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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a common treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma (VS). The ability to predict treatment response is important in patient counseling and decision-making. The authors developed an algorithm that can automatically segment and differentiate cystic and solid tumor components of VS. They also investigated associations between the quantified radiological features of each component and tumor response after GKRS. METHODS: This is a retrospective study comprising 323 patients with VS treated with GKRS. After preprocessing and generation of pretreatment T2-weighted (T2W)/T1-weighted with contrast (T1WC) images, the authors segmented VSs into cystic and solid components by using fuzzy C-means clustering. Quantitative radiological features of the entire tumor and its cystic and solid components were extracted. Linear regression models were implemented to correlate clinical variables and radiological features with the specific growth rate (SGR) of VS after GKRS. RESULTS: A multivariable linear regression model of radiological features of the entire tumor demonstrated that a higher tumor mean signal intensity (SI) on T2W/T1WC images (p < 0.001) was associated with a lower SGR after GKRS. Similarly, a multivariable linear regression model using radiological features of cystic and solid tumor components demonstrated that a higher solid component mean SI (p = 0.039) and a higher cystic component mean SI (p = 0.004) on T2W/T1WC images were associated with a lower SGR after GKRS. A larger cystic component proportion (p = 0.085) was associated with a trend toward a lower SGR after GKRS. CONCLUSIONS: Radiological features of VSs on pretreatment MRI that were quantified using fuzzy C-means were associated with tumor response after GKRS. Tumors with a higher tumor mean SI, a higher solid component mean SI, and a higher cystic component mean SI on T2W/T1WC images were more likely to regress in volume after GKRS. Those with a larger cystic component proportion also trended toward regression after GKRS. Further refinement of the algorithm may allow direct prediction of tumor response.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112860, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624534

RESUMO

The Yangtze River exhibits a high biodiversity and plays an important role in global biodiversity conservation. As the world's busiest inland river in regard to shipping, little attention has been paid to underwater noise pollution. In 2017, the underwater noise level in 25 riverside locations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River mainly at night time were investigated by using passive acoustic monitoring method. Approximately 88% and 40% of the sampled sites exhibit noise levels exceeding the underwater acoustic thresholds of causing responsiveness and temporary threshold shift, respectively, in cetacean. Noise pollution may impose a high impact on fish with physostomous swim bladders and Weberian ossicles, such as silver carp, bighead carp, goldfish and common carp, whereas it may affect fish with physoclistous swim bladders and without Weberian ossicles, such as lake sturgeon and paddlefish, to a lesser extent. Noise levels reductions of approximately 10 and 20 dB were observed in the middle and lower reaches, respectively, of the Yangtze River over the 2012 level. The green development mode of the ongoing construction of green shipping in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, including the development of green shipping lanes, ports, ships and transportation organizations, may account for the alleviated underwater noise pollution. Follow-up noise mitigation endeavors, such as the extension of ship speed restrictions and the study and implementation of the optimal navigation speed in ecologically important areas, are required to further reduce the noise level in the Yangtze River to protect local porpoises and fish.

3.
Nutrition ; 93: 111431, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Overweight and hyperlipidemia, the two established risk factors for acute ischemic stroke, are paradoxically associated with favorable outcomes. The paradox may be resolved by the concept of protein energy wasting (PEW), in which total cholesterol level and body mass index are used as nutritional indexes for predicting outcomes of chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Among 12 271 people with acute ischemic stroke and chronic kidney disease, 2086 were defined as being at risk of PEW-with a body mass index <22 kg/m2 plus either a serum albumin level <38 g/L or a total cholesterol level <4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) without the use of lipid-lowering drugs-and all the others were a control group. The hazards of PEW for mortality and functional outcomes were evaluated using propensity score matching and multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Based on the propensity score, 2081 PEW participants were matched to the same number of non-PEW control participants. PEW was associated with a higher mortality risk at 3 mo (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.42) and 1 y (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI1.13-1.52). PEW was also associated with poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score >2) at 1 mo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61) and 3 mo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: According to the PEW-based assessment system, a modest decrease in body mass index and total cholesterol levels suggests malnutrition and is associated with adverse outcomes of acute ischemic stroke.

