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1.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103284, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the interplay among dairy intake, gut microbiota and cardiometabolic health in human prospective cohort studies. METHODS: The present study included 1780 participants from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. We examined the prospective association between habitual dairy consumption (total dairy, milk, yogurt) and gut microbial composition using linear regression after adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. The cross-sectional association of dairy-associated microbial features with cardiometabolic risk factors was examined with a linear regression model, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum metabolomic profiles were analyzed by partial correlation analysis. FINDINGS: There was a significant overall difference in gut microbial community structure (ß-diversity) comparing the highest with the lowest category for each of total dairy, milk and yogurt (P < 0.05). We observed that dairy-associated microbes and α-diversity indices were inversely associated with blood triglycerides, while positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A follow-up metabolomics analysis revealed the association of targeted serum metabolites with dairy-microbial features and cardiometabolic traits. Specifically, 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid, 2-hydroxybutyric acid and L-alanine were inversely associated with dairy-microbial score, while positively associated with triglycerides (FDR-corrected P < 0.1). INTERPRETATION: Dairy consumption is associated with the gut microbial composition and a higher α-diversity, which provides new insights into the understanding of dairy-gut microbiota interactions and their relationship with cardiometabolic health. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Zhejiang Ten-thousand Talents Program, Westlake University and the 5010 Program for Clinical Researches of the Sun Yat-sen University.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have examined associations between dietary isoflavones and atherosclerosis, but few used objective biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of isoflavone biomarkers (primary analyses) and equol production (secondary analyses) with the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and whether inflammation, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood lipids, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) mediated these associations, in Chinese adults. METHODS: This 8.8-y prospective study included 2572 subjects (40-75 y old) from the GNHS (Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study; 2008-2019). The concentrations of daidzein, genistein, and equol were assayed by an HPLC-tandem MS in serum (n = 2572) at baseline and in urine (n = 2220) at 3-y intervals. The cIMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) and bifurcation segment were measured by B-mode ultrasound every 3 y, and the progressions of cIMT ( ∆cIMT) were estimated using the regression method. RESULTS: Multivariable linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) and ANCOVA revealed that subjects with higher serum isoflavones tended to have lower increases of CCA-cIMT. The mean ± SEM differences in 8.8-y ∆CCA-cIMT between extreme tertiles of serum isoflavones were -17.1 ± 8.4, -20.6 ± 8.3, and -23.3 ± 10.4 µm for daidzein, total isoflavone, and equol (P-trends < 0.05), respectively. LMEMs showed that the estimated yearly changes (95% CIs) (µm/y) in CCA-IMT were -2.0 (-3.8, -0.3), -1.9 (-3.6, -0.1), and -2.1 (-3.8, -0.3) in the highest (compared with the lowest) tertile of daidzein, genistein, and total isoflavones, respectively (P-interaction < 0.05). Path analyses indicated that the serum equol-atherosclerosis association was mediated by increased SHBG and decreased SBP. Similar beneficial associations were observed in the secondary analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Serum isoflavones and equol exposure were associated with reduced cIMT progression, mediated by SHBG and SBP.

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported inverse associations between certain healthy lifestyle factors and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but limited evidence showed the synergistic effect of those lifestyles. This study examined the relationship of a combination of lifestyles, expressed as Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS), with NAFLD. DESIGN: A community-based cross-sectional study. Questionnaires and body assessments were used to collect data on the six-item HLS (ranging from 0 to 6, where higher scores indicate better health). The HLS consists of non-smoking (no active or passive smoking), normal BMI (18·5-23·9 kg/m2), physical activity (moderate or vigorous physical activity ≥ 150 min/week), healthy diet pattern, good sleep (no insomnia or <6 months) and no anxiety (Self-rating Anxiety Scale < 50), one point each. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. SETTING: Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand nine hundred and eighty-one participants aged 40-75 years. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 50·8 %. After adjusting for potential covariates, HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD. The OR of NAFLD for subjects with higher HLS (3, 4, 5-6 v. 0-1 points) were 0·68 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·91), 0·58 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·78) and 0·35 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·51), respectively (P-values < 0·05). Among the six items, BMI and physical activity were the strongest contributors. Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was more significant after weighting the HLS. The beneficial association remained after excluding any one of the six components or replacing BMI with waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Higher HLS was associated with lower presence of NAFLD, suggesting that a healthy lifestyle pattern might be beneficial to liver health.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4048, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603029

