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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13849-13858, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779198

RESUMO

A sucrose nonfermenting protein kinase 1 (SNF1) complex is an important metabolic regulator in fungi that is critical to cell metabolism and stress response. In this study, the role of an SNF1 ß-subunit in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina (MaSip2) was investigated. The MaSip2 contained a glycogen-binding domain and a conserved SNF1-complex interaction region; its transcriptional level during lipogenesis shared high consistency with a previously reported SNF1 γ-subunit (MaSnf4). Overexpression of MaSip2 in M. alpina significantly promoted glucose uptake and resulted in 34.1% increased total biomass, leading to 44.8% increased arachidonic acid yield after 7 day fermentation. MaSip2 also regulated the balance between polyunsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates in M. alpina. Intracellular metabolite analysis revealed increased carbohydrate-related metabolite accumulation in MaSip2 overexpression strains. On the contrary, knockdown of MaSip2 increased the total fatty acid unsaturation degree, especially under low-temperature conditions. This research improved our knowledge of SNF1 complex in M. alpina and provided a target gene for enhancing glucose utilization and modulating fatty acid composition for better application of oleaginous fungi.


Assuntos
Mortierella , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Glucose , Mortierella/genética
2.
Adipocyte ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated complications are becoming a pandemic. Inhibiting adipogenesis is an important intervention for the treatment of obesity. Despite intensive investigations, numerous mechanistic aspects of adipogenesis remain unclear, and many potential therapeutic targets have yet to be discovered. METHODS: Transcriptomics and lipidomics approaches were used to explore the functional genes regulating adipogenic differentiation and the potential mechanism in OP9 cells and adipose-derived stem cells. RESULTS: In this study, we found that NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit A6 (Ndufa6) participates in the regulation of adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we show that the effect of Ndufa6 is mediated through stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of a SCD1 inhibitor on adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study broadens the understanding of adipogenic differentiation and offers NDUFA6-SCD1 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity.

3.
Front Nutr ; 8: 746342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746210

RESUMO

Mortierella alpina has a strong capacity for lipid accumulation. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) plays an important role in affecting the flow of intracellular carbon sources and reducing power NADPH for lipid biosynthesis. In this study, the effect of various IDHs (NAD+- and NADP+-specific) in M. alpina on the lipid accumulation was investigated through homologous overexpression. The results showed that the transcription level and enzyme activity of the IDHs from M. alpina (MaIDHs) in homologous overexpressing strains were higher than those of the control strain, but that their biomass was not significantly different. Among the various NAD+-specific MaIDH1/2/3 overexpression, NAD+-MaIDH3 reduced total lipid content by 12.5%, whereas overexpression NAD+-MaIDH1 and NAD+-MaIDH2 had no effect on fatty acid content. Intracellular metabolites analysis indicated that the overexpression NAD+-MaIDH3 strain had reduced the fatty acid accumulation, due to its greater carbon flux with the tricarboxylic acid cycle and less carbon flux with fatty acid biosynthesis. For the NADP+-MaIDH4/5/6 recombinant strains overexpressing only NADP+-MaIDH4 enhanced the total fatty acid content by 8.2%. NADPH analysis suggested that this increase in lipid accumulation may have been due to the great reducing power NADPH is produced in this recombinant strain. This study provides theoretical basis and guidance for the analysis of the mechanism of IDH function and the potential to improve lipid production in M. alpina.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6275-6289, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424385

RESUMO

Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous filamentous fungus with considerable lipid productivity, and it has been widely used for industrial production of arachidonic acid. The fermentation process of M. alpina is complicated and can be affected by various factors; therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of its metabolic characteristics and key factors governing lipid biosynthesis is required to further improve its industrial performance. In this review, we discuss the metabolic features and extracellular factors that affect lipid biosynthesis in M. alpina. The current progress in fermentation optimisation and metabolic engineering to improve lipid yield are also summarised. Moreover, we review the applications of M. alpina in the food industry and propose fermentation strategies for better utilisation of this genus in the future. In our opinion, the economic performance of M. alpina should be enhanced from multiple levels, including strains with ideal traits, efficient fermentation strategies, controllable fermentation costs, and competitive products of both high value and productivity. By reviewing the peculiarities of M. alpina and current progress to improve its suitability for biotechnological production, we wish to provide more efficient strategies for future development of M. alpina as a high-value lipid cell factory. KEY POINTS: • Understanding M. alpina metabolism is helpful for rational design of its fermentation processes. • Nitrogen source is a key point that affects PUFA's component and fermentation cost in M. alpina. • Dynamic fermentation strategy combined with breeding is needed to increase lipid yield in M. alpina.