4.
J Intellect Disabil ; : 17446295211032767, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) can be challenging for people with intellectual disability. Often, parents provide health support due to lack of appropriate services outside the home. The study aim was to identify barriers and facilitators to T1DM self-management for young adults with intellectual disability and the implications for health promotion. METHODS: Five male participants with intellectual disability, aged 17-26 years, and seven parents were interviewed between October 2017 and February 2019. Interview data were descriptively analysed. FINDINGS: Two categories for barriers and facilitators were identified: 1) Diabetes self-management is complex (carbohydrate counting, blood glucose level monitoring, insulin therapy); 2) support for diabetes care (reliance on parents and carers, the National Disability Insurance Scheme, mainstream diabetes service support). CONCLUSIONS: Parents are critical for the support of people with intellectual disability and T1DM in the absence of disability staff with appropriate health skills.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198847

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexist, although the causality is not currently clear. Currently, the clinical influence of COPD on patients with major bronchiectasis over time has not yet been investigated. Material and Methods: This retrospective study recruited consecutive patients with bronchiectasis from outpatient clinic between January 2006 and December 2007. Under the setting of quantification with HRCT, patients who should undergo multiple pulmonary function and exercise tests with regularclinic follow-up were included. The final analysis consisted of 66 eligible patients who were evaluated for clinical status, treatment, and sputum culture from up to 10-year electronic medical records. Results: Of these 66 patients, 45 (68%) had bronchiectasis without COPD and 21 (32%) had COPD. Patients with COPD group had a higher bronchiectasis extent score (32.21 ± 13.09 points vs. 21.89 ± 10.08 points, p = 0.001). Sputum production was reported more frequently by patients with COPD; however, no significant difference was observed after 3 years of follow-up (82.4% vs. 81.6%, p = 0.945). Bronchiectasis extent score correlated with positive sputum culture with Pseudomonas without a synergistic effect from COPD (odds ratio: 1.06, confidence interval: 1.00-1.12, p = 0.031). Regardless of COPD, after 10 years, the proportion of patients using inhaled corticosteroids and/or long-acting ß2-agonist between the two groups was not significantly different. Conclusion: COPD aggravated bronchiectasis extension, which was correlated with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation. Moreover, COPD would affect the medium-term (in 3-5 years) bronchiectasis treatment. Therefore, the COPD phenotype of bronchiectasis could be a clinical predictor of the course of treatment.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209270

RESUMO

Resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE) are derivatives of resveratrol (RSV) and butyric acid and exhibit biological activity similar to that of RSV but with higher bioavailability. The aim of this study was designed as an animal experiment to explore the effects of RBE on the serum biochemistry, and fat deposits in the offspring rats exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), along with the growth and decline of gut microbiota. We constructed an animal model of perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to observe the effects of RBE supplementation on obesity, blood lipids, and intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. Perinatal exposure to BPA led to weight gain, lipid accumulation, high levels of blood lipids, and deterioration of intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. RBE supplementation reduced the weight gain and lipid accumulation caused by BPA, optimised the levels of blood lipids, significantly reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio, and increased and decreased the abundance of S24-7 and Lactobacillus, respectively. The analysis of faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels revealed that BPA exposure increased the faecal concentration of acetate, which could be reduced via RBE supplementation. However, the faecal concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not only significantly lower than that of acetate, but also did not significantly change in response to BPA exposure or RBE supplementation. Hence, RBE can suppress BPA-induced obesity in female offspring rats, and it demonstrates excellent modulatory activity on intestinal microbiota, with potential applications in perinatological research.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Obesidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 68(5): 454-471, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify, appraise, and synthesise the evidence for video-modelling interventions for individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We searched four electronic databases. Two independent researchers screened abstracts and methodologically assessed data using the Kmet appraisal checklist. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria (11 original studies and four follow-up studies). Of the 11 original studies, one was a randomised controlled trial, one was a controlled between-group comparative design, two were one group pre-test post-test studies, one was an experimental 2 × 2 factorial design, and six were single-case experimental design studies. Studies included 1-35 participants with ADHD aged 5-16 years. Three studies targeted behaviour, three targeted social play skills, two targeted social behaviour, one targeted social skills, one targeted goal orientation and friendship quality, targeted and one attention/comprehension of social behaviour. In four studies video-modelling was the whole intervention, with no other intervention components reported. Nine studies reported positive outcomes immediately after intervention, two studies reported mixed findings. All studies were found to have good or strong methodological quality. CONCLUSION: There is preliminary evidence to suggest video-modelling may be a promising intervention approach for targeting the social skills and behaviours of individuals with ADHD when used in conjunction with other intervention components. Future studies need to lower the risk of bias and use larger sample sizes before the efficacy of video-modelling interventions can be fully investigated.

