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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 161733, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682561

RESUMO

Submicron and ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure may be epidemiologically and toxicologically linked to pulmonary, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This study explores UFP and fine particle sources using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model based on PM2.5 chemical compositions and particle number size distributions (PNSDs). The particle chemical composition and size distribution contributions are simultaneously identified to evaluate lung deposition and excess cancer risks. High correlations between the PNSD and chemical composition apportionment results were observed. Fresh and aged traffic particles dominated the number concentrations, while heterogeneous, photochemical reactions and/or regional transport may have resulted in secondary aerosol formation. Fresh and aged road traffic particle sources mostly contributed to the lung deposition dosage in the pulmonary region (~53 %), followed by the tracheobronchial (~30.4 %) and head regions (~16.6 %). However, lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations were dominated by aged road traffic (~39.2 %) and secondary aerosol (~33.2 %) sources. The excess cancer risks caused by Cr6+, Ni, and As were also mainly contributed to by aged road traffic (~31.7 %) and secondary aerosols (~67 %). The source apportionments based on the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles are complementary, offering a health impact benchmark of UFPs in a Southeast Asia urban city.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 446: 130749, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630881

RESUMO

High levels of ground level ozone (O3) are associated with detrimental health concerns. Most of the studies only focused on daily average and daytime trends due to the presence of sunlight that initiates its formation. However, atmospheric chemical reactions occur all day, thus, nighttime concentrations should be given equal importance. In this study, geospatial-artificial intelligence (Geo-AI) which combined kriging, land use regression (LUR), machine learning, an ensemble learning, was applied to develop ensemble mixed spatial models (EMSMs) for daily, daytime, and nighttime periods. These models were used to estimate the long-term O3 spatio-temporal variations using a two-decade worth of in-situ measurements, meteorological parameters, geospatial predictors, and social and season-dependent factors. From the traditional LUR approach, the performance of EMSMs improved by 60% (daytime), 49% (nighttime), and 57% (daily). The resulting daily, daytime, and nighttime EMSMs had a high explanatory power with and adjusted R2 of 0.91, 0.91, and 0.88, respectively. Estimation maps were produced to examine the changes before and during the implementation of nationwide COVID-19 restrictions. These results provide accurate estimates and its diurnal variation that will support pollution control measure and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Ozônio , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Taiwan , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise
3.
SSM Popul Health ; 21: 101324, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632049

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the trajectories of health inequalities induced by childhood SES across the life course in China. There are two competing theories on this subject. Cumulative disadvantage theory contends that health gaps induced by childhood SES tend to widen across the life course as adulthood SES compound or multiply the negative effects of early SES disadvantage. Age-neutral theory draws the opposite inference that the physiological decline due to aging offsets the health gaps at older ages. Based on the data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) from 2011 to 2018, a two-level mixed-effects model was used to analyze the trajectories of health inequalities induced by childhood SES among Chinese individuals aged 45 and above and further distinguished the age and cohort effects in the overall trajectories. Unlike previous studies that unilaterally supported one of these theories, our findings support both of them. In this study, health gaps induced by childhood SES gradually widened before entering old age, which supports the cumulative disadvantage theory. In contrast, the health gaps in older adults gradually converged with age, thus supporting the age-neutral theory. The age effect shows that in the same birth cohort, health gaps induced by childhood SES first increased and then decreased during the survey time. The cohort effect shows that, at the same age, childhood SES has a greater impact on the health of those with later birth cohorts than on those with earlier birth cohorts. The findings of this study support the importance of policy and practices to reduce health inequalities among adolescents for long-term healthy aging in China.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160149, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372161