Assuntos
Mortierella , Ácido Araquidônico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Fermentação , Mortierella/genética
5.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 167(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402775

RESUMO

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyses the irreversible hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, which is the rate-limiting reaction in phenylalanine metabolism in animals. A variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by the lipid-producing fungus Mortierella alpina, which has a wide range of industrial applications in the production of arachidonic acid. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) with the gene PAH was used to explore the role of phenylalanine hydroxylation in lipid biosynthesis in M. alpina. Our results indicated that PAH knockdown decreased the PAH transcript level by approximately 55% and attenuated cellular fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, the level of NADPH, which is a critical reducing agent and the limiting factor in lipogenesis, was decreased in response to PAH RNAi, in addition to the downregulated transcription of other genes involved in NADPH production. Our study indicates that PAH is part of an overall enzymatic and regulatory mechanism supplying NADPH required for lipogenesis in M. alpina.

6.
Biotechnol Adv ; : 107794, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245810

RESUMO

The oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina has distinct advantages in long-chain PUFAs production, and it is the only source for dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) certificated by FDA and European Commission. This review provides an overall introduction to M. alpina, including its major research methods, key factors governing lipid biosynthesis, metabolic engineering and omics studies. Currently, the research interests in M. alpina focus on improving lipid yield and fatty acid desaturation degree by enhancing fatty acid precursors and the reducing power NADPH, and genetic manipulation on PUFAs synthetic pathways is carried to optimise fatty acid composition. Besides, multi-omics studies have been applied to elucidate the global regulatory mechanism of lipogenesis in M. alpina. However, research challenges towards achieving a lipid cell factory lie in strain breeding and cost control due to the coenocytic mycelium, long fermentation period and insufficient conversion rate from carbon to lipid. We also proposed future research goals based on a multilevel regulating strategy: obtaining ideal chassis by directional evolution and high-throughput screening; rewiring central carbon metabolism and inhibiting competitive pathways by multi-gene manipulation system to enhance carbon to lipid conversion rate; optimisation of protein function based on post-translational modification; application of dynamic fermentation strategies suitable for different fermentation phases. By reviewing the comprehensive research progress of this oleaginous fungus, we aim to further comprehend the fungal lipid metabolism and provide reference information and guidelines for the exploration of microbial oils from the perspectives of fundamental research to industrial application.

7.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 152: 103572, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015432

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) play an important role in lipid metabolism by serving as signal molecules as well as a potential acetyl-CoA source. Our previous study found that in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides, beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH), an important enzyme participating in the key BCAA leucine biosynthesis, was differentially expressed during lipid accumulation phase and has a positive role on lipogenesis. To further analyze its effects on lipogenesis in another oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the IPMDH-encoding gene MaLeuB was homologously expressed. It was found that the total fatty acid content in the recombinant strain was increased by 20.2% compared with the control strain, which correlated with a 4-fold increase in the MaLeuB transcriptional level. Intracellular metabolites analysis revealed significant changes in amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and butanoate metabolism; specifically, leucine and isoleucine levels were upregulated by 6.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Our genetic engineering approach and metabolomics study demonstrated that MaLeuB is involved in fatty acid metabolism in M. alpina by affecting BCAAs metabolism, and this newly discovered role of IPMDH provides a potential bypass route to increase lipogenesis in oleaginous fungi.