9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(3): 785-793, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine whether the coverage of brain parenchyma within the 12 Gy radiosurgical volume (V12) correlates with the development of radiation-induced changes (RICs) in patients with unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) after undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study conducted regular follow-up examinations of 165 patients with unruptured AVMs who had previously undergone SRS. The RICs identified in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at any time point in the first 3 years after SRS were labeled "early RICs." The RICs identified in T2-weighted MRI scans at 5-year follow-up brain images were labeled "late RICs." Fully automated segmentation was used to analyze the MRI scans from these patients, whereupon the volume and proportion of brain parenchyma within the V12 was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the factors affecting the incidence of early and late RICs of any grade after SRS. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 70 months (range, 36-222). Early RICs were identified in 124 of the 165 patients with the highest grades as followed: grade 1 (103 patients), grade 2 (19 patients), and grade 3 (2 patients). Only 103 patients had more than 5 years follow-up, and late RICs were identified in 70 of 103 patients. Seventeen of 70 patients with late RICs were symptomatic. The median volume and proportion of brain parenchyma within the V12 was 22.4 cm3 (range, 0.6-63.9) and 58.7% (range, 18.4-76.8). Univariate analysis revealed that AVM volume and the brain volume within the V12 were correlated with the incidence of both early and late RICs after SRS. Multivariable analysis revealed that only the brain volume within the V12 was significantly associated with the incidence of early and late RICs after SRS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unruptured AVM, the volume of brain parenchyma within the V12 was an important factor associated with the incidence of early and late RICs after SRS. Before SRS, meticulous radiosurgical planning to reduce brain parenchyma coverage within the V12 could reduce the risk of complications.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 139: 159-166, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics remain the first choice of treatment for post-stroke psychosis, despite an increased risk of mortality reported in elderly patients. We aimed to compare the mortality risk among antipsychotics in elderly patients with stroke using the stroke registry for external adjustment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify patients aged above 65 years who were admitted for stroke in the National Health Insurance Database (NHID) from 2002 to 2014. The first date of antipsychotic use after the stroke hospitalization was defined as the index date. Covariates including diseases, medications and external information on smoking, BMI, stroke severity and disability, that were unavailable in the NHID were obtained from the linked Multicenter Stroke Registry (MSR) and used for propensity score calibration (PSC). The main outcome was one-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Stroke patients in the NHID prescribed with haloperidol, quetiapine and risperidone numbered 22,235, 28,702 and 8 663, respectively. In the PSC-adjusted analyses, haloperidol [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.22; 95% CI 1.18-1.27] and risperidone (aHR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.24-1.38) users had a higher mortality risk than quetiapine users. When the dosage was higher than 0.5 defined daily dose (DDD), haloperidol and risperidone users had a significant mortality risk as compared with those taking a lower dose. CONCLUSIONS: In post-stroke elderly patients, quetiapine would pose less mortality risk than risperidone and haloperidol at doses higher than 0.5 DDD. When haloperidol or risperidone is indicated, starting with a lower dose is suggested to avoid excess risk.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Benzodiazepinas , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fumarato de Quetiapina , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067838