RESUMO

Compare to the content of Cr(VI), the distribution of specific Cr(VI) species in soil is rarely paid attention to, which may lead to an inaccurate environmental risk assessment of Cr(VI) contaminated soil or inability to meet stringent requirement for soil remediation. Herein, to reveal the primary mechanisms and factors controlling the evolution of Cr(VI) species in soil, the distribution of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in soils with different particle sizes and textures was systematically investigated by using a modified sequential extraction procedure and spectroscopy characterizations (e.g., SEM-EDS mapping). The results show that a significant proportion of Cr(VI) can be captured by minerals containing exchangeable calcium ions and metal oxide hydrates in the soil, forming a relatively stable adsorbed Cr(VI). Also, a small fraction of Cr(VI) can precipitate as calcium chromate with free calcium ion which is the most stable Cr(VI) species in the soil. The majority of Cr(VI) discharged into soil tends to be reduced by ferrous ions or minerals containing ferrous ions with a product of Fe(III)-Cr(III) coprecipitate. Therefore, the speciation of Cr in the soil is closely correlated to Fe and Ca. After the equilibrium of adsorption, precipitation, and reduction reactions of Cr(VI), the rest of Cr(VI) retains as the form of its original water-soluble state in soil. The evolution of Cr(VI) species and the content of specific Cr species in soil are mainly determined by the contents of iron, exchangeable calcium ions and metal oxide hydrates, which effect the Cr(VI) reduction, precipitation and adsorption, respectively.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Solo , Compostos Férricos , Óxidos
5.
Chest ; 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Registry-based studies on pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PPAH) are scarce in developing countries, including China. The PPAH risk assessment tool needs further evaluation and improvement. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the characteristics and long-term survival of PPAH in China and how is the performance of the PPAH risk model in Chinese patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with PAH were enrolled in the national prospective multicenter registry from August 2009 to December 2019. Children aged 3 months to 18 years at the time of PAH diagnosis were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 247 children with PAH were enrolled. The median patient age was 14.8 years, and 58.3% were female. PAH associated with congenital heart disease (APAH-CHD, 61.5%) and idiopathic/heritable PAH (IPAH/HPAH, 37.7%) comprised the majority of patients. The median time from symptom onset to PAH diagnosis was 24 months. The mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index were 70.78±19.80 mmHg and 21.82±11.18 Wood unit·m2, respectively. Patients with APAH-CHD had a longer diagnostic delay, and a higher pulmonary artery pressure but better cardiac performance than those with IPAH/HPAH. An increased number of patients received targeted therapy at the last follow-up compared with baseline. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of the whole cohort were 74.9% and 55.7%, with better survival in patients with APAH-CHD than in those with IPAH/HPAH. Patients with "low risk" had better survival than those with "high risk" according to the simplified noninvasive risk score model with weight, function class, and echocardiographic right ventricular size, both at baseline and follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Patients with PPAH in China had severely compromised hemodynamics with marked diagnostic delay. The long-term survival of PPAH is poor despite the increased utility of targeted drugs. The simplified noninvasive risk model demonstrated good performance for predicting survival in Chinese children with PAH. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01417338).

6.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 110294, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in the perioperative period and often leads to liver failure and even systemic inflammation. Previous studies have suggested that the inflammatory response participated in the liver damage during liver IRI. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is required for the maintenance of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels, catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the NAD + salvage pathway. NAMPT is strongly upregulated during inflammation and constitutes an important mechanistic link between inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional pathways. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of NAMPT in liver IRI. METHODS: We investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of NAMPT with FK866 in models of liver IRI. Liver damage was assessed by HE staining, serum ALT/AST, and TUNEL staining. To examine the mechanism, primary hepatocytes, liver macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were treated with or without NAMPT inhibitors before hypoxia-reoxygenation. Liver macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells activation in vitro was evaluated by western blotting, flow cytometry, and ELISA. RESULT: We found that NAMPT was upregulated in liver IRI. Treatment with the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 ameliorated liver IRI and suppressed inflammation in mice. Although NAMPT plays an important role both in hepatocytes and liver macrophages, we focused on the impact of NAMPT on liver macrophages. The mechanism revealed that FK866 potently inhibited NAMPT activity, as demonstrated by reduced liver NAD+ and intracellular NAD+, resulting in reduced abundance and activity of NAD + -dependent enzymes, including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), thus inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization by reducing CD86, iNOS, TNF-α, and interleukin (IL)-1ß. Taken together, our data suggested that NAMPT can regulate macrophage polarization through NAD+/PARP1 to ameliorate liver injury, and that FK866-mediated NAMPT blockade may be a therapeutic approach in liver IRI.