RESUMO

The association between dietary fat intake during pregnancy and the risk of developing preeclampsia has been examined in many epidemiological studies, but the results remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to clarify this association in pregnant Chinese women. After conducting 1:1 matching, 440 pairs consisting of pregnant women with preeclampsia and hospital-based, healthy pregnant women matched by gestational week (± 1 week) and age (± 3 years) were recruited. A 79-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire administered during face-to-face interviews was used to estimate the participants' dietary intake of fatty acids. We found that the intakes of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were inversely associated with the risk of developing preeclampsia. Compared with the lowest quartile intake, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of the highest quartile intake were 0.42 (0.26-0.68, p-trend < 0.001) for EPA, 0.52 (0.3-0.83, p-trend = 0.005) for DHA, and 0.41 (0.19-0.88, p-trend = 0.007) for AA. However, we did not observe any significant associations between the intake of total fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and the risk of developing preeclampsia. Our results showed that the dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., EPA, DHA, and AA) may protect pregnant Chinese women against the development of preeclampsia.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the core gut microbial features associated with type 2 diabetes risk and potential demographic, adiposity, and dietary factors associated with these features. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used an interpretable machine learning framework to identify the type 2 diabetes-related gut microbiome features in the cross-sectional analyses of three Chinese cohorts: one discovery cohort (n = 1,832, 270 cases of type 2 diabetes) and two validation cohorts (cohort 1: n = 203, 48 cases; cohort 2: n = 7,009, 608 cases). We constructed a microbiome risk score (MRS) with the identified features. We examined the prospective association of the MRS with glucose increment in 249 participants without type 2 diabetes and assessed the correlation between the MRS and host blood metabolites (n = 1,016). We transferred human fecal samples with different MRS levels to germ-free mice to confirm the MRS-type 2 diabetes relationship. We then examined the prospective association of demographic, adiposity, and dietary factors with the MRS (n = 1,832). RESULTS: The MRS (including 14 microbial features) consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, with risk ratio for per 1-unit change in MRS 1.28 (95% CI 1.23-1.33), 1.23 (1.13-1.34), and 1.12 (1.06-1.18) across three cohorts. The MRS was positively associated with future glucose increment (P < 0.05) and was correlated with a variety of gut microbiota-derived blood metabolites. Animal study further confirmed the MRS-type 2 diabetes relationship. Body fat distribution was found to be a key factor modulating the gut microbiome-type 2 diabetes relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a core set of gut microbiome features associated with type 2 diabetes risk and future glucose increment.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266410