RESUMO

Resveratrol can affect the physiology or biochemistry of offspring in the maternal-fetal animal model. However, it exhibits low bioavailability in humans and animals. Fifteen-week SD pregnant female rats were orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) and/or resveratrol butyrate ester (RBE), and the male offspring rats (n = 4-8 per group) were evaluated. The results show that RBE treatment (BPA + R30) compared with the BPA group can reduce the damage caused by BPA (p < 0.05). RBE enhanced the expression of selected genes and induced extramedullary hematopoiesis and mononuclear cell infiltration. RBE increased the abundance of S24-7 and Adlercreutzia in the intestines of the male offspring rats, as well as the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces. RBE also increased the antioxidant capacity of the liver by inducing Nrf2, promoting the expression of HO-1, SOD, and CAT. It also increased the concentration of intestinal SCFAs, enhancing the barrier formed by intestinal cells, thereby preventing BPA-induced metabolic disruption in the male offspring rats, and reduced liver inflammation. This study identified a potential mechanism underlying the protective effects of RBE against the liver damage caused by BPA exposure during the peri-pregnancy period, and the influence of the gut microbiota on the gut-liver axis in the offspring.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resveratrol/análogos & derivados
12.
Autism ; 25(7): 1859-1871, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985352

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder commonly experience stigma. As a result, they may avoid contact with others, in turn, influencing their child's social participation. This study aimed to explore the impact of stigma perceived by the caregivers on the everyday social experience of Taiwanese adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We asked 76 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder who did not have intellectual disability (69 males, aged 10-16 years) to carry a mobile device for 7 days. The device prompted them 7 times each day to record who they were interacting with, what they perceived, and how they felt about their social interactions. In addition, we asked their caregivers to complete the Affiliate Stigma Scale to measure their experience of stigma. We found that participants whose caregivers perceived high levels of stigma were more likely to spend time with family members and less likely to be interested in interacting with people at school. Those participants also were more likely to experience anxiety while interacting with family. Our study suggests that it is important for clinicians to implement support services for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and help caregivers in managing stigma to promote their child's social participation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Família , Humanos , Masculino , Estigma Social
13.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-7, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic obesity is common among patients with craniopharyngioma. This study examined whether precise stereotactic radiosurgery reduces the risk of hypothalamic obesity in cases of craniopharyngioma with expected long-term survival. METHODS: This cohort study included 40 patients who had undergone Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; n = 22) or fractionated radiotherapy (FRT; n = 18) for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. Neurological presentations, tumor volume changes, and BMI values were meticulously reviewed. The median clinical follow-up durations were 9.7 years in the GKRS group and 10.8 years in the FRT group. RESULTS: The median ages at the time of GKRS and FRT were 9.0 years and 10.0 years, respectively. The median margin dose of GKRS was 12.0 Gy (range 10.0-16.0 Gy), whereas the median dose of FRT was 50.40 Gy (range 44.1-56.3 Gy). Prior to GKRS or FRT, the median BMI values were 20.5 kg/m2 in the GKRS cohort and 20.0 kg/m2 in the FRT cohort. The median BMIs after radiation therapy at final follow-up were 21.0 kg/m2 and 24.0 kg/m2 for the GKRS and FRT cohorts, respectively. In the FRT cohort, BMI curves rapidly increased beyond the 85th percentile of the upper limit of the general population. BMI curves in the GKRS cohort increased more gradually, and many of the patients merged into the normal growth curve after adolescence. However, the observed difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.409). CONCLUSIONS: The study compared the two adjuvant radiation modalities most commonly used for recurrent and residual craniopharyngioma. The authors' results revealed that precise radiosurgery dose planning can mediate the subsequent increase in BMI. There is every indication that meticulous GKRS treatment is an effective approach to treating craniopharyngioma while also reducing the risk of hypothalamic obesity.