8.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(5): 568-576, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993864

RESUMO

Recent studies have predominantly focused on the role of B cells in metabolic diseases, yet the function of B cells in adipose homeostasis remains unclear. Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein (PTIP), a licensing factor for humoral immunity, is necessary for B cell development and activation. Here, using mice that lack PTIP in B cells (PTIP-/- mice), we explored the role of B cells in adipose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Fat deposition in 8-week-old mice was measured by micro-CT, and PTIP-/- mice presented a marked decrease in the deposition of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Untargeted lipidomics revealed that the triglyceride composition in SAT was altered in PTIP-/- mice. In addition, there was no difference in the number of adipocyte progenitor cells in the SAT of wild-type (WT) and PTIP-/- mice as measured by flow cytometry. To study the effects of steady-state IgM and IgG antibody levels on fat deposition, PTIP-/- mice were injected intraperitoneally with serum from WT mice once every 3-4 days for 4 weeks. The iSAT mass of the recipient mice showed no significant increase in comparison to the controls after 4 weeks of injections. Our findings reveal that PTIP plays an essential role in regulating subcutaneous adipocyte size, triglyceride composition, and fat deposition under physiological conditions by controlling B cells. The decreased subcutaneous fat deposition in PTIP-/- mice does not appear to be related to the number of adipocyte progenitor cells. The steady-state levels of IgM and IgG antibodies in vivo are not associated with the subcutaneous fat deposition.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiologia
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5586-5601, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982835

RESUMO

Alternative polarization of macrophages regulates multiple biological processes. While M1-polarized macrophages generally mediate rapid immune responses, M2-polarized macrophages induce chronic and mild immune responses. In either case, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediators act as both products and regulators of macrophages. Prostaglandin E3 (PGE3 ) is an eicosanoid derived from eicosapentaenoic acid, which is converted by cyclooxygenase, followed by prostaglandin E synthase successively. We found that PGE3 played an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS and interferon-γ-induced M1 polarization and promoting interleukin-4-mediated M2 polarization (M2a). Further, we found that although PGE3 had no direct effect on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro, PGE3 could inhibit prostate cancer in vivo in a nude mouse model of neoplasia. Notably, we found that PGE3 significantly inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in a cancer cell-macrophage co-culture system. Experimental results showed that PGE3 inhibited the polarization of tumour-associated M2 macrophages (TAM), consequently producing indirect anti-tumour activity. Mechanistically, we identified that PGE3 regulated the expression and activation of protein kinase A, which is critical for macrophage polarization. In summary, this study indicates that PGE3 can selectively promote M2a polarization, while inhibiting M1 and TAM polarization, thus exerting an anti-inflammatory effect and anti-tumour effect in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Alprostadil/análogos & derivados , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Alprostadil/farmacologia , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 219: 113407, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901805

RESUMO

Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme in de novo lipogenesis, is an attractive therapeutic target for diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation. Many FASN inhibitors have failed in the clinical trial phase, largely because of poor solubility and safety. In this study, we generated a novel small-molecule FASN inhibitor by structure-based virtual screening. PFI09, the lead compound, is easy to synthesize, and inhibits the lipid synthesis in OP9 mammalian cell line and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the proliferation of several cancer cell lines via the blockade of FASN. Mechanistic investigations show that PFI09 induces S-phase arrest, cell division reduction and apoptosis. We also develop a chemically stable analog of PFI09, MFI03, which reduces the proliferation of PC3 tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, without toxicity to mice. In summary, our data suggest that MFI03 is an effective FASN inhibitor and a promising antineoplastic drug candidate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Ácido Graxo Sintases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico
11.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(7): 1289-1301, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish reliable methods for the extraction and quantification of the total carbohydrate and intracellular saccharides from Mortierella alpina and study the changes between carbohydrate and lipid in fermentation process. RESULTS: The extraction of mycelia with HCl following a photometric phenol-sulphuric acid reaction was identified as an optimal method for total carbohydrate analysis in Mortierella alpina, which the extraction efficiency performed 1.1-3.6 fold than other five methods. The total carbohydrate content increased from initial 19.26 to 25.86% during early fermentation process and declined gradually thereafter, while the fatty acid was increasing from 8.47 to 31.03%. For separation and qualitative estimation of intracellular saccharides, the acetonitrile/water freeze-thaw method for extraction and Sugar-Pak I column for separation proved to be possible. With the glucose rapidly decreasing at the beginning of growth, the trehalose accumulated rapidly from 1.63 to 5.04% and then decreased slightly but maintain above 4% of dry biomass. CONCLUSIONS: This work established comprehensive carbohydrate extraction and analysis methods of Mortierella alpina and identified the main saccharide in fermentation process which indicated that the accumulation of fatty acids was related to the change of intracellular carbohydrate content.

