gapless (semimetallic) Dirac fermion surface states for sufficiently thick samples, with an observed resistivity close to h/4e^{2} at the charge neutral point. When the sample thickness is reduced to below ∼10 nm thick, we observe a transition from metallic to insulating behavior, consistent with the expectation that the Dirac cones from the top and bottom surfaces hybridize (analogous to a "merging" in the real space) to give a trivial gapped insulator. Furthermore, we observe that an in-plane magnetic field can drive the system again towards a metallic behavior, with a prominent negative magnetoresistance (up to ∼-95%) and a temperature-insensitive resistivity close to h/2e^{2} at the charge neutral point. The observation is consistent with a predicted effect of an in-plane magnetic field to reduce the hybridization gap (which, if small enough, may be smeared by disorder and give rise to a metallic behavior). A sufficiently strong magnetic field is predicted to restore and split again the Dirac points in the momentum space, inducing a distinct 2D topological semimetal phase with two single-fold Dirac cones of opposite spin-momentum windings.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(4): 047003, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768322

RESUMO

We report anomalous enhancement of the critical current at low temperatures in gate-tunable Josephson junctions made from topological insulator BiSbTeSe_{2} nanoribbons with superconducting Nb electrodes. In contrast to conventional junctions, as a function of the decreasing temperature T, the increasing critical current I_{c} exhibits a sharp upturn at a temperature T_{*} around 20% of the junction critical temperature for several different samples and various gate voltages. The I_{c} vs T demonstrates a short junction behavior for T>T_{*}, but crosses over to a long junction behavior for T

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 375, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670693

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and many-body interactions on spin transport is important in condensed matter physics and spintronics. This topic has been intensively studied for spin carriers such as electrons but barely explored for charge-neutral bosonic quasiparticles (including their condensates), which hold promises for coherent spin transport over macroscopic distances. Here, we explore the effects of synthetic SOC (induced by optical Raman coupling) and atomic interactions on the spin transport in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), where the spin-dipole mode (SDM, actuated by quenching the Raman coupling) of two interacting spin components constitutes an alternating spin current. We experimentally observe that SOC significantly enhances the SDM damping while reducing the thermalization (the reduction of the condensate fraction). We also observe generation of BEC collective excitations such as shape oscillations. Our theory reveals that the SOC-modified interference, immiscibility, and interaction between the spin components can play crucial roles in spin transport.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(7): 073202, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169056

RESUMO

Coherent control of reactants remains a long-standing challenge in quantum chemistry. In particular, we have studied laser-induced molecular formation (photoassociation) in a Raman-dressed spin-orbit-coupled ^{87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate, whose spin quantum state is a superposition of multiple bare spin components. In contrast to the notably different photoassociation-induced fractional atom losses observed for the bare spin components of a statistical mixture, a superposition state with a comparable spin composition displays the same fractional loss on every spin component. We interpret this as the superposition state itself undergoing photoassociation. For superposition states induced by a large Raman coupling and zero Raman detuning, we observe a nearly complete suppression of the photoassociation rate. This suppression is consistent with a model based upon quantum destructive interference between two photoassociation pathways for colliding atoms with different spin combinations. This model also explains the measured dependence of the photoassociation rate on the Raman detuning at a moderate Raman coupling. Our work thus suggests that preparing atoms in quantum superpositions may represent a powerful new technique to coherently control photochemical reactions.