7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to occupational exposure. We aim to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs during epidemic outbreak of omicron variant in Taiwan. METHODS: Sequential reserved serum samples collected from our previous study during December 2021 and July 2022 were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP). Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as positive either of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, rapid antigen test or polymerase chain reaction. Retrospective chart review and a questionnaire were used to access the symptoms and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Totally 300 participants (69.3% female) with a median age of 37.9 years were enrolled. A significant increase incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found before and during community outbreak (11.91 versus 230.93 per 100,000 person-days, P < 0.001), which was a trend paralleling that observed in the general population. For 61 SARS-CoV-2 infected participants, nine (14.8%) were asymptomatic. Multivariate analysis revealed recent contact with a SARS-CoV-2 infected household (odds ratio [OR], 7.01; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.70-13.30; P < 0.001) and co-existed underlying autoimmune diseases (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.28-15.51; P = 0.019) were significant risk factors associated with acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs. CONCLUSION: Community factors, such as closely contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and underlying immune suppression status, were significant factors for acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs. We suggest the application of appropriate infection control measures for HCWs should be maintained to reduce risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 24(1): 54, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of right atrial (RA) function in cardiovascular diseases is currently limited. This study was to explore the prognostic value of RA strain derived from fast long axis method by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with DCM who underwent CMR from June 2012 to March 2019 and 120 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Fast long-axis strain method was performed to assess the RA phasic function including RA reservoir strain, conduit strain, and booster strain. The predefined primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The composite heart failure (HF) endpoint included HF death, HF readmission, and heart transplantation. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed to describe the association between RA strain and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 624 patients (444 men, mean 48 years) were studied. After a median follow-up of 32.5 months, 116 patients (18.6%) experienced all-cause mortality and 205 patients (32.9%) reached composite HF endpoint. RA function was impaired in DCM patients compared with healthy subjects (all P < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, RA reservoir strain [hazard ratio (HR) (per 5% decrease) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.37, P = 0.022] and conduit strain [HR (per 5% decrease) 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.84, P = 0.033] were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Moreover, RA strain added incremental prognostic value for the prediction of adverse cardiac events over baseline clinical and CMR predictors (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RA strain by fast long-axis analysis is independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with DCM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ChiCTR1800017058; Date of registration: 2018-07-10 (Retrospective registration); URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Masculino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Volume Sistólico
9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 24(1): 60, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a common pathophysiological process involved in many cardiovascular diseases. However, limited prior studies suggested no association between focal myocardial fibrosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and disease severity in Eisenmenger syndrome (ES). This study aimed to explore potential associations between myocardial fibrosis evaluated by the CMR LGE and T1 mapping and risk stratification profiles including exercise tolerance, serum biomarkers, hemodynamics, and right ventricular (RV) function in these patients. METHODS: Forty-five adults with ES and 30 healthy subjects were included. All subjects underwent a contrast-enhanced 3T CMR. Focal replacement fibrosis was visualized on LGE images. The locations of LGE were recorded. After excluding LGE in ventricular insertion point (VIP), ES patients were divided into myocardial LGE-positive (LGE+) and LGE-negative (LGE-) subgroups. Regions of interest in the septal myocardium were manually contoured in the T1 mapping images to determine the diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The relationships between myocardial fibrosis and 6-min walk test (6MWT), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), hematocrit, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), RV/left ventricular end-systolic volume (RV/LV ESV), RV ejection fraction (RVEF), and risk stratification were analyzed. RESULTS: Myocardial LGE (excluding VIP) was common in ES (16/45, 35.6%), and often located in the septum (12/45, 26.7%). The clinical characteristics, hemodynamics, CMR morphology and function, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were similar in the LGE+ and LGE- groups (all P > 0.05). ECV was significantly higher in ES patients (28.6 ± 5.9% vs. 25.6 ± 2.2%, P < 0.05) and those with LGE- ES (28.3 ± 5.9% vs. 25.6 ± 2.2%, P < 0.05) than healthy controls. We found significant correlations between ECV and log NT-pro BNP, hematocrit, mPAP, PVRI, RV/LV ESV, and RVEF (all P < 0.05), and correlations trends between ECV and 6MWT (P = 0.06) in ES patients. An ECV threshold of 29.0% performed well in differentiating patients with high-risk ES from those with intermediate or low risk (area under curve 0.857, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial fibrosis is a common feature of ES. ECV may serve as an important imaging marker for ES disease severity.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Complexo de Eisenmenger , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Humanos , Adulto , Gadolínio , Meios de Contraste , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Complexo de Eisenmenger/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fibrose , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigation of the factors influencing dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) prognosis is important as it could facilitate risk stratification and guide clinical decision-making. PURPOSE: To assess the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics analysis of native T1 mapping in DCM. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and thirty consecutive patients with non-ischemic DCM (mean age 48.42 ± 14.20 years, 247 males). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Balanced steady-state free precession and modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping sequences at 3 T. ASSESSMENT: Clinical characteristics, conventional MRI parameters (ventricular volumes, function, and mass), native myocardial T1, and radiomics features extracted from native T1 mapping were obtained. The study endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. Models were developed based on 1) clinical data; 2) radiomics data based on T1 mapping; 3) clinical and conventional MRI data; 4) clinical, conventional MRI, and native T1 data; and 5) clinical, conventional MRI, and radiomics T1 mapping data. Each prediction model was trained according to follow-up results with AdaBoost, random forest, and logistic regression classifiers. STATISTICAL TESTS: The predictive performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and F1 score by 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 53.5 months (interquartile range, 41.6-69.5 months), 77 patients with DCM experienced all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. The random forest model based on radiomics combined with clinical and conventional MRI parameters achieved the best performance, with AUC and F1 score of 0.95 and 0.89, respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: A machine-learning framework based on radiomics analysis of T1 mapping prognosis prediction in DCM. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