12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(7): 1455-1466, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The transport of citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm is essential during lipid accumulation. This study aimed to explore the role of mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate carrier in lipid accumulation in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina. RESULTS: Homologous MaYHM (the gene encoding the mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate carrier) was overexpressed in M. alpina. The fatty acid content of MaYHM-overexpressing recombinant strains was increased by up to 30% compared with the control. Moreover, the intracellular α-ketoglutarate level in recombinant strains was increased by 2.2 fold, together with a 23-35% decrease in NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase activity compared with the control. The overexpression of MaYHM altered the metabolic flux in the glutamate dehydrogenase shunt and 4-aminobutyric acid shunt during metabolic reprogramming, supplying more carbon to synthesize fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of MaYHM resulted in more efflux of citrate from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and enhanced lipid accumulation. These findings provide new perspectives for the improvement of industrial lipid production in M. alpina.

13.
J Biotechnol ; 325: 325-333, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039549

RESUMO

Lipid hyperaccumulation in oleaginous microorganisms is generally induced by nitrogen limitation, while oxygen supply can influence biomass growth and cell metabolism. Although strategies based on nitrogen limitation or oxygen control have been extensively explored and applied in various oleaginous microorganisms, the role of oxygen supply in nitrogen limitation induced lipid hyperaccumulation still remains unclear. Here, we systematically surveyed the effects of oxygen supply on the oleaginous fungus M. alpina cultured in nitrogen limited conditions through integration of physiochemical parameters and metabolomics analysis. Our results indicated that a high oxygen supply promoted carbon/nitrogen consumption and was used for rapid biomass synthesis, while either high or low oxygen supply conditions were adverse to lipid and ARA accumulation. Different oxygen supply level significantly affected the balance between fermentation for lipid synthesis and respiration for energy generation. Under nitrogen limitation, a suitable oxygen supply promoted the recycling of preformed nitrogen and increased the redirection of carbon towards fatty acid synthesis through the hub centred around glutamic acid coupled to the intermediate metabolism of carbon in the TCA cycle, while a high oxygen supply favored the respiration process and enhanced the degradation of LC-PUFAs, rather than fermentation for fatty acid synthesis. This system-level insight reveals the underlying metabolic mechanism of oxygen control in nitrogen limitation induced lipid accumulation, and provides theoretical support for the integration of oxygen control with nutrient supply for efficient microbial oil production.


Assuntos
Mortierella , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Metabolômica , Nitrogênio , Oxigênio
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(23): 9947-9963, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094384

RESUMO

Δ6 fatty acid desaturases (FADS6) have different substrate specificities that impact the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are involved in regulating multiple signalling pathways associated with various diseases. For decades, FADS6 with different substrate specificities have been characterized and the functions of these crucial enzymes have been investigated, while it remains enigmatic that the substrate specificities of FADS6 from various species have a huge difference. This review summarizes the substrate specificities of FADS6 in different species and reveals the underlying relationship. Further evaluation of biochemical properties has revealed that the FADS6 prefer linoleic acid that is more hydrophilic and stable. Domain-swapping and site-directed mutagenesis have been employed to delineate the regions and sites that affect the substrate specificities of FADS6. These analyses improve our understanding of the functions of FADS6 and offer information for the discovery of novel biological resources. KEY POINTS: • Outline of the excavation and identification of Δ6 fatty acid desaturases. • Overview of methods used to determine the pivotal resides of desaturases. • Application of substrate properties to generate specific fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Ácido Linoleico , Especificidade por Substrato
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10787-10798, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880458