6.
Opt Lett ; 43(15): 3778-3781, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067678

RESUMO

Atom-like defects in two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as a promising platform for quantum information science. Here, we investigate single-photon emissions from atomic defects in boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical modulation of the quantum emission from BNNTs with a near-infrared laser. This one-dimensional system displays a bright single-photon emission, as well as high stability at room temperature, and is an excellent candidate for optomechanics. The fast optical modulation of a single-photon emission shows multiple electronic levels of the system and has potential applications in optical signal processing.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(2): 026807, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085694

RESUMO

Topological insulators are promising candidates for optically driven spintronic devices, because photoexcitation of spin polarized surface states is governed by angular momentum selection rules. We carry out femtosecond midinfrared spectroscopy on thin films of the topological insulator Bi_{2}Te_{2}Se, which has a higher surface state conductivity compared to conventionally studied Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Te_{3}. Both charge and spin dynamics are probed utilizing circularly polarized light. With a sub-band-gap excitation, clear helicity-dependent dynamics is observed only in thin (<20 nm) flakes. On the other hand, such dependence is observed for both thin and thick flakes with above-band-gap excitation. The helicity dependence is attributed to asymmetric excitation of the Dirac-like surface states. The observed long-lasting asymmetry over 10 ps even at room temperature indicates low backscattering of surface state carriers which can be exploited for spintronic devices.

8.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): e1700324, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423439

RESUMO

Efficient interfacial carrier generation in van der Waals heterostructures is critical for their electronic and optoelectronic applications. We demonstrate broadband photocarrier generation in WS2-graphene heterostructures by imaging interlayer coupling-dependent charge generation using ultrafast transient absorption microscopy. Interlayer charge-transfer (CT) transitions and hot carrier injection from graphene allow carrier generation by excitation as low as 0.8 eV below the WS2 bandgap. The experimentally determined interlayer CT transition energies are consistent with those predicted from the first-principles band structure calculation. CT interactions also lead to additional carrier generation in the visible spectral range in the heterostructures compared to that in the single-layer WS2 alone. The lifetime of the charge-separated states is measured to be ~1 ps. These results suggest that interlayer interactions make graphene-two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures very attractive for photovoltaic and photodetector applications because of the combined benefits of high carrier mobility and enhanced broadband photocarrier generation.

9.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1120-1127, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361229

RESUMO

Topological insulators (TI) have attracted extensive research effort due to their insulating bulk states but conducting surface states. However, investigation and understanding of thermal transport in topological insulators, particularly the effect of surface states, are lacking. In this work, we studied thickness-dependent in-plane thermal and electrical conductivity of Bi2Te2Se TI thin films. A large enhancement in both thermal and electrical conductivity was observed for films with thicknesses below 20 nm, which is attributed to the surface states and bulk-insulating nature of these films. Moreover, a surface Lorenz number much larger than the Sommerfeld value was found. Systematic transport measurements indicated that the Fermi surface is located near the charge neutrality point (CNP) when the film thickness is below 20 nm. Possible reasons for the large Lorenz number include electrical and thermal current decoupling in the surface state Dirac fluid, and bipolar diffusion transport. A simple computational model indicates that the surface states and bipolar diffusion indeed can lead to enhanced electrical and thermal transport and a large Lorenz number.

10.
Opt Express ; 26(24): 31817-31828, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650761

RESUMO

We report an endogenous photoelectric biomolecule and demonstrate that such a biomolecule can be used to detect visible light. We identify the green pigment abundantly present in natural silk cocoons of Antheraea yamamai (Japanese oak silkmoth) as biliverdin, using mass spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Biliverdin extracted from the green silk cocoons generates photocurrent upon light illumination with distinct colors. We further characterize the basic performance, responsiveness, and stability of the biliverdin-based biophotosensors at a photovoltaic device level using blue, green, orange, and red light illumination. Biliverdin could potentially serve as an optoelectric biomolecule toward the development of next-generation implantable photosensors and artificial photoreceptors.