11.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 299, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving healthy ageing has become the only way for China to alleviate the pressure of ageing, especially in rural areas. However, the factors affecting the health of rural older adults are numerous and complex. It is important to identify the critical factors that affecting the health of older adults in rural areas and provide decision-making support for targeted health interventions. METHODS: To overcome some limitations of existing works, an extended probabilistic linguistic fuzzy cognitive map model is proposed in this paper as a useful tool for modeling the cause-effect relationship between factors. The proposed model integrates the advantages of probabilistic linguistic term sets and fuzzy cognitive maps. In the end, to rank and identify the critical factors affecting the health, a novel similarity measure based on Euclidean distance and Z-mapping function is proposed. RESULTS: The proposed model can effectively deal with the uncertainty of experts and reflect different opinions of groups well. In terms of representing uncertainty and ambiguity, the proposed method outperforms other models in modeling complex systems. In the real-world case analysis, we find that education is the most important factor affecting the health of rural older adults, followed by previous occupational experiences, psychology, and physical exercise, among other things. Intergenerational relationship has become another important factor affecting the health of rural older adults in China as the development of Chinese society. CONCLUSIONS: From a macro perspective, social economic status, living environment, lifestyle, and health management, are the variables that have the greatest impact on the health of rural older adults. As a result, providing more precise health interventions with the characteristics of factors influencing health is a crucial guarantee for preserving and improving the health of rural older adults in China.


Assuntos
Linguística , População Rural , Humanos , Idoso , China , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cognição
12.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 8949-8956, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367840

RESUMO

Amyloidogenesis is a critical hallmark for many neurodegenerative diseases and drug screening; however, identifying intermediate states of protein aggregates at an earlier stage remains challenging. Herein, we developed a peptide-encapsulated droplet microlaser to monitor the amyloidogenesis process and evaluate the efficacy of anti-amyloid drugs. The lasing wavelength changes accordingly with the amyloid peptide folding behaviors and nanostructure conformations in the droplet resonator. A 3D deep-learning strategy was developed to directly image minute spectral shifts through a far-field camera. By extracting 1D color information and 2D features from the laser images, the progression of the amyloidogenesis process could be monitored using arrays of laser images from microdroplets. The training set, validation set, and test set of the multimodal learning model achieved outstanding classification accuracies of over 95%. This study shows the great potential of deep-learning-empowered peptide microlaser yields for protein misfolding studies and paves the way for new possibilities for high-throughput imaging of cavity biosensing.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloidose/metabolismo
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(22): e026254, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346060