14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801821

RESUMO

To expand the applications and enhance the stability and bioactivity of resveratrol (RE), and to simultaneously include the potential health benefits of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) esters of RE were prepared by Steglich reactions with acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively. RE and the esterified RE-SCFA products (including RAE, RPE, and RBE) were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The FTIR and 13C NMR spectra of the esterified products included ester-characteristic peaks at 1751 cm-1 and 171 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the peaks in the range of 1700 to 1600 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the esterified products indicated that the esterification of RE-SCFA was successful. The TGA results revealed that the RE-SCFA esters decomposed at lower temperatures than RE. The peaks in the LC-MS profiles of the esterified products indicated the formation of mono- and diesters, and the calculated monoester synthesis rates ranged between 45.81 and 49.64%. The RE esters inhibited the Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation reaction, exhibited antioxidant activity in bulk oil, and effectively inhibited the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Moreover, the RE-SCFA esters had better hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity than RE. Our results are the first in the literature to successfully including short chain fatty acids in the esters of resveratrol, and the products could be used as a functional food ingredient in processed foods or can be used as dietary supplements to promote health.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive lung cancer patients with LMC suffering from increased intracranial pressure (IICP) and hydrocephalus between February 2017 and February 2020. We evaluated the survival benefit of CSF diversion surgery and assessed the outcomes of treatments administered post-LMC in terms of overall survival and shunt-related complications. RESULTS: The study cohort included 50 patients (median age: 59 years). Ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunts were placed in 33 patients, and lumbar peritoneal (LP) shunts were placed in 7 patients. Programmable shunts were placed in 36 patients. Shunt adjustment was performed in 19 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that shunt placement increased overall survival from 1.95 months to 6.21 months (p = 0.0012) and increased Karnofsky Performance Scores (KPS) from 60 to 70. Univariate analysis revealed no difference between VP or LP shunts in terms of survival. No differences in post-shunt systemic treatments (tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or systemic treatments) were observed in overall survival. Shunt-related complications were noted in 7 patients, including shunt obstruction (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and over-drainage (n = 2). CONCLUSION: CSF diversion (VP or LP shunt) appears to be an effective and safe treatment for lung cancer patients with LMC and hydrocephalus. Programmable shunts should be considered for complex cases, which commonly require pressure adjustments as the disease progresses.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3106, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542422

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied with considerable success in the fields of radiology, pathology, and neurosurgery. It is expected that AI will soon be used to optimize strategies for the clinical management of patients based on intensive imaging follow-up. Our objective in this study was to establish an algorithm by which to automate the volumetric measurement of vestibular schwannoma (VS) using a series of parametric MR images following radiosurgery. Based on a sample of 861 consecutive patients who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) between 1993 and 2008, the proposed end-to-end deep-learning scheme with automated pre-processing pipeline was applied to a series of 1290 MR examinations (T1W+C, and T2W parametric MR images). All of which were performed under consistent imaging acquisition protocols. The relative volume difference (RVD) between AI-based volumetric measurements and clinical measurements performed by expert radiologists were + 1.74%, - 0.31%, - 0.44%, - 0.19%, - 0.01%, and + 0.26% at each follow-up time point, regardless of the state of the tumor (progressed, pseudo-progressed, or regressed). This study outlines an approach to the evaluation of treatment responses via novel volumetric measurement algorithm, and can be used longitudinally following GKRS for VS. The proposed deep learning AI scheme is applicable to longitudinal follow-up assessments following a variety of therapeutic interventions.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23830, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545949