RESUMO

Sensing nutrient levels and coordinating metabolism are requisites for all living organisms. In eukaryotes, heterotrimeric adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) is an energy monitor that primarily functions by regulating cell metabolism with its γ-subunit being responsible for energy sensing. Because of its strong lipogenesis capacity and dependence on nutrient availability, Mortierella alpina is an ideal model to investigate the SNF1 role. Knockdown of the M. alpina SNF1-γ-subunit (MaSnf4) abolished the energy preservation mode. In a low glucose medium (15 g/L), the fatty acid content in the MaSnf4-knockdown strain was similar to that in a high glucose medium (50 g/L), comprising 16 ± 1.17% of the dry cell weight after 96 h of culture (1.59 g/L), together with 1.41 ± 0.13 and 4.15 ± 0.19 fold increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and ATP-citrate lyase enzymatic activities, respectively. Metabolite analysis confirmed that knocking down MaSnf4 enhanced amino acid recycling and repressed the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In this case, more carbon skeleton acetyl-CoA and reductive nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate were rerouted into the fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings provide new insight into the correlation between energy preservation and MaSnf4-regulated lipogenesis, which may enhance further development of cost-effective strategies to enhance lipid productivity in M. alpina.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Mortierella/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Lipogênese , Mortierella/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625246

RESUMO

Background: Global resource reallocation is an established critical strategy through which organisms deal with environmental stress. The regulation of intracellular lipid storage or utilization is one of the most important strategies for maintaining energy homeostasis and optimizing growth. Oleaginous microorganisms respond to nitrogen deprivation by inducing lipid hyper accumulation; however, the associations between resource allocation and lipid accumulation are poorly understood. Results: Here, the time-resolved metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics data were generated in response to nutrient availability to examine how metabolic alternations induced by nitrogen deprivation drive the triacylglycerols (TAG) accumulation in M. alpina. The subsequent accumulation of TAG under nitrogen deprivation was a consequence of the reallocation of carbon, nitrogen sources, and lipids, rather than an up-regulation of TAG biosynthesis genes. On one hand, nitrogen deprivation induced the down-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase level in TCA cycle and redirected glycolytic flux of carbon from amino acid biosynthesis into fatty acids' synthesis; on the other hand, nitrogen deprivation induced the up-regulation of cell autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated protein proteolysis which resulted in a recycling of preformed protein nitrogen and carbon. Combining with the up-regulation of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in GABA shunt, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the central hub involving pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate/oxaloacetate, the products from nitrogen-containing compounds degradation were recycled to be intermediates of TCA cycle and be shunted toward de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. We found that nitrogen deprivation increased the protein level of phospholipase C/D that contributes to degradation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and supplied acyl chains for TAG biosynthesis pathway. In addition, ATP from substrate phosphorylation was presumed to be a critical factor regulation of the global resource allocation and fatty acids' synthesis rate. Conclusions: The present findings offer a panoramic view of resource allocation by M. alpina in response to nutrient stress and revealed a set of intriguing associations between resource reallocation and TAG accumulation. This system-level insight provides a rich resource with which to explore in-depth functional characterization and gain information about the strategic combination of strain development and process integration to achieve optimal lipid productivity under nutrient stress.

17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(14): 8045-8056, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469149

RESUMO

Plastic polarization of macrophage is involved in tumorigenesis. M1-polarized macrophage mediates rapid inflammation, entity clearance and may also cause inflammation-induced mutagenesis. M2-polarized macrophage inhibits rapid inflammation but can promote tumour aggravation. ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived metabolites show a strong anti-inflammatory effect because they can skew macrophage polarization from M1 to M2. However, their role in tumour promotive M2 macrophage is still unknown. Resolvin D1 and D2 (RvD1 and RvD2) are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived docosanoids converted by 15-lipoxygenase then 5-lipoxygenase successively. We found that although dietary DHA can inhibit prostate cancer in vivo, neither DHA (10 µmol/L) nor RvD (100 nmol/L) can directly inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Unexpectedly, in a cancer cell-macrophage co-culture system, both DHA and RvD significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation. RvD1 and RvD2 inhibited tumour-associated macrophage (TAM or M2d) polarization. Meanwhile, RvD1 and RvD2 also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS-interferon (IFN)-γ-induced M1 polarization as well as promoting interleukin-4 (IL-4)-mediated M2a polarization. These differential polarization processes were mediated, at least in part, by protein kinase A. These results suggest that regulation of macrophage polarization using RvDs may be a potential therapeutic approach in the management of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo
18.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411121