RESUMO

Background Right heart failure may lead to impaired liver perfusion and venous congestion, resulting in different extents of liver fibrosis. However, whether hepatic tissue deterioration determined by native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with poor outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension remains unclear. Methods and Results A total of 131 participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean age, 36±13 years) and 64 healthy controls (mean age, 44±18) between October 2013 and December 2019 were prospectively enrolled. Hepatic native T1 and extracellular volume fraction values were measured using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping sequences. The primary end point was all-cause mortality; the secondary end point was all-cause mortality and repeat hospitalization attributable to heart failure. Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to identify the association between variables and clinical outcome. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months (interquartile range: 25.3-50.8), hepatic native T1 (hazard ratio per 30-ms increase, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.07-1.39]; P=0.003) and extracellular volume fraction (hazard ratio per 3% increase, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.04-1.34]; P=0.010) values were associated with a higher risk of death. In the multivariate Cox model, hepatic native T1 value (hazard ratio per 30-ms increase, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.04-1.27]; P=0.009) remained as an independent prognostic factor for the secondary end point. Conclusions Hepatic T1 mapping values were predictors of adverse cardiovascular events in participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension and could be novel imaging biomarkers for poor prognosis recognition.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Prognóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Volume Sistólico , Miocárdio/patologia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116433, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352732

RESUMO

Ecological treatment technologies, applied to deal with polluted river water in the low temperature season, remain limited. In this study, a new insight was put forward for purifying polluted river water using a combination system (CS) of large-scale rotating biological contactors (RBCs) and integrated constructed wetlands in autumn and winter. The treatment performance, average removal contribution (RC), nitrification and denitrification rates, microbial community structure, and ecosystem service value were considered to estimate the combination system. Results revealed that the average removal efficiencies of ammonium (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.9%, 20.8%, 36.5%, and 37.1%, respectively. The combination system showed excellent removal efficiency of NH4+-N regardless of the effect of low temperature. The maximum values of nitrification and denitrification rates were 59.57 g N/(m3·d) and 0.78 g N/(m2·d), respectively. Considerable differences in bacterial community diversity, richness and relative abundance of functional microbes were observed in the main treatment units, resulting in different average RC to pollutants. The unit capital cost of CS purifying polluted river water was 260 USD/m3 and the operation and maintenance cost was 0.144 million USD/yr. Meanwhile, the ecosystem service value of the CS was 0.334 million USD in autumn and winter. CS not only possessed excellent pollutant purifying efficiencies, but also achieved high ecological service value in the cold season.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Água , Desnitrificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1687: 463655, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442298

RESUMO

Mechanistic models play a crucial role in the process development and optimization of ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). Recent researches in steric mass action (SMA) model have heightened the need for better estimation of nonlinear parameter, steric shielding factor σ. In this work, a straightforward approach combination of simplified linear approximation (SLA) and inverse method (IM) was proposed to initialize and further determine σ, respectively. An existed, unique, and positive σ can be derived from SLA. Compared with linear approximation (LA) developed in our previous study, σ of the multi-component system can be calculated easily without solving the complex system of linear equations, leading to a time complexity reduction from O(n3) to O(n). The proposed method was verified first in numerical experiments about the separation of three charge variants. The calculated σ was more reasonable than that of LA, and the error of elution profiles with the parameters estimated by SLA+IM was only one-sixth of that by LA in numerical experiments. Moreover, the error accumulation effect could also be reduced. The proposed method was further confirmed in real-world experiments about the separation of monomer-dimer mixtures of monoclonal antibody. The results gave a lower error and better physical understanding compared to LA. In conclusion, SLA+IM developed in the present work provides a novel and straightforward way to determine σ. This simplification would help to save the effort of calibration experiments and accelerate the process development for the multi-component IEC separation.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 923655, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36304535