Assuntos
Biliverdina/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Bombyx/química , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Espectral
11.
Adv Mater ; 29(27)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481053

RESUMO

Graphene has demonstrated great potential in new-generation electronic applications due to its unique electronic properties such as large carrier Fermi velocity, ultrahigh carrier mobility, and high material stability. Interestingly, the electronic structures can be further engineered in multilayer graphene by the introduction of a twist angle between different layers to create van Hove singularities (vHSs) at adjustable binding energy. In this work, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with sub-micrometer spatial resolution, the band structures and their evolution are systematically studied with twist angle in bilayer and trilayer graphene sheets. A doping effect is directly observed in graphene multilayer system as well as vHSs in bilayer graphene over a wide range of twist angles (from 5° to 31°) with wide tunable energy range over 2 eV. In addition, the formation of multiple vHSs (at different binding energies) is also observed in trilayer graphene. The large tuning range of vHS binding energy in twisted multilayer graphene provides a promising material base for optoelectrical applications with broadband wavelength selectivity from the infrared to the ultraviolet regime, as demonstrated by an example application of wavelength selective photodetector.

12.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(7): 668-674, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396604

RESUMO

The extraordinary optical and electronic properties of graphene make it a promising component of high-performance photodetectors. However, in typical graphene-based photodetectors demonstrated to date, the photoresponse only comes from specific locations near graphene over an area much smaller than the device size. For many optoelectronic device applications, it is desirable to obtain the photoresponse and positional sensitivity over a much larger area. Here, we report the spatial dependence of the photoresponse in backgated graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by scanning a focused laser beam across the GFET. The GFET shows a nonlocal photoresponse even when the SiC substrate is illuminated at distances greater than 500 µm from the graphene. The photoresponsivity and photocurrent can be varied by more than one order of magnitude depending on the illumination position. Our observations are explained with a numerical model based on charge transport of photoexcited carriers in the substrate.

13.
Sci Adv ; 3(4): e1602531, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439549

RESUMO

Topological insulators (TIs), with their helically spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSSs), are considered promising for spintronics applications. Several recent experiments in TIs have demonstrated a current-induced electronic spin polarization that may be used for all-electrical spin generation and injection. We report spin potentiometric measurements in TIs that have revealed a long-lived persistent electron spin polarization even at zero current. Unaffected by a small bias current and persisting for several days at low temperature, the spin polarization can be induced and reversed by a large "writing" current applied for an extended time. Although the exact mechanism responsible for the observed long-lived persistent spin polarization remains to be better understood, we speculate on possible roles played by nuclear spins hyperfine-coupled to TSS electrons and dynamically polarized by the spin-helical writing current. Such an electrically controlled persistent spin polarization with unprecedented long lifetime could enable a rechargeable spin battery and rewritable spin memory for potential applications in spintronics and quantum information.

14.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 57-62, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966986

RESUMO

Graphene has been demonstrated to be a promising photodetection material because of its ultrabroadband optical absorption, compatibility with CMOS technology, and dynamic tunability in optical and electrical properties. However, being a single atomic layer thick, graphene has intrinsically small optical absorption, which hinders its incorporation with modern photodetecting systems. In this work, we propose a gold snowflake-like fractal metasurface design to realize broadband and polarization-insensitive plasmonic enhancement in graphene photodetector. We experimentally obtain an enhanced photovoltage from the fractal metasurface that is an order of magnitude greater than that generated at a plain gold-graphene edge and such an enhancement in the photovoltage sustains over the entire visible spectrum. We also observed a relatively constant photoresponse with respect to polarization angles of incident light, as a result of the combination of two orthogonally oriented concentric hexagonal fractal geometries in one metasurface.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(13): 137202, 2017 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341679

RESUMO

We demonstrate a new method for the detection of the spin-chemical potential in topological insulators using spin-polarized four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy on in situ cleaved Bi_{2}Te_{2}Se surfaces. Two-dimensional (2D) surface and 3D bulk conductions are separated quantitatively via variable probe-spacing measurements, enabling the isolation of the nonvanishing spin-dependent electrochemical potential from the Ohmic contribution. This component is identified as the spin-chemical potential arising from the 2D charge current through the spin momentum locked topological surface states (TSS). This method provides a direct measurement of spin current generation efficiency and opens a new avenue to access the intrinsic spin transport associated with pristine TSS.

16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11434, 2016 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142344

RESUMO

Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation.