RESUMO

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a highly conserved enzyme within the glycolytic pathway. GAPDH catalyzes the transformation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to glycerate-1, 3-biphosphate, a process accompanied by the production of NADH. Its role in the NADPH production system of the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina was explored. Two copies of genes encoding GAPDH were characterized, then endogenously overexpressed and silenced through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods. The results showed that the lipid content of the overexpression strain, MA-GAPDH1, increased by around 13%. RNA interference of GAPDH1 and GAPDH2 (MA-RGAPDH1 and MA-RGAPDH2) greatly reduced the biomass of the fungus. The lipid content of MA-RGAPDH2 was found to be about 23% higher than that of the control. Both of the lipid-increasing transformants showed a higher NADPH/NADP ratio. Analysis of metabolite and enzyme expression levels revealed that the increased lipid content of MA-GAPDH1 was due to enhanced flux of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to glycerate-1, 3-biphosphate. MA-RGAPDH2 was found to strengthen the metabolic flux of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. Thus, GAPDH1 contributes to NADPH supply and lipid accumulation in M. alpina, and has a distinct role from GAPDH2.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(14): 4245-4251, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181644

RESUMO

Mucor circinelloides is a valuable oleaginous filamentous fungus rich in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3; n-6), which is beneficial for human health. Our previous comparative proteomic analysis between high lipid-producing M. circinelloides WJ11 and low lipid-producing M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 indicated that glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and ß-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) were closely involved in lipid accumulation. Transcription analysis suggested that in the strain WJ11, g6pdh1 and g6pdh2, which encode G6PDH, and leuB, which encodes IPMDH, could be the key genes regulating lipid accumulation. To further analyze the effects of these three genes (i.e., g6pdh1, g6pdh2, and leuB) on lipid accumulation, we respectively overexpressed these genes from M. circinelloides WJ11 in defective CBS 277.49 strains in this study. The results showed that overexpression of g6pdh1 and g6pdh2 genes from strain WJ11 increased the fatty acid content of cell dry weight by 23-38 and 41-47%, respectively, compared with the control strain. Furthermore, overexpression of the leuB gene from strain WJ11 increased the fatty acid content of cell dry weight by up to 67-73%. These results suggest that g6pdh1, g6pdh2, and especially leuB genes play important roles in regulating fatty acid synthesis in M. circinelloides.


Assuntos
3-Isopropilmalato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mucor/genética , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo , 3-Isopropilmalato Desidrogenase/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma Microbiano , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
20.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153536

RESUMO

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is well-known as a cofactor of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but its exact role in lipogenesis is unclear. In this study, the GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) gene was overexpressed to investigate the role of BH4 in lipogenesis in oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina. Transcriptome data analysis reveal that GTPCH expression was upregulated when nitrogen was exhausted, resulting in lipid accumulation. Significant changes were also found in the fatty acid profile of M. alpina grown on medium that contained a GTPCH inhibitor relative to that of M. alpina grown on medium that lacked the inhibitor. GTPCH overexpression in M. alpina (the MA-GTPCH strain) led to a sevenfold increase in BH4 levels and enhanced cell fatty acid synthesis and poly-unsaturation. Increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and upregulated expression of NADPH-producing genes in response to enhanced BH4 levels were also observed, which indicate a novel aspect of the NADPH regulatory mechanism. Increased BH4 levels also enhanced phenylalanine hydroxylation and nitric oxide synthesis, and the addition of an NOS or a PAH inhibitor in the MA-GTPCH and control strain cultures decreased fatty acid accumulation, NADPH production, and the transcript levels of NADPH-producing genes. Our research suggests an important role of BH4 in lipogenesis and that the phenylalanine catabolism and arginine-nitric oxide pathways play an integrating role in translating the effects of BH4 on lipogenesis by regulating the cellular NADPH pool. Thus, our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of efficient lipid biosynthesis regulation in oleaginous microorganisms and lay a foundation for the genetic engineering of these organisms to optimize their dietary fat yield.

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