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The treatment of patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) by coronary stenting (PCI) and the "gold standard" conventional coronary-artery bypass grafting (C-CABG) has been well explored in the literature. However, the clinical outcomes of robot-assisted CABG (R-CABG) vs C-CABG in MVD patients in real-world practice were unknown. We aimed to study the clinical outcomes of MVD patients who underwent R-CABG (robotic MIDCAB) and C-CABG at our institution between January 2005 and December 2013.A total of 516 MVD patients received CABG were recruited into this study. Among them, 281 patients received R-CABG and 235 patients underwent C-CABG. Patients in the R-CABG group were younger, and had fewer vessels with coronary artery disease (CAD), lower prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD), higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as lower Euro scores. The in-hospital and long-term mortalities were lower in the R-CABG group, but the incidences of target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke were not significantly different between the two groups. The long-term mortality was related to age, lower LVEF, and CKD, but not residual SYNTAX score, or completeness of revascularization. The revascularization modality (R-CABG vs C-CABG) was a borderline significantly independent predictor of long-term mortality (OR 1.76 [0.99-3.14], P = .055).Our study concluded that R-CABG, in comparison with C-CABG, for MVD carried out in younger patients involved fewer clinical complexities was associated with lower in-hospital and long-term mortalities in real-world practice. However, the long-term rates of TLR, TVR, MI, and stroke were similar. The long-term mortality was correlated with age, lower LVEF, and CKD, where R-CABG remained a borderline significant predictor after correcting for confounding factors. R-CABG could be an effective alternative to C-CABG for MVD patients with fewer clinical complexities in real-world practice.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 99(2): 113-122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We proposed an algorithm to automate the components within the identification of components within the nidus of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) which may be used to analyze the relationship between its diffuseness and treatment outcomes following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). OBJECTIVES: to determine the impact of the diffuseness of the AVM nidus on SRS outcomes. METHODS: This study conducted regular follow-ups of 209 patients with unruptured AVMs who underwent SRS. The diffuseness of the AVM nidus was estimated by quantifying the proportions of vascular nidal component, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid in T2-weighted MRIs. We used Cox regression analysis to characterize the association between nidal diffuseness and treatment outcomes in terms of obliteration rate and radiation-induced change (RICs) rate following SRS. RESULTS: The median AVM volume was 20.7 cm3. The median duration of imaging follow-up was 51 months after SRS. The overall AVM obliteration rate was 68.4%. RICs were identified in 156 of the 209 patients (74.6%). The median proportions of the nidus of AVM and brain parenchyma components within the prescription isodose range were 30.2 and 52.2%, respectively. Cox regression multivariate analysis revealed that the only factor associated with AVM obliteration rate after SRS was AVM volume. However, a larger AVM volume (>20 mL) and a larger proportion of brain parenchyma (>50%) within the prescription isodose range were both correlated with a higher RIC rate following SRS. CONCLUSIONS: The diffuseness of the nidus indeed appears to affect the RIC rate following SRS in patients with unruptured AVMs.

20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(1): e12-e16, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen screening is controversial. In 2008, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended against screening men aged ≥ 75 years, and in 2012, expanded this to include all men. The impact of these changes continues to unfold. We hypothesized that these screening changes could delay the diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify men (age, 55-69 years) diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2004 to 2008 (group 1), 2009 to 2012 (group 2), and 2013 to 2015 (group 3). Groups reflect United States Preventive Services Task Force guideline changes. Descriptive statistics were used to present baseline statistics and the number of patients diagnosed in aforementioned groups. Data was adjusted for population growth. RESULTS: A total of 328,586 men were identified (group 1, 135,625; group 2, 117,979; group 3, 74,982). The average number of men diagnosed annually with N1M0 (group 1, 381; group 2, 477; group 3, 660) and M1 (group 1, 523; group 2, 761; group 3, 1037) disease increased. With group 1 as control, there was a decrease in the incidence of localized disease (group 2, 9.2%; group 3, 33.2%). However, the incidence of N1M0 (group 2, 5.3%; group 3, 30.1%) and M1 disease (group 2, 22.6%; group 3, 49.2%) increased. Separate analyses of patients (age 50-75 years) and African Americans showed similar trends. CONCLUSION: With each recommendation, there was increased incidence of de novo metastatic prostate cancer. The sequelae of advanced disease include financial, emotional, and physical burden. Future studies are needed to identify screening strategies that reduce the risk of developing metastatic disease without over-diagnosing indolent cancers.

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