RESUMO

Polyamines (including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are small, cationic molecules that are necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Few studies have examined the association of dietary polyamines intake with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate total polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in China. In total, 2502 colorectal cancer cases and 2538 age-(5-year interval) and sex-matched controls were recruited from July 2010 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for various potential confounding factors. Higher intake of total polyamine, putrescine and spermidine was significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.60 (95% CI 0.50, 0.72; Ptrend < 0.001) for total polyamines, 0.35 (95% CI 0.29, 0.43; Ptrend < 0.001) for putrescine and 0.79 (95% CI 0.66, 0.95; Ptrend = 0.001) for spermidine, respectively. However, higher intake of spermine was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, with an adjusted OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.29, 1.93; Ptrend < 0.001). This data indicate that higher intake of total polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, as well as lower intake of spermine, is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 371, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the inter-relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota and metabolites, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in human prospective cohort study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of fruit and vegetable intake with human gut microbiota and to examine the relationship between fruit and vegetable-related gut microbiota and their related metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. METHODS: This study included 1879 middle-age elderly Chinese adults from Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS). Baseline dietary information was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire (2008-2013). Fecal samples were collected at follow-up (2015-2019) and analyzed for 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted fecal metabolomics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin. We used multivariable linear regression and logistic regression models to investigate the prospective associations of fruit and vegetable intake with gut microbiota and the association of the identified gut microbiota (fruit/vegetable-microbiota index) and their related fecal metabolites with T2D risk, respectively. Replications were performed in an independent cohort involving 6626 participants. RESULTS: In the GNHS, dietary fruit intake, but not vegetable, was prospectively associated with gut microbiota diversity and composition. The fruit-microbiota index (FMI, created from 31 identified microbial features) was positively associated with fruit intake (p < 0.001) and inversely associated with T2D risk (odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.97). The FMI-fruit association (p = 0.003) and the FMI-T2D association (OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.97) were both successfully replicated in the independent cohort. The FMI-positive associated metabolite sebacic acid was inversely associated with T2D risk (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.51-0.86). The FMI-negative associated metabolites cholic acid (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13-1.62), 3-dehydrocholic acid (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.09-1.54), oleylcarnitine (OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.45-2.20), linoleylcarnitine (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.37-2.05), palmitoylcarnitine (OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.33-2.02), and 2-hydroglutaric acid (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.25-1.72) were positively associated with T2D risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher fruit intake-associated gut microbiota and metabolic alteration were associated with a lower risk of T2D, supporting the public dietary recommendation of adopting high fruit intake for the T2D prevention.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228157

RESUMO

Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). Alcohol relapse after LT is associated with graft loss and worse prognosis. Over the past 20 years, the number and prevalence of living donor liver transplantations (LDLTs) have increased in Taiwan. The aims of this retrospective study are to analyze the incidence and risk factors of alcohol relapse after LT at a single center in Taiwan. A total of 98 patients with ALD who underwent LT from January 2012 to December 2018 were retrospectively evaluated by chart review. Pre-transplant characteristics as well as psychosocial and alcoholic history were used to test the possible associations among the risk factors studied and post-LT alcohol relapse. The incidence of post-LT alcohol relapse was 16.3%. The median duration of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation was 28.1 months (range: 1-89.4 months). The cumulative incidence was 12% and 19% at 1 year and 3 years after LT, respectively. The most powerful risk factors were a pre-LT abstinence period less than 6 months and younger age of starting alcohol. For predicting alcohol relapse, the accuracy rate of abstinence less than 6 months was up to 83.7%. In summary, pre-abstinence period plays a role in predicting post-LT alcohol relapse. Post-LT interventions should be considered specifically for the patients with short abstinence period. Long-term follow-up, patient-centered counseling, and enhancement of healthy lifestyle are suggested to prevent alcohol relapse.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238532

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is an essential treatment for end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The patients' psychosocial condition plays a vital role in post-transplantation prognosis. A survey of the candidates' psychosocial wellbeing is necessary before LT. This study aims to investigate the psychosocial characteristics, including the depression degree, family function, alcohol use duration, and alcohol abstinence period, of LT candidates with ALD. In addition, 451 candidates for LT due to ALD were enrolled. They received psychosocial evaluations, including depression scale (Hamilton depression rating scale) and family functioning assessment (adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve (APGAR) index). The test scores were analyzed according to age, alcohol use duration, and alcohol abstinence period. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) score and the family APGAR index score differentiated significantly according to the age, alcohol use duration, and abstinence period of the LT candidates. The patients with shorter alcohol use duration tended to have more severe depressive symptoms and poorer family support. The younger patients showed a significantly shorter abstinence period, more severe depression, and poorer family functioning than older patients. The younger ALD patients and patients with shorter alcohol use duration showed an increased severity of depression before transplantation. They need more mental health care over time.