RESUMO

Background: Given the rapid innovation of wearable technology, additional physical indicators can be detected, and blood pressure (BP) has become the focus of many emerging medical-device manufacturers. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of the newly developed HUAWEI WATCH in BP monitoring, according to the American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2018) guidelines. Materials and methods: The same arm sequential BP measurement was applied. One validation included four reference BP measurements taken simultaneously by two independent observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer, alternating with three test-watch measurements. Each test-watch measurement was compared against the average of the previous and subsequent reference BP readings. Two criteria were required for validation: (1) a mean BP difference of 5 mm Hg or less, with a standard deviation (SD) of 8 mm Hg or less for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the 255 pairs of measurements, and (2) an SD for the of 85 averaged BP differences within the threshold defined by the mean test-reference BP difference listed in the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2018 guidelines. Results: The mean age of the 85 participants was 48 ± 18 years (range: 21-85), and 53 (62.4%) were male. The mean differences between the test and reference BPs were -0.25 ± 5.62 mm Hg and -1.33 ± 6.81 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively (according to Criterion 1). The mean differences between the test BPs and reference BPs were -0.25 ± 5.00 mm Hg and -1.33 ± 6.31 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively, according to Criterion 2. Conclusion: Blood pressure measurement using the HUAWEI WATCH showed excellent consistency with reference BPs, and fulfilled both validation criteria of the guidelines, show its promise as a wearable device for BP self-monitoring.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231490

RESUMO

A review of the characterization and functions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of microbial aggregates in biological wastewater treatment systems is presented in this paper. EPS represent the complex high-molecular-weight mixture of polymers excreted by microorganisms generated from cell lysis as well as adsorbed inorganic and organic matter from wastewater. EPS exhibit a three-dimensional, gel-like, highly hydrated matrix that facilitates microbial attachment, embedding, and immobilization. EPS play multiple roles in containments removal, and the main components of EPS crucially influence the properties of microbial aggregates, such as adsorption ability, stability, and formation capacity. Moreover, EPS are important to sludge bioflocculation, settleability, and dewatering properties and could be used as carbon and energy sources in wastewater treatment. However, due to the complex structure of EPS, related knowledge is incomplete, and further research is necessary to understand fully the precise roles in biological treatment processes.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Purificação da Água , Carbono , Polímeros/química , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
Lab Chip ; 22(19): 3668-3675, 2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062924

RESUMO

Microlasers integrated with biological systems have received tremendous attention for their intense light intensity and narrow linewidth recently, serving as a powerful tool for studying complex dynamics and interactions in scattered biological micro-environments. However, manipulation of microlasers with controllable motions and versatile functions remains elusive. Herein, we introduce the concept of motor-like microlasers formed by magnetic-doped liquid crystal droplets, in which the direction and velocity could be controlled by altering internal magnetic nanoparticles or external magnetic fields. Both translational and rotatory motions of the lasing resonator could be continually changed in real-time. Lasing-encoded motors carrying different functions and lasing wavelengths were also achieved. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of motor-like microlasers by functioning as a localized stimulation emission light source to stimulate or illuminate living cells, providing a novel approach for switching on/off light emissions and subcellular imaging. Laser emitting micromotors offer a facile system for precise manipulation of microlasers in biological fluids, providing new insight into the development of programmable on-chip laser devices and laser-emitting intelligent systems.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Nanopartículas , Lasers , Luz , Cristais Líquidos/química , Nanopartículas/química
20.
Health Care Manag Sci ; 25(4): 710-724, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997864

RESUMO

Medication Therapy Management (MTM) is a group of pharmacist-provided services that optimize individual patients' drug therapy outcomes. Since community pharmacies' primary business platform is the dispensing of medications, and providing MTM services is a secondary source of revenue, pharmacies with limited resources are operationally challenged when trying to efficiently deliver both types of services. To address this problem, we follow a queueing network approach to develop an operational model of a community pharmacy workflow. Through our model, we derive structural results to determine conditions for a pharmacy to achieve economies of scope when providing both prescription and MTM services. We also develop a process simulation to compare different scenarios according to our economies of scope model, varying in provided services, personnel, service demand, and other operational variables. Outcomes examined include profitability, service rate, and sensitivity of some operation variables to profitability. Based on our results, we provide practical insights to help community pharmacy administrators and healthcare policy makers in their decision process.


Assuntos
Farmácias , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Fluxo de Trabalho , Comércio , Simulação por Computador
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