17.
Nano Lett ; 16(4): 2213-20, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26954427

RESUMO

We show a new method to differentiate conductivities from the surface states and the coexisting bulk states in topological insulators using a four-probe transport spectroscopy in a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscopy system. We derive a scaling relation of measured resistance with respect to varying interprobe spacing for two interconnected conduction channels to allow quantitative determination of conductivities from both channels. Using this method, we demonstrate the separation of 2D and 3D conduction in topological insulators by comparing the conductance scaling of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te2Se, and Sb-doped Bi2Se3 against a pure 2D conductance of graphene on SiC substrate. We also quantitatively show the effect of surface doping carriers on the 2D conductance enhancement in topological insulators. The method offers a means to understanding not just the topological insulators but also the 2D to 3D crossover of conductance in other complex systems.

18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(4): 345-51, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780658

RESUMO

The spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states in a topological insulator nanowire or nanoribbon promise novel topological devices and exotic physics such as Majorana fermions. Here, we report local and non-local transport measurements in Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoribbons that exhibit quasi-ballistic transport over ∼2 µm. The conductance versus axial magnetic flux Φ exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with maxima occurring alternately at half-integer or integer flux quanta (Φ0 = h/e, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge) depending periodically on the gate-tuned Fermi wavevector (kF) with period 2π/C (where C is the nanoribbon circumference). The conductance versus gate voltage also exhibits kF-periodic oscillations, anti-correlated between Φ = 0 and Φ0/2. These oscillations enable us to probe the Bi2Te3 band structure, and are consistent with the circumferentially quantized topological surface states forming a series of one-dimensional subbands, which undergo periodic magnetic field-induced topological transitions with the disappearance/appearance of the gapless Dirac point with a one-dimensional spin helical mode.

19.
Sci Rep ; 5: 14293, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26391089

RESUMO

Topological insulators (TIs) are an unusual phase of quantum matter with nontrivial spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSS). The electrical detection of spin-momentum-locking of TSS has been lacking till very recently. Many of the results are from samples with significant bulk conduction, such as Bi2Se3, where it can be challenging to separate the surface and bulk contribution to the spin signal. Here, we report spin potentiometric measurements in flakes exfoliated from bulk insulating Bi2Te2Se crystals, using two outside nonmagnetic contacts for driving a DC spin helical current and a middle ferromagnetic (FM)-Al2O3 contact for detecting spin polarization. The voltage measured by the FM electrode exhibits a hysteretic step-like change when sweeping an in-plane magnetic field between opposite directions along the easy axis of the FM contact. Importantly, the direction of the voltage change can be reversed by reversing the direction of current, and the amplitude of the change as measured by the difference in the detector voltage between opposite FM magnetization increases linearly with increasing current, consistent with the current-induced spin polarization of spin-momentum-locked TSS. Our work directly demonstrates the electrical injection and detection of spin polarization in TI and may enable utilization of TSS for applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

20.
ACS Nano ; 9(10): 10018-31, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390281

RESUMO

Optoelectronic performance of metal nanowire networks are dominated by junction microstructure and network configuration. Although metal nanowire printings, such as silver nanowires (AgNWs) or AgNWs/semiconductor oxide bilayer, have great potential to replace traditional ITO, efficient and selective nanoscale integration of nanowires is still challenging owing to high cross nanowire junction resistance. Herein, pulsed laser irradiation under controlled conditions is used to generate local crystalline nanojoining of AgNWs without affecting other regions of the network, resulting in significantly improved optoelectronic performance. The method, laser-induced plasmonic welding (LPW), can be applied to roll-to-roll printed AgNWs percolating networks on PET substrate. First principle simulations and experimental characterizations reveal the mechanism of crystalline nanojoining originated from thermal activated isolated metal atom flow over nanowire junctions. Molecular dynamic simulation results show an angle-dependent recrystallization process during LPW. The excellent optoelectronic performance of AgNW/PET has achieved Rs ∼ 5 Ω/sq at high transparency (91% @λ = 550 nm).

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