10.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 145, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in the interplay between host genetics and the gut microbiome in complex human diseases is increasing, with prior evidence mainly being derived from animal models. In addition, the shared and distinct microbiome features among complex human diseases remain largely unclear. RESULTS: This analysis was based on a Chinese population with 1475 participants. We estimated the SNP-based heritability, which suggested that Desulfovibrionaceae and Odoribacter had significant heritability estimates (0.456 and 0.476, respectively). We performed a microbiome genome-wide association study to identify host genetic variants associated with the gut microbiome. We then conducted bidirectional Mendelian randomization analyses to examine the potential causal associations between the gut microbiome and complex human diseases. We found that Saccharibacteria could potentially decrease the concentration of serum creatinine and increase the estimated glomerular filtration rate. On the other hand, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and prostate cancer, as predicted by host genetics, had potential causal effects on the abundance of some specific gut microbiota. For example, atrial fibrillation increased the abundance of Burkholderiales and Alcaligenaceae and decreased the abundance of Lachnobacterium, Bacteroides coprophilus, Barnesiellaceae, an undefined genus in the family Veillonellaceae and Mitsuokella. Further disease-microbiome feature analysis suggested that systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic myeloid leukaemia shared common gut microbiome features. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that different complex human diseases share common and distinct gut microbiome features, which may help reshape our understanding of disease aetiology in humans. Video Abstract.

11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 4678-4705, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120524

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose and analyze a delayed diffusive viral dynamic model incorporating cell-mediated immunity and both cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission. After discussing the well-posedness, we provide some preliminary results on solutions. Then we study the existence and uniqueness of homogeneous steady states, which turned out to be completely determined by the basic reproduction number of infection R0 and the basic reproduction number of immunity R1. Note that when R1 is defined, it is necessary that R0 > 1. The main result is a threefold dynamics. Roughly speaking, when R0 < 1 the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable; when R1 ≤ 1 < R0 the immunity-free infected steady state is globally asymptotically stable; when R1 > 1 the infected-immune steady state is globally asymptotically stable. The approaches are linearization technique and the Lyapunov functional method. The theoretical results are also illustrated with numerical simulations.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899794

RESUMO

Saturated fatty acids with different chain lengths have different biological activities, but little is known about very-long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLCSFAs). This study investigated the associations between the circulating VLCSFAs and cardiovascular health. This community-based cohort study included 2198 adults without carotid artery plaques (CAPs) at baseline. The percentage of baseline erythrocyte VLCSFA (arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0)) was measured by gas chromatography. The presence of CAPs was determined at baseline and every 3 years thereafter by ultrasound examination. A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the pooled associations between circulating VLCSFAs and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). During a median of 7.2 years of follow-up, 573 women (35.1%) and 281 men (49.6%) were identified as CAP incident cases. VLCSFAs were inversely related with CAP risk in women (all p-trend <0.05) but not in men. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAPs for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.80 (0.63-1.01) for C20:0, 0.71 (0.56-0.89) for C22:0, 0.75 (0.59-0.94) for C24:0, and 0.69 (0.55-0.87) for total VLCSFAs in women. The pooled HRs (95% CIs) of CVDs for the highest (vs. lowest) circulating VLCSFAs from seven studies including 8592 participants and 3172 CVD events were 0.67 (0.57-0.79) for C20:0, 0.66 (0.48-0.90) for C22:0, and 0.57 (0.42-0.79) for C24:0, respectively. Our findings suggested that circulating VLCSFAs were inversely associated with cardiovascular health.

13.
Food Funct ; 11(8): 7164-7174, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Plant oil for cooking typically provides 40% to 50% of dietary fat, 65% of linoleic acid, 44% of α-linolenic acid and 41% of oleic acid in the Chinese diet. However, the comparative effects of fatty acids derived from plant oil on cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese are still inconclusive. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate whether cardiovascular risk factors are altered depending on various types of plant oils such as peanut oil rich in oleic acid, corn oil rich in linoleic acid, and blend oil fortified by α-linolenic acid. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blinded, parallel-designed trial. SETTING: The First and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 251 volunteers with fasting blood total cholesterol between 5.13 and 8.00 mmol L-1 were enrolled. INTERVENTION: Volunteers received peanut oil, corn oil or blend oil to use for cooking for one year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured before, during and after the intervention. The level of α-linolenic acid in erythrocyte membranes was significantly increased in the blend oil group after the intervention (P < 0.001). The level of other fatty acids did not show any statistically significant differences between the three groups. No significant differences were observed in the concentrations of fasting plasma lipids, hsCRP, glucose, and insulin among the three groups using different types of plant oils. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although ingesting cooking oil with different fatty acid composition for one year could change erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions, it did not significantly modify cardiovascular risk factors in moderately hypercholesteremic people.

14.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 129, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804253

RESUMO

This study examined the association between healthy lifestyle score (HLS), which contained 7 items (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, alcohol, sleep and anxiety) and BMD. Results showed HLS was positively associated with BMD at all studied sites, suggesting that healthier lifestyle patterns might be beneficial to bone health. PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported favourable associations of individual healthy lifestyle factors with bone mineral density (BMD), but limited evidence showed the relationship of a combined healthy lifestyle score (HLS) with BMD. This study examined the association between the HLS and BMD. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study included 3051 participants aged 40-75 years. The HLS contained 7 items (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet quality, alcohol intake, sleep and anxiety). BMD values of whole body (WB), lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4), total hip (TH) and femur neck (FN) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates, HLS was positively associated with BMD at all studied sites (P-trend < 0.01). The mean BMDs were 2.69% (WB), 5.62% (L1-4), 6.13% (TH) and 5.71% (FN) higher in participants with HLS of 6-7 points than in those with HLS of 0-2 points. The per 1 of 7 unit increase in the HLS was associated with increases of 7.63 (WB)-13.4 (TH) mg/cm2 BMD levels at all sites. These favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in men than in women. Among the 7 items, physical activity contributed most to the favourable associations, followed by BMI, non-smoking and diet; the other three items played little roles. Sensitivity analyses showed that the significant associations remained after excluding any one of the 7 components or excluding fracture subjects at all sites. CONCLUSION: Higher HLS was associated with greater BMD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese, suggesting that healthier lifestyle patterns might be beneficial to bone health.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Óssea , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616104

RESUMO

A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 years in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41-60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study 2011-2013 and 2014-2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e. percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3 years of follow-up (ß 0·322 (se 0·157), 0·309 (se 0·142) and 0·303 (se 0·145), respectively; P < 0·05). The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all Ptrend < 0·05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713378

RESUMO

Flavonoid-rich foods have shown a beneficial effect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in short-term randomised trials. It is uncertain whether the usual dietary intake of flavonoids may benefit patients with NAFLD. The present study evaluated the association between the usual intake of flavonoids and the risk of progression in NAFLD. The prospective study included 2694 adults from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. Face-to-face interviews using a seventy-nine-item FFQ were administered to assess habitual dietary flavonoid intake, while abdominal ultrasonography was conducted to evaluate the presence and degree of NAFLD, with measurements conducted 3 years apart. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher flavonoid intakes were gradely associated with reduced risks of worsen NAFLD status. The relative risks of worsening (v. non-worsening) NAFLD in the highest (v. lowest) quintile were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·93) for total flavonoids, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·95) for flavanones, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·96) for flavan-3-ols, 0·90 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·18) for flavonols, 0·73 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) for flavones, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·02) for isoflavones and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·96) for anthocyanins. An L-shaped relationship was observed between total flavonoid intake and the risk of NAFLD progression. Path analyses showed that the association between flavonoids and NAFLD progression was mediated by decreases in serum cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This prospective study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD progression in the elderly overweight/obese Chinese population.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2435-2443, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of erythrocyte n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and explore the potential role of gut microbiota in the association. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated 2,731 participants without type 2 diabetes recruited between 2008 and 2013 in the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (Guangzhou, China). Case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified with clinical and biochemical information collected at follow-up visits. Using stool samples collected during the follow-up in the subset (n = 1,591), 16S rRNA profiling was conducted. Using multivariable-adjusted Poisson or linear regression, we examined associations of erythrocyte n-6 PUFA biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and diversity and composition of gut microbiota. RESULTS: Over 6.2 years of follow-up, 276 case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified (risk 0.10). Higher levels of erythrocyte γ-linolenic acid (GLA), but not linoleic or arachidonic acid, were associated with higher type 2 diabetes incidence. Comparing the top to the bottom quartile groups of GLA levels, relative risk was 1.72 (95% CI 1.21, 2.44) adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline GLA was inversely associated with gut microbial richness and diversity (α-diversity, both P < 0.05) during follow-up and significantly associated with microbiota ß-diversity (P = 0.002). α-Diversity acted as a potential mediator in the association between GLA and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05). Seven genera (Butyrivibrio, Blautia, Oscillospira, Odoribacter, S24-7 other, Rikenellaceae other, and Clostridiales other) were enriched in quartile 1 of GLA and in participants without type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Relative concentrations of erythrocyte GLA were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population and also with gut microbial profiles. These results highlight that gut microbiota may play an important role linking n-6 PUFA metabolism and type 2 diabetes etiology.

18.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 11: 2042018820920555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595918

RESUMO

Background: Human studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy or isoflavones on bone metabolism. However, conflicting data remain. Equol is the intestinal metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein. The health benefits of soy are more pronounced in equol producers than those not producing equol. This 6-month randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of whole soy (soy flour) and purified daidzein on bone turnover markers (BTMs) in Chinese postmenopausal women who are equol producers. Methods: A total of 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three isocaloric supplements as follows: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group), 40 g low-fat milk powder + 63 mg daidzein (daidzein group), or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo group) given as a solid beverage daily for 6 months. The following fasting venous samples were collected at the baseline and end of the trial to analyze BTMs: serum cross-linked C-telopeptides of type I collagen, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, and 25(OH)D3. Inflammation-related biomarkers, such as serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, transferrin, and homocysteine, were also tested to explore potential mechanisms. Results: A total of 253 subjects validly completed the study protocol. Urinary isoflavones suggested a good compliance to the treatments. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses indicated no significant difference in the 6-month or percentage changes in the parameters of bone metabolism and inflammatory markers among the three treatment groups. Conclusions: Whole soy and purified daidzein at provided dosages exhibited no significant effect on the bone metabolism and inflammation levels among Chinese equol-producing postmenopausal women. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01270737.

19.
Nanoscale ; 12(22): 11899-11907, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236224

RESUMO

In recent decades, the ionic current rectification (ICR) property of asymmetric nanochannels has been widely explored in applications of energy conversion, gas separation, water purification and bioanalysis/sensors. How to fabricate nanofluidic devices with a high ICR characteristic remains of critical importance to the development of nanofluidics. Herein, we fabricated an asymmetric MOFs/PAA hybrid via in situ synthesis of a zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-90) on porous anodic alumina (PAA) nanochannels. The introduction of asymmetric geometry and charge distribution provides the hybrid with ultrahigh ionic rectification, which can be easily measured using an electrochemical detector. This rectification mechanism is elucidated via finite element simulation, which proves that asymmetric geometry as well as the protonation and deprotonation under varied pH values dominates the ICR property. With the advantages of low cost and facile fabrication while supporting high ionic current rectification, the prepared MOFs/PAA hybrid can be considered as a significant paradigm in nanofluidic systems and has potential applications in the fields of new ionic devices and energy conversion systems.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19384, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118787

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease that is associated with cell-surface NMDAR-targeting autoantibodies. Typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis symptoms include psychosis, seizure and extrapyramidal side effects. However, early diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis remains challenging due to the complexity of the motor phenomenon. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report a new diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a young woman with a history of epilepsy. DIAGNOSES: Electroencephalography revealed a typical "extreme delta brush" pattern, which indicated anti-NMDAR encephalitis. INTERVENTIONS: The clinical status of the patient markedly improved after immediate and aggressive immunosuppression therapies. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged with mild cognitive impairment. However, this was completely resolved 1 month postdischarge. LESSONS: We conclude that subacute onset focal seizure with psychosis as well as compatible electroencephalography findings (i.e., extreme delta brush patterns) should be considered notable early indicators of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This would ensure early and effective clinical interventions, which are essential